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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
African Methodist Episcopal Church
a new all-black church to which free blacks in the North had the choice of going to escape discrimination. Because slave traders often sold family members to different owners, church became the most important social and cultural outlet available to them.
Black Codes
a series of codes passed by state governments in the South that while securing basic rights for blacks, they in effect, made blacks second-class citizens. For example, blacks could not own weapons, meet together after sundown, or marry whites
people who came from the North to do business in the South
Compromise of 1877
The Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction. There was some debate over who won that presidential election: Samuel Tilden (Democrat) or Rutherford B. Hayes (Republican In order to keep the peace, the Democrats said they would let Hayes win if Republicans would end Reconstruction
forced to serve in the military; also called conscription
emancipation proclamation
freed the slaves in the Confederate states while maintaining slavery in the border states loyal to the Union
Freedman's Bureau
this bureau was intended to aid both blacks and whites, but it served mostly blacks. The bureau provided clothing and surplus army food, five million dollars and agents to organize schools for black children and adults, medical care for over one million people, and agents to fmd work for freedmen and prevent exploitation. Some Southerners saw the Bureau as a Republican effort to help blacks at the expense of whites.
Gettysburg Address
a speech given by Abraham Lincoln which affirmed his belief in democracy and his desire to see the warring nation reunited in peace
Habeas Corpus
guaranteed that a person could not be imprisoned without appearing in court. President Lincoln suspended this right during the Civil War.
Homestead Act
stated that anyone who would agree to cultivate 160 acres of land for five years would receive title to that land from the federal government. This Act greatly accelerated the settlement of the West until the 1930s.
removal from office
Jim Crow Laws
These laws, which remained in effect until the 1950's, required blacks and whites to use
John Wilkes Booth
a Confederate sympathizer who killed Abraham Lincoln by shooting him in the back ofthe head during a play at Ford's Theater
Martial law
military rule
Morrill Land Grant Act
allotted each state thousands of acres of land based on the number of senators and representatives. Each state was required to use this land to fund at least one public university. The money generated from this Act formed the foundation for the public university system that exists today in the United States.
Republicans who called for strict readmission standards and vigorous restructuring of the South
economic downturn characterized by higher unemployment
Reconstruction Act
its main features are (a) with the exception of Tennessee, which had ratified the 14th Amendment, all former Confederate states would be administered as five military districts, (b) Southern states would not be readmitted until they ratified the 14tll Amendment, (c) black citizens must be granted the right to vote, and (d) former Confederate officials could not hold public office.
Robert E. Lee
a brilliant Southern general who planned an invasion of the Nqrth, but his battle strategies fell into the hands of a northern soldier. As a result, Lee met a larger force of Union soldiers than he had anticipated. The battle at Antietam Creek, Maryland is considered the bloodiest one-day battle in the history of the United States.
Rutherford B. Hayes
Republican candidate who became President in 1877 as a result of this compromise
Southerners who supported Reconstruction
people who would farm a piece of land for the landowner and pay him for the seed, land, and materials with a portion of the crop.
Sherman's March
For this infamous march, Sherman hand-picked 60,000 soldiers to destroy everything in a 60 mile-wide path from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Atlanta, to Savannah, Georgia. Sherman's March and the burning of Atlanta broke the spirit of the Confederates creating bitterness and tension between the North and the South that exist to some degree even today.
Ulysses S. Grant
a Union general who ignored advice to retreat from the Vicksburg area and began a bold siege of General Pemberton's Confederate forces at Vicksburg for almost two months. On the fourth of July, Grant's forces conquered the city. Consequently, the Mississippi River came under the control of the Union.