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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Purpose of history and exam
Minimum Data Base
Obtain diagnosis
Formulate diagnostic plan
Formulate nursing plan
Monitor response to therapy
Triage
Signalment
Species
Breed
Age
Sex
Reproductive status
History of present illnes
Duration
Severity
Progression
Frequency
Trigger Situations
Time of day
Character of problem
Systems Review
General
Integument
Respiratory
Cardiovascular
GI
Genitourinary
Musculoskeletal
Neurological
Special senses
RPT
Resp rate
Dog 8-20 Cat 8-30
Pulse
Dog >25kg 70-100
Dog <25kg 90-160
cat 150-210
Temp
Dog cat- 100-102 F.
Mucous membrane colors
pink= normal
pale= anemia, hypo-tension, hypothermia, pain
bright red= toxic phase of infection
muddy= septic
yellow= icteric-liver
blue=cyanotic-lack of o2
petichia= coag disorder
brown=tylenol poisoning
Heart murmurs
Grade
1 can barely hear
2 audible but soft
3 low to mod
4 loud w/o thrill
5 loud w/ thrill
6 heard off chest
Dehydration
<5 %= undetectable
5-6= skin slightly doughy, inelastic, tacky mm
6-8= skin definitely inelastic, eyes slightly sunken
10-12= inc skin turgor, sunken eyes, dry mm, inc CRT
12-15=shock, imminent death
Medical Record should contain
Client name, address, phone #
Patient signalment
Prior med records
Vaccination history
Primary complaint
Physical exam
Diagnosis or T/Dx list
Treatment inc RX
Labwork
Reports
Prognosis
Surgical, dental record
Client aftercare, education
Discharge instructions
Fee estimates
Consent forms
Medical Record Formats
Conventional- Chronological, source oriented.

Problem Oriented Veterinary Medical Record-POVMR-
-Defined Database
-Problem list
-Plans section
Progress section in SOAP
-------Subjective
-------Objective
-------Assessment
-------Plan
what are units of measurement for metric system
meter= length
liter= volume
gram= mass
mcg/ug
1/1,000,000 of a gram
how many grams is a kilogram
1000g
how many mcg is a mg?
one mg= 1000 mcg
How many mg is one grain?
one grain = 60mg.
how many oz. in a lb
16
how many ml in a tsp
5
how many drops in 5 ml
60
how many ml. in one oz
30
how many ounces/ ml in 1 cup
8 oz/ 240ml
how many cups/ ml in one pint
2 cups/ 480ml.
how many pints / ml in 1 quart
2 pints/ 960ml (app 1 liter)
how many quarts in a gallon
4 guarts/ 3.84 L.
one oz = how many Tbs
2
To convert F. to C.

To convert C. to F.
F= (1.8X C) + 32.

C= F-32/ 1.8
What are the seven parts of a drug order?
Name of patient
Name of drug
Doseage of drug
Route
Time/frequency
Date and time of order
Signature of person writing order
What are the six patient rights?
Right Patient
Drug-check label 3 times
Dose
Route
Time
Frequency
What is a solute
Substance being dissolved or diluted
What is concentration?
Amount of solute dissolved in solvent or
Mass/Volume
What is the drug concentration of a 1:1000 solution?
1 mg/ ml
What is the drug concentration of a 1:10,000 solution?
0.1 mg/ml
Formula for determining volume added, etc?
Va X Ca= Vf X Cf
How much of body's weight is water?
60 %
How is water distributed?
Intracellular= 60%
Extracellular-
Interstitial=30%
Intravascular= 10%
What route does IV fluid take?
Intravascular- interstitial- intracellular
Where do fluid losses come from first?
Interstitial- then intravascular then intracellular.
What is an electrolyte?
Solute that breaks down into + or - particles, ie ions.
+ = cation
- = anion
most abundant cation in ECF

anion?
sodium

chloride, bicarbonate
most abundant cation in ICF?

anion?
potassium (K), magnesium

Phosphates, proteins
What are two methods of measuring electrolytes?
As a percentage

As Meq- tendency of particle to combine with another particle.
What is osmolality / osmalarity?
the number of solute particles per Kg/Liter of solution
what is the 0smolality of isotonic fluid?
300 mOsm/L
what is the effect on cellular volume of hypotonic fluid?
cell swells- fluid enters cell
What is the effect of hypertonic fluid?
Fluid goes from interstitial to vascular
What is the systemic effect of hypotonic fluid?
Fluid leaves blood vessel- goes to interstitial area
what fluid should be used to correct dehydration?
isotonic or hypotonic
what fluid should be used to correct decreased intravascular volume?
hypertonic
what are most effective osmoles for fluid therapy?
Sodium. Glucose
What is Starlings Law?
Equilibrium exista at the capillary membrane when fluid leaving equals fluid entering the circulation.
factors maintaining equilibrium at capillary membrane.
hydrostatic and colloid osmotic, membrane pore size
what is a colloid?
a nondiffusable substance- a solute suspended in solution. Ex= plasma proteins
What is hydrostatic?
The pressure exerted by a stationary fluid. The same forces that maintain blood pressure- cardiac output, fluid volume, vascular resistance.
What is hypopyon?
pus in the anterior chamber of the eye
What is ptosis?
Drooping of upper eyelid
What is miosis?
Contraction of pupil
What is mydriasis?
Dilation of pupil.
What is anisocoria?
Uneven size of pupils.
What is Horner's syndrome?
protrusion of 3rd eyelid.
How do you figure out the rate of fluid administration?
Hydration deficit= Wt in Kg. X %dehydration X 1000.
Maintenance= 60ml/Kg/day
Contemporary losses=Est X 2
What is the shock fluid rate?
Dog= 80-90 ml/Kg/hr
Cat= 40-60 ml/Kg/hr
Use isotonic
What is the maximum infusion rate for potassium chloride?
Max= 0.5 mEq/Kg/hr
How much should maintenance fluid rates be increased in response to fever?
Increase fluid rates 10% for each 1.8 F. rise in body temp.
What are crystalloid solutions?
They contain electrolyte and non-electrolyte substances that can pass thru cell membranes.
What is 0.45 Saline and 2.5%Dex?
Hypotonic.
Crystalloid.
Should .45 Sal/2.5 Dex be used for shock?
No- water redistributes too rapidly.
What is a good choice for maintenance?
Hypotonic (half saline, 2.5Dex) with KCl
Why do you not use isotonic fluids for maintenance?
Isotonic(saline, LRS)have high sodium, osmalality and inadequate potassium. They don't stay in the intravascular space very long.