Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/127

Click to flip

127 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When were the first generation of computers produced?
1945-1959
what did first generation use?
vacuum tubes
Why were vacuum tubes bad?
large , hot and used lots of electricity and burned out.
What was programming first generation computers like?
thye were difficult, they had assembly language.
what were first generation computers built with?
magnetic tapes, punched cards, human operator
when were the second generation of computers produced?
1960-1965
what were second generation computers built with?
transistors
what were transistors made out of?
silicon crystal
what languages could you program second generation computers with?
FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC
DEC produced _________ (which was?)
PDP- I, first microcomputer
who built first transistor?
Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain
when and where were transistors built?
1947, Bell Labs
what did Shockley Bardeen and Briattian win and when?
Nobel Prize, 1956
when were the third generation of computers built?
1966-1971
what did third generation of computers have?
integrated circuits or chips
how many transistors per chip in third generation of computers?
3000
what did the third generation of computers have?
monitors and keyboards and families of computers
when did internet start?
1969
who was the inventor of the hand held calc?
Jack Kilby
what kind of board did Jack Kilby build?
ceramic-base silk screen circuirt board
what did Jack kilby binven and where did he work?
transistor based hearing aids and Texas instruments
who was the founder of intel?
robert noyce
robert noyce was the co-founder of
fairchild semiconductor
when Robert noyce write how to make more of less?
1958-1959
Kilby received
Nobel prize in ohysics for role in invention of IC
what is historically one of the most improtant innovations of mankind?
chip
IC is...
chip
what are the classes of IC'c?
SSI
MSI
LSI
VLSI
ULSI
SSI
small scale integration, 100 per chip
MSI
medium scale intergration, 100-3000 per chip
LSI
3000-100,000 electronic components per chip
VLSI
100,000 to 1,000,000 per chip
ULSI
1,000,000 per chip
years of 1st and importance
1945-1959
vacuum tubes
years of 2nd and importance
1960-1965
transistors (Shocley, Bardeen and Brittain)
years of 3rd and importance
1966-1971
ICs(Kilby and Noyce)
years of 4th and importance
1971-present
LSI, VLSI, ULSI
In 1950 we used _____ how many? how much?
vacuum tubes, 18000, $2 each
In 1960 we used _____ how much?
transistors
$.10 each
In 1996 we used _____ how many? how much?
Chips
$500
3.3 million tranistors
$0.00015
In 2003 we used _____ how many? how much?
still chips
$500
$5 miilion transistors
$0.0000091
When was Quantum Mirage Effect discovered?
January 2000
Who discovered Quantum Mirage Effect?
IBM
Quantum Mirage Effect beat the physical limitations of...
chip (circuit too small to support electrical current)
weird info about Quantum Mirage Effect
info about atom at A appears at B
no physical connection
analogous to guiding sound and light
types of computers (general)
embedded, special purpose, main classes, workstations
4-5 main classes
handheld, microcomputer, sever, mainframe computer, supercomputer
personal computer prices
500-5000
avg---1000
first PC what/when/where/how many sold
Apple I
1976
in garage
200 sold
minicomputers are bigger than...
microcomputers
how much are minicomputers?
$50000
minicomputer has ______ users and _____ programs
many
minicompter have a _____ terminal
dumb, no sytem unit at your desk
mainframes---large organization have them
general purpose
dumb terminals
billions of instructions per second
several high-end CPUs
severla humded thousad to severla million
mainframe
what has a few programs and is very fast
supercomputer
today's micros are
yesterdays
YESTERDAYS
mini
mainframe
today's calc
yesterdays
Yesterdays
YESTERDAYS
micro
mini
mainframe
2 things about a workstation
computer connected to a network
special purpose computer
media is
what you write on
types of media
hardware, CD, floppies
devices are...
what the computer writes with
types of devices
hradware, floppy drive, hard drive, cdrom drive
what is written/read?
Bytes (bits)
storage = (semi)permanent live on
disks
tapes
memory lives on...
chips
with storage you instruct...
a program to read/write from/to
with memory a program
CPU instructs the OS to read/write from/to
floppies are...
mylar coated with magnetized particles
hard drives are...
coated metal plates
magnet passes over...
oreients paticles into packet of particles
dish head clearance----
smoke
fingerprint
dust
human hair
10
250
600
1550
3000
access time
how long for disk heads to position to read a requested piece of information
access time is almost same as...
seek time
access time is measured in
milliseconds
random vs. sequential
disks and CD-ROMS random
tapes- sequential
3.5 diskette
1.44 MB
what are sizes for zips?
100, 250, 70 MB
what does formatting do?
prepares s disk for use
storage capacity depends on...
formatting
formatting divides into...
concentric circles (tracks)
and
wedges (sectors)
what is density?
# of magnetized particles per square cm and size of magnetized particles
DD has....
40 tracks per side
high desnity has...
80 tracks per side and 18 sectors per track
sectors ____ bytes
512
cluster varies depending on....
size of disk
size and capacity of a diskette is...
downwardly compatible
formatting creates...
the directory
what do youget when youformat?
filename&extension, where, size, date&time last modified, first cluster
what does FAT stand for?
File Allocation Table
FAT is...
important, necessary, crucial file
Files:
not contiguous
files are ...
fragments
Files.. "random"...
part of random access
formatting creates
FAT
/S switch
copies system (boot) files
3 things about fragmentation
clusters scattered, doesn't influence file size, slows down OS
sector is the...
smallest access unit
sector...
512 bytes (1/2 Kb)
cluster is a group...
of disk sectors
cluster size depends on....
disk's size
95/98 file system "="
FAT
MFT
Master File Table
similar to FAT
size of cluster
default cluster size depends on capacity and default MFT size

can specify when formatting
formatting (4)
creates tracts and sectors
directory
FAT
optionally copies system files
FAT and Directory
DOS, Win 95/98
MFT and Directory
Windows NT, 2000, 2003
Disks/ Drives
Aluminum "platters"
2 or more, both sides
Disks First: Now:
10 MB, 1GB
Tapes.. have no..
sectors or cylinders
tapes are...
sequential (slow) high capacity, and have header info
pits:
indentations; less reflective
lands:
smooth; more reflective
CD reader:
intensity of eflection = 0,1
CD-RW---- 3 dye layers
dielectric to draw excess heat
crystalline: more reflective (erase)
phase-change: non-crystalline (write)
600 degress
highest, write power, non crystalline

laser intensity
200
middle, creates crystalline (erase power)
CD-R
disks for music, archiving
CD-RW
disks for backup
DVD-ROM
digital video disk- read only memory
DVD-ROM---how big?
4.7 GB to 17GB
what are the 5 kinds of memory?
RAM
ROM
CMOS
Cache
(virtual)
RAM consists of 3 kinds of data
the internal OS instructions
Application program instructions
Data
RAM is...
volatiile
with ram
power on=
power off=
sometime....
memory intact
memory gone
flash RAM
RAM is working...
memory
RAM is directly controlled by..
CPU