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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
landlocked, mostly mountains and deserts, few roads
semiarid; cold winter, hot summer
3 largest ethnic groups
Pashtun (38%), Tajik (25%), Hazara (19%)
Sunni Muslims; ruling elite (Baba and Amir)
Shiite lowerclass; linked to the Moguls (Ali and Hassan)
Literacy rate
36% total (51% of men, 21 % of women)
Who receives primary education?
51% of population, mostly boys
Life expectancy
Male: 45
Female: 43
Most important resource
Why is their economy struggling?
difficult terrain
Leading producer of what product?
What is their per capita GDP and where does it rank?
GDP= $800; ranks 217/232 countries
What is the religious make-up?
99% Muslim; 84% Sunni, 15% Shiite
Who introduced Islam and when?
Arabs when they invaded in 642
What was the early order of rule?
Persian then Turkish then Mogul in the 16th century
Who founded Afghanistan and when?
Ahmad Durrani (Pashtun); 1722
How long did the Durrani line rule?
until 1978
When did Britain and Russia come in to play?
What was Afghanistan's position during WWI
Gained independance from Britain
What is King Amanullah known for?
Tried to modernize the country and doing so alienated traditional leaders (1919-29)
Mohammed Zahir Shah
(1929-73) formed constitutional monarchy; cousin Daoud was Prime Minister
Constitutional monarchy
power of monarchy was lessened; only appointed 1.3 of legislators
Coup against Shah- who and why?
Daoud, to establish a republic; was unsupported by traditianal elite and tribal leaders
representative democracy
Communist/Marxist groups
introduced during Coup and insurgency developed against it
What involvement did the Soviets have?
offered to assist gov., but when gov. refused, they invaded in 1979
Significance of Mujahadin
"freedom fighters" fought against Soviets and received aid from U.S.; Osama Bin Laden
Soviets withdrew
civil war
1989-96; between Pakistani backed Taliban (Mujahadin) and the tribes of Northern Alliance
Taliban took control and established gov. (harbored Bin Laden and Al Quadeh)
Taliban defeated by U.S., Allied, and Northern Alliance troops
Hamid Karzai
first democratically elected President (2004)
current state of affairs
Karzai rules, but Taliban threatening to regain control