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31 Cards in this Set

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John Cabot (b. ca. 1450 - d. ca. 1499)
- Italian mariner who settled in England and gained the support of King Henry VII. He sailed to North America and searched for a westward passage to the Orient. His explorations secured a large part of North America for England.
Sebastian Cabot (b. 1476 - d. 1557)
- John Cabot's son and one of the most accomplished cartographers of his time. The first explorer to search for a Northwest Passage to the Orient. He sailed for Spain and explored parts of South America.
Juan de Cartegena
- Captain of the San Antonio, one of the ships that set sail in 1519 with Magellan. Attempted to kill Magellan and take over the expedition. He was the ringleader of a mutiny attempt. Magellan had him marooned in Patagonia in 1520.
Jacques Cartier (b. 1491 - d. 1557)
- Master navigator who discovered the St. Lawrence River,explored the area that became present-day Montreal, and searched for a Northwest Passage.
Samuel de Champlain (b. ca. 1570 - d. 1635)
- French explorer, navigator, and geographer of North America. Founder of Quebec, the first permanent French colony in North America in 1608. Explored New England's coast. Discovered Lake Champlain. His writings and maps were accurate records of the geography of North America.
Christopher Columbus (b. 1451 - d. 1506)
- After securing support from the Spanish monarchs, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella, was the first to explore uncharted seas to the west. In four voyages, discovered the Bahamas, Hispaniola, Cuba, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Central America, and South America. Sought passage to the Orient by going west.
James Cook (b. 1728 - d. 1779)
- English naval officer, surveyor, and explorer. In 1768, made his first famous journey to observe the eclipse of the planet Venus and to determine the existence of a southern continent. In 1772, sailed on his second voyage to search for the fabled southern continent and discovered several Pacific islands. During his final voyage in 1776, he sailed in the Pacific, charted the coast of North America from Oregon to the Bering Strait, and searched for a Northwest Passage in higher latitudes. He was killed in Hawaii in 1779. He was the first sea captain to prevent the spread of scurvy and other diseases aboard ship. He was one of the first to carry a chronometer,thus assisting him in determining his exact position on the globe.
Bartolomeu Dias (b. ca. 1450 - d. 1500)
- Portuguese navigator who discovered the Cape of Good Hope and probably named it. He set the stage for explorers following him to reach India by sea. Dias died at sea when his ship sunk in a squall in the south Atlantic in May, 1500.
Francis Drake (b. 1540 or 1542 - d. 1596)
- Second explorer to circumnavigate the globe. Successful pirate who helped break the Spanish and Portuguese monopoly of key sea routes. First Englishman to explore the Pacific. Died from dysentery off the coast of Panama.
Queen Elizabeth I (b. 1533 - d. 1603)
- Queen of England and Ireland and the most famous of all English monarchs. Guided her country through the second Reformation and led England to become the most powerful kingdom in Europe. She was the daughter of Henry VIII. She supported Drake's voyage around the world. During her reign, the English succeeded in defeating the Spanish Armada in 1588.
Eric the Red (b. ca. 950 - d. ca. 1001)
- A Norse chieftain who discovered Greenland in 982 and led a group of colonists there in 986 A.D. The colony lasted four or five centuries.
Leifr Eiriksson (b. ca. 980 - d. ca. 1020)
- Norse discoverer of America. Son of Eric the Red. May have been blown off course and landed in present-day Newfoundland or New England in 1000 A.D.
King Ferdinand (b. 1452 - d. 1516)
- King of Spain who ruled jointly with Queen Isabella. They were known as the Catholic monarchs. They expelled the Jews from Spain and conquered the Muslim kingdom of Granada. They eventually drove the Moors from Spain in 1492.
Vasco da Gama (b. ca. 1460 - d. 1524)
- Followed Bartolomeu Dias' route to the Cape of Good Hope and continued sailing along the other side of the African continent to the east. Discovered a route to India, defeated the Arab fleet in 1502, and opened the way for Portuguese trade routes to the East Indies.
King Henry VII (b. 1457 - d. 1509)
- King of England from 1485 until his death. Amassed a fortune and replenished the royal treasury following the War of the Roses. Issued a license to John Cabot to initiate trade routes.
King Henry VIII (b. 1491 - d. 1547)
- King of England and best known of all the monarchs. Broke with Rome and established the Church of England.
Prince Henry, the Navigator (b. 1394 - d. 1460)
- Patron of Portuguese exploration. Sent several expeditions down the west coast of Africa to outflank the Muslims, establish trade routes, and spread Christianity. Established school for navigators in 1450.
Henry Hudson (b. ? - d. 1611)
- English navigator and explorer who set sail on four voyages in his lifetime. He looked for a Northwest Passage, discovered the Hudson Bay and Hudson River. His efforts led to the eventual establishment of New Amsterdam (later called New York). During his last voyage in 1610, rebellious mutineers seized Hudson, his son, and seven others and set them adrift in a small boat without provisions. They were never heard from again.
Queen Isabella (b. 1451 - d. 1504)
- Queen of Spain who ruled jointly with her husband, Ferdinand. (See King Ferdinand) more
Kublai Khan (b. 1215 - d. 1294)
- One of four grandsons of Genghis Khan. He inherited the eastern kingdom. After his grandfather, he was one of the greatest of all Khans. His rule lasted from 1260 until his death in 1294.
Sieur de La Salle (b. 1643 - d. 1687)
- French explorer in North America. Discovered the mouth of the Mississippi River. Took possession of land naming it Louisiana after King Louis XIV. Was shot to death by mutineers near the Brazos River in present-day Texas in 1687. His discoveries established French claims toterritory in North America.
Ferdinand Magellan (b. 1480 - d. 1521)
- Portuguese explorer who led the first circumnavigation of the earth by sea for Spain. He discovered the Strait of Magellan. He was killed in the Philippines in 1521 and his voyage was completed by Sebastian del Cano (or Elcano).
- A number of wandering tribes who lived in central Asia. Under Genghis Khan, Mongol tribes conquered a vast empire stretching from China to Hungary in the west.
- Also known as Muslims. People who follow the Islamic religion founded by the prophet, Mohammed. more
Ottoman Turks
- Led by the Sultan of Turkey, these people dominated Syria, Egypt, Iraq, the Barbary states, the Balkan states, and parts of Hungary and Russia. The Ottoman Empire lasted from the thirteenth century to World War I.
Antonio Pigafetta (b. 1491 - d. 1534)
- One of few men to survive and complete the first circumnavigation of the globe. He was an ardent admirer of Magellan. His journal about the famous journey was later published. more
Marco Polo (b. 1254 - d. 1324)
- Medieval Italian traveler. One of the first European travelers to cross the entire Asian continent and leave a record of what he saw and heard.
Prestor John
- Fabled priest and ruler of a vast kingdom somewhere in the Far East or Africa. He was supposedly a Christian king who would be an ally of the European monarchs. No one had ever seen him or knew where his kingdom was located. He influenced Portuguese explorers who sought him during their travels.
Ptolemy (b. 100 A.D. - d. 170 A.D.)
- Greek-Egyptian scientist who wrote several books on astronomy, geography, physics, and mathematics. His books on geography were in standard use for 14 centuries. Ptolemy used mathematics to plot the known world. His calculations of latitude and longitude, however, were incorrect.
Amerigo Vespucci (b. 1454 - d. 1512)
- Born into a noble family in Florence, Italy, this Italian navigator made four voyages to America, two for Spain and two for Portugal.
William the Conquerer (b. 1027? - d. 1087)
- One of the greatest monarchs and a pivotal figure in history. William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, duke of Normandy. During a visit to England in 1051, his cousin Edward the Confessor most likely named William to be his successor. He was promised support by Harold Godwinsson. In 1066, Harold crowed himself king. William raised an army and defeated and killed Harold at the Battle of Hastings. He reigned from 1066 until his death.