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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Elastic Clause
gives Congress the power to pass legislation that is "necessary and proper" for doing its job.
Bill of Rights
The fIrst ten amendments to the Constitution; they insure basic rights and freedoms for American citizens.
Magna Carta
a written document protecting the rights of English nobles that influenced the formation of the U.S. Constitution. It set the precedent that a king's power was not absolute.
Jacques Rousseau
a French philosopher who wrote The Social Contract in 1762; this theory, which expressed the idea that there should be an agreement between the people and the government the limits the rights and duties of each, also influenced the U.S. Constitution
Judicial Review
right belonging to the Supreme Court to declare whether laws passed by Congress were constitutional or not.
John Adams
a Federalist and the 2nd president of the United States
Articles of Confederation
the fIrst constitution; it proposed an alliance between the thirteen states.
Thomas Jefferson
author of the Declaration of Independence and the fIrst Secretary of State appointed by George Washington
Baron de Montesquieu
published The Spirit of the Laws in 1748 in which he expressed that government must make laws (legislate), enforce laws (executive) and interpret laws Gudicial). These ideas are the foundation of our government.
The Great Compromise
under the Virginia Plan, delegates wanted to base representation in Congress on a state's population. In the New Jersey Plan, each state would have an equal voice in Congress. The Great Compromise divided Congress into two houses: the Senate, in which each state was represented by two senators, and the House of Representatives, in which each state had representatives in proportion to its population.
The Federalist Papers
influential articles written by Federalists such as James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay stating the advantages of a federal union under the Constitution
Great Awakening
a general revival of evangelical Christianity in the American colonies; this inter­colonial movement contributed to a sense of American nationality before the Revolution
Alexander Hamilton
a Federalist, he was the fIrst Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington; his goal was to build a strong economy
Marbury vs. Madison
established the Supreme Court's right of Judicial Review.
Consitutionalism
refers to a government in which power is divided among various groups, but all
Gibbons vs. Ogden
- in this case, the Supreme Court ruled that Congress alone had the power to regulate interstate commerce. This decision allowed the building of roads and canals to increase without the restrictions of state monopolies.
House of Burgesses
the fIrst colonial assembly established in 1619 in Jamestown to represent the colonists in the state of Virginia. It symbolized the authority of the people to limit the power of the king.B20
Democratic-Republican
led by Thomas Jefferson, this political party supported strong state governments.
John Locke
an English philosopher who believed that government should derive its power from the people whom it governed.
Federalism
- the practice of dividing power among national and state governments
Ratify
adopt
Amendment
addition
John Marshall
appointed by John Adams to be the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, he became one of the most influential people to hold that office,