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62 Cards in this Set

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What happens after the death of Caesar?
Fear and shock in the streets of Rome, the people feel betrayed by the senators = no trust, afraid of who will rule next, and afraid the new rulers will attack the conspirators
Who will senate choose to be the new ruler?
Mark Antony? Octavian Caesar?
Why might they choose Mark Antony?
Caesar's right hand man, well known to the people of Rome, will inspire trust and good faith towards the senators
Why might they not choose Mark Antony?
Should they fear that he will rule like Caesar? Will he try to avenge Caesar's death?
Why might they choose Octavian Caesar?
Caesar's adopted son and legal heir, the people in Rome might take comfort in a family member taking over,
Why might they not choose Octavian Caesar?
he may be easily controlled by the senate = long, inexperienced, weak., Will he be able to stand up to Mark Antony?
Who did they choose to rule?
They chose Octavian. Octavian knows that he can't pull this off alone so he teams up with Mark Antony and Marcus Lepidus to form the second triumvirate.
What is Octavian's first order of business?
His first order of business is to deal with Caesar's assassinators.
What happens between Antony and Octavian?
A power struggle, so Octavian suggests to Lepidus to retired because of his age.
How do Antony and Octavian split up the lands?
Antony takes the eastern part of the empire and Octavian takes the western part of the empire.
What does Cleopatra do?
She gets to Antony to fall in love with her and Antony decides to marry her.
What does Antony figure if he marries her?
That he has the upper hand because Rome wants to hang on to Egypt so now the senate likes Antony better.
What did Octavian do in response?
He declares war on Antony and Cleopatra. He convinces the senate that Antony and Cleopatra are up to no good.
What does the senate do?
They go along with it because they don't really want Antony because they think that he has too much power.
What do Antony and Cleopatra do?
They run to Egypt and now they have protection.
What does Octavian do after Antony and Cleopatra run away?
He comes after them and takes the Western portion of the army to get them. Antony and Cleopatra are determined not to get caught alive, so they use a poisonous snake to bite them in the neck. Octavian gets there and finds them dead.
What was the result of the march on Egypt?
Octavian announces Egypt is part of Rome.
What happens in 27 BCE?
The senate gives Octavian the title of Augustus. They are making him like a God.
What has Octavian now become?
The first Roman Emperor.
What was the Roman Law?
It stated that the emperor's power comes directly from the people and when he dies the power goes back to the people to give to the next emperor.
What does the Roman Law imply?
There is no guarantee that Octavian's son will take over.
What did Octavian get?
He got power of the tribune.
What does Octavian get to do?
He gets to give the first speech in the senate.
What does Octavian getting to first speech begin?
Julio-Claudian dynasty. Peace is declared throughout the empire.
What did Augustus do with his new power?
He was clever and careful. He knew it couldn't appear like a dictatorship or monarchy. Neither the senate nor the people will accept that.
What does Octavian restore?
The idea of the republic. He make use that the senate thinks they are in control but being the scene the real power is his.
What does Augustus keep saying?
That he will resign once the gov't is moving smoothly.
What title does Augustus refer?
He prefers Princeps instead of Imperator.
What does Augustus reserve the right to do?
Although officials are voted in, he reserves the right to make his own choices (strong influence on senate).
Were the changes that Augustus made good?
He made many changes leading to a prolonged period of peace and prosperity for Rome.
What mistakes did Julius Caesar make that Augustus managed to avoid?
Instead of being an enemy of the senate Augustus worked with them, he stroked their ego's so they wouldn't turn against him.
What was the Pax Romana?
A public works program that the government builds new roads, buildings, bridges, etc. A new police force and fire department, welfare program.
What was the army made up of and what oath did they make to Augustus?
They were professional soldiers and they took an oath of loyalty to Augustus and not their generals.
What were the good soldier rewarded with?
With government positions, finances, pensions of retired soldiers.
What did the soldiers do?
THey maintain a balance between the rich and the poor.
What does living modestly do?
It sets examples for other wealthy not to antagonize the poor. It causes bursts of art and culture.
What does Augustus encouraging morality do?
This new peace gives aristocrats the opportunity to be immoral = decadent age.
What does Rome do?
It reaches its greatest size and power.
What does the expansion of trade lead to?
Eventually hard times as imports increase over exports. This equals a unfavorable balance of trade and will lead to inflation later.
When does Augustus die?
At age 76 without conquering Germany.
If Augustus had misused his power to gain personal wealth and glory, what might have been the results on the empire?
None of these things, including the burst of arts, would have happened. The government wouldn't be able to run as well as it did.
What is Propoganda?
Manipulating what people think.
Why does Augustus use Propoganda?
He recognizes the need to make others aware of his positive work. This is to inspire loyalty of the people.
What forms of Propoganda does he use?
Writings, monuments, spread the word. The best way to reach all of the empire was through money, in this way he broadcasted his achievements both at home and abroad.
Why did he begin relinquishing part of his power to Tiberius?
Since the power comes from the people he wanted people to get used to Tiberius and choose him as their new ruler.
Who assumed power after Augustus died?
Tiberius.
This will become a pattern of 200 years, either he would choose a son or member of his family or a suitable candidate in Rome.
How many emperors in the Julio-Claudian Dynasty include?
5.
Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius and Nero.
When was Christianity born?
Born when Augustus is in power and dies when Tiberius is in power. At time of Jesus's birth, Herod had initiated a decree that jewish baby boys would be killed.
Who does Julius Caesar appoint as procurator (Roman Govener of a Province) ruling Judea as representative of Rome?
Antipator, he starts the Herodian Dynasty.
Who conquers Judea?
Pompey, And Judea becomes a Roman province in 63 BCE.
What did the jews want to have?
They always wanted to feel that they had Autonomy (Self Governing) even if they were under foreign rule.
When is Herod appointed?
After his after Antipator dies, he was "King of the Jews"
What was Herod?
A very Romanized Jew.
What was the Jewish community in Judea at the time divided between?
The Pharisses and the Saducces.
Who were the Saducces?
They were loyal to Rome, not religious, wealthy or kohanim.
Who were the Pharisses?
They were the majority of population. Poor farmers, more religious.
What was Herod?
He was Rome's choice, not the Jew's.
What did this lead to?
Strong hopes within Jewish communities in Judea for a messiah to lead them to freedom from Roman rule.
What sort of leader is Herod?
He killed people when they spoke out and put eagle at the entrance of the temple. He was terrible.
What the Pharisses do when Herod died?
They tore down the Roman eagle from the entrance of the temple. Rome views this as a Jewish rebellion.
Who was Pontious Pilate?
He is more insistent that Jews Romanize than Herod was. Promised Jews to build them an aqueduct that would get them a much needed water supply to Jeruselum. Pharisses say no but kohanim and Saducces say yes. Now there are more rebellions.
What does Pontious have now?
Statues of Gods and Godesses and statues of Caesar in the beis hamikdash. Pontious will decide who will be kohen.