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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is shock?
>Decrease in circulating blood
>leads to decreased tissue perfusion & O2 deprivation
>cells inability carry out & maintain normal functions
What are the 4 categories of shock?
1 - Hypovolemic
2 - Cardiogenic
3 - Vasogenic
4 - Obstructive
What occurs in hypovolemic shock?
>low circulating blood volume
>decreased intravascular volume
What can cause hypovolemic shock?
>blood loss in surgery
>heavy long anesthetic episode
>gets into o. blood pressure meds
>severly dehydrated or malnourished
>kidney problems
What occurs in cardiogenic shock?
Decreased cardiac output from pump insufficiency
What causes cardiogenic shock?
heart failure
What occurs in vasogenic shock?
>blood flow is poorly distributed
What is another name for vasogenic shock?
distributive shock
What are the causes of vasogenic shock?
What is another form of vasogenic shock?
septic shock
What causes septic shock?
>bacterial infection that releases endotoxins into blood stream
What causes obstructive shock?
physical obstruction in the circulatory system
>>blood clot
What are the 3 stages (symptoms) of shock?
1 - compensatory (early)
2 - decompensatory (middle & late)
3 - Irreversible (terminal)
What happens during stage 1 of shock?
>body tries to fix itself
>increased HR
>decreased flow to extremities
>increased BP
What is a clinical sign of increased HR (tachycardia)?
a bounding pulse
What are some clinical signs of decreased flow to extremities?
>pale mm
>core body temp low
>CRT slow
What is the treatment for stage 1 (compensatory) of shock?
Volume replacement w/ LRS
What happens during stage 2 of shock?
>Capillary pooling
>Slow or irregular HR
>pulse is weak, absent or thready
>GI tract & kidneys at risk of decreased profusion
>body temp drops
>CRT absent
>coolness to extremities
What is the treatment of stage 2 (decompensatory) shock?
>shock dose LRS
- dog 90ml/kg
- cat 40-50ml/kg
>plasma, whole blood
>O2 therapy
What happens in Stage 3 of shock?
>heart failure
>pulmonary edema
>alteration of consciousness
>severe hypotension
>abnormal resp. problems
>irregular heart rhythms
>MM white
>cold, glassy eyes
What is the treatment for stage 3 of shock?
>IV catheter
>hook to monitors
>warm up
A hypersentivity reaction where histamine is released in abudance causing a potent and damaging inflammatory response.
anaphylactic shock
What are some causes of anaphylactic shock?
>food additives
>blood transfusions
What are some localized symptoms of anaphylactic shock?
>facial edema
>patches of redness
What are some systemic symptoms of anaphylactic shock?
>severe bronchial restriction
What is the treatment for anaphylactic shock?
>airway/O2 if needed
>IV catheter, LRS
>hospitalize and observe
What are the anti-convulsant drugs?
>gabba pentin
>sodium bromide
One of the first drugs used for seizures?
How does primidine work?
elevates the threshold
Why is primidine not used in cats?
hard time metabolizing
What is the anti-convulsant drug of choice for cats?
Why is phenobarb the anti-convulsant drug of choice for cats?
>only have to give SID or EOD
>small doses
What is a side effect of phenobarb?
>strong sedation
>wears off in a couple of weeks
Dilantin is an anti-convulsant drug used for what animal?
Why is dilantin not used in cats?
>cannot metabolize
>causes toxicity
How does dilantin work?
pulls the sodium out of cells prohibiting abnormal electrical activity
Dilantin is good for what type of seizure?
Gabba Pentin (neuroton) is used experimentally in what specie?
Gabba Pentin affects the _____ and _____.
liver and kidneys
What is a side effect of gabba pentin?
bio feedback mechanism elevating behavior
Sodium bromide comes in what form?
What is the ratio of sodium bromide to water?
250g to 1L of water
What are the side effects of sodium bromide?
What are the purposes of using hormonal drugs?
>correct a deficiency of the hormone
>to augment what the body is already doing
What are the medical uses for estrogen in small animals?
>induce abortion
>Tx of urinary incontinence in spayed females
How does estrogen induce abortion?
changes the lining of the uterus so the embryo will not implant
What is the most common route of administration of estrogen?
What are some examples of estrogen hormonal treatment?
What are the adverse effects of estrogen hormonal treatment?
>bone marrow suppression
>prolonged estrus
>cystic ovaries
What are progestins used for?
>prolonging and maintaining reprod. environment that fetus can stay in
>coordinate estrus in dog
>alleviate false pregnancy
What are some examples of progestins?
Megesterol acetate (Ovaban)
Medroxyprogesterone acetate(depo-provera)
What are the uses of megesterol acetate?
>control estrus
>prevent vaginal hyperplasia
>control unacceptable male behavior
>Tx dermatoses
>inhibit spraying in cats
What is Medroxyprogesterone acetate used for?
>Tx male behaviors
>suppress estrus in dogs & cats
>Tx dermatological conditions
What are the androgens medical uses?
>Tx urinary incontinence in male dogs
>increase libido & fertility in domestic animals
>Tx and alleviate false pregnancy
Androgens are available in what form?
parenteral only
What are the medical uses for anabolic steroids?
>promote increase of muscle mass
>stimulate appetite
What is an example of a anabolic steroid?