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25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are aging changes?
anatomical and physiological changes that are attributed to aging. These changes may alter an elderly person's response to illness.
What are 3 aging changes that are associated with the cardiovascular system?
Increased heart weight; left ventricle hypertrophy;valvular sclerosis;decrease in pacemaker cells.
Name several things that can implicate aging changes in the respiratory system.
Kyphosis; Barrel-shaped, rigid chest
Respiratory rate 12-24
Decreased respiratory excursion & chest/lung expansion with less effective
Diminished breath sounds particularly at lung bases
Decreased cough, deep-breathing, mucus/foreign matter clearance. Risk of
What care stratgies are used to treat such changes in the respiratory system?
Maintain patent airway through repositioning, suctioning
Prevention of respiratory infections by hygiene
Incentive spriometry as indicated, particularly if unable to ambulate or decline
in function
Education on cough enhancement, avoidance of environmental contaminants,
smoking cessation
What changes occur in males as a direct result of aging changes in the Genitourinary System?
In males, decreased prostatic antibacterial factor; risk of benign prostatic
hyperplasia (BPH).
what changes occur in females as a direct result of aging changes in the Genitourinary System?
In post-menopausal females: estrogen loss; decreased pelvic area elasticity;
gland & epithelial atrophy; alkaline vaginal pH.
What assessment procedures are used to gage aging changes in the genitourinary system?
Assess renal function, particularly in acute/chronic illness
Monitor blood pressure (orthostatic)
Assess for dehydration, volume overload, electrolyte imbalances, proteinuria-
See addendum
Determine source of fluid/electrolyte imbalance. Monitor laboratory data
e.g.,creatinine clearance
Assess choice/dose/need for nephrotoxic agents (incl. aminoglycoside
antibiotics, radiocontrast dyes) and renally excreted medications (See
Medication Topic)
Palpable bladder after voiding due to retention
Assess for urinary incontinence, UTI
Assess for abnormal urine stream with BPH
Assess fall risk in nocturnal or urgent voiding
NAme the aging changes that can occur in the Integumentary System.
Decreased subcutaneous fat, interstitial fluid, muscle tone, glandular
activity, sensory receptors
Collagen stiffening
Reduced blood supply & capacity for repair
Capillary fragility
Cumulative androgen effect
For hair - decreased melanin & follicles
Reduced blood supply to fingernails
Define malnutrition.
Malnutrition is associated with many chronic diseases of aging. The term
malnutrition refers to both undernutrition (eg, unintended weight loss) and
overnutrition (eg, obesity). Age-related changes in physiology, metabolism, and
function also alter the nutritional requirements of older adults. Older adults can
improve their health and independence by understanding the relationship
between the aging process and nutritional screening, evaluation, and dietary management.
How is aging associated with body composition and organ function?
Aging is associated with changes in body composition, including bone mass,
muscle mass, and water content. Total body fat increases, especially in the
abdomen, while muscle and bone both decrease. The aging process also affects
organ functions, although the degree of change varies from person to person.
This decline in organ function may in turn affect nutritional status. This means
that well-standardized nutrient requirements for younger or middle-aged adults
cannot be generalized to older adults.
How are daily energy needs calculated/estimated?
A simple method for estimating total daily energy needs is based on body
weight. In general, an older adult needs to take in 25-30 calories per kilogram
(ie, about 12-15 calories per pound) of "normal" body weight.
What percent of older adults have an energy intake less than the recommended daily allowance?
studies show that up to 40% of the older adults had an
energy intake less than one-third of the recommended daily allowance, and
many older adults reported skipping at least one meal each day.
Discuss dehydration and fluid needs.
Dehydration is the most common fluid problem in older people. As we age, our
body loses some of its ability to regulate fluid levels. Our sense of thirst is also
often reduced, so older people tend to drink less. Some conditions also reduce
our ability to recognize that we are thirsty and need more fluid. It is common to
need more fluid than usual during fever or infection, as well as when taking
diuretic or laxative medications. Common signs of dehydration are less urine
output, low-grade fevers, constipation, dry gums, and possibly confusion.
What plays a part in evaluating nutritional status in older adults?
Monitoring weight
What drugs can cause loss of both appetite and weight?
theophylline and digoxin
What are the risk factors for poor nutritional status?
Alcohol or substance abuse
 Cognitive dysfunction
 Decreased exercise
 Depression, poor mental health
 Functional limitations
 Low income
 Limited education
 Limited mobility, transportation
 Medical problems, chronic diseases
 Teeth problems
 Restricted diet, poor eating habits
 Social isolation
What is a loss of skeletal muscle mass that is related to age?
WHat have the terms cachexia and wasting been used to describe ?
individuals with
severe weight loss and/or diminished nutritional intake
In what patients is cachexia and/or wasting commonly seen?
Cachexia or wasting is
characteristically seen in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, heart failure,
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, AIDS, cancer, some organ failure
syndromes (eg, kidney, liver, lung), and certain critical injuries.
What is the most common cause of oral dysphagia?
What sensation does a person with esophogeal dysphagia experience?
They experience the feeling of having something stuck in their throats.
In what instances are IV feeding considered?
Intravenous (IV) feeding is considered only when the gastrointestinal tract
cannot be used for a long time, such as during treatment of bowel obstruction,
severe gastrointestinal hemorrhage, intractable vomiting, or severe colitis.
How can undernutrition be prevented?
Catering to food preferences as much as possible
 Avoiding restricted diets unless absolutely necessary
 Eating meals with a friend
 Providing enough time for a leisurely, relaxed meal
 Preparing foods of appropriate consistency, color, texture, temperature,
and presentation
 Using herbs, spices, and hot foods to compensate for the loss of the taste
of smell sensations and also to avoid using too much salt and sugar
 Avoiding packaging that is hard to open
 Making sure that seating is comfortable and at the proper height
What term is usually used to describe dysphagia in the elderly?
Dysphagia in the elderly is usually
termed as ‘presbyphagia’.
What categories are presbyphagia divided into?
Primary Presbyphagia, which
is the age-related anatomical/
physiological changes; and Secondary
Presbyphagia, which is dysphagia
associated with confounding illnesses.