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22 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Evidence for linking testosterone to aggression: (4)
1. sex differences in testosterone levels
2. seasonal differences
3. changing levels over lifetime
4. T receptors in right places
in what three ways is testosterone a potentiator?
1. physiologically: shorten refrac. per.
2. behavioral data: augments input (turns music up not on)
3. sensory data:
Female hyenas are refered to as what?

females have high levels of androgens
Hormones implicated in Aggression?
Men: Testosterone, glucocorticoids, epinephrine

Women: Androgens (testosterone), estrogen, progesterone
Lorenz' theory of agression
genetically preprogrammed, violence is inevitable
Marxist theory of aggression
(Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis)
no inequities, no aggression
--> periods of plenty should lead to aggression
What happens when you destroy the amygdala?
amygdala processes scary stimuli .
you cannot do fear conditioning, cannot provoke anxiety or fear, poor information gathering from faces
What does the frontal cortex do? (2)
-control impulsivity
-executive function
what's the connection between serotonin and aggression?
low levels of serotonin cause impulsive, aggressive behaviors
--> lots of individual differences in serotonin breakdown (MAO breaks down serotonin)
What does the anterior cingulate have to do with aggression?
Anterior cingulate (AC) does emphathy
--> poke loved one with pin, AC lights up
Subtraction experiment (testosterone and aggression)

and then
replacement approach
cut off male's testes, aggression goes down (NOT down to 0)
the more experience, the higher it stays (effect on environment)
Behaviorist theory of aggression
punish for aggression, reward for non
crimes of passion are untouched by reinforcement!
Behavioral fat, what's that?
From marxist theory on aggression, can afford to waste resources on aggression because we're in a time of plenty
Stages of Aggressive Development (there are three)
1. distinguish between animate and inanimate
2. sense of self, ego boundaries (theory of mind, age 3-5)
3. empathy
Kohlberg stages of moral development (there are three)
1. don't get punished. Behaviorist sort of thing. there is noone else!
2. what if everyone did that? recognition of laws, codes
3. I have my own code, I do what's right even if I get punished. Civil disobedience.
Factors that modulate violence:
2. exposure to violence
3. violence at home
4. structure of rationalization (shared myth culture)
Levit & Donahue study
Roe v. Wade brings down violent crime
What evidence of kin selection and aggression?
1. step father more likely to abuse kids
2. pseudo kinship creation (band of brothers)
name two ecological/cultural factors influencing aggressive behavior.
1. nomadics invent cliterectomy + chastity belts

2. Cultures of honor
name four ways to start reciprocity:
1. repeated, small group interactions
2. open book interactions
3. kin selection as driving force
4. ability to punish non-cooperators
Results of Caspi et al.

(MAO serotonin)
originally: we thought more serotonin --> less aggression.
MAO breaks down serotonin, but according to study, low levels of MAO lead to high aggression in severe maltreatment (Contradictory findings)
Hairi et al.

Serotonin transporter (5-HTT)
short allele of 5-HTT --> less effective at removing serotonin --> more serotonin --> lights up the amygdala more (more aggressive response)