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431 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the 3 criteria for an occupation to be described as a profession?
1. Service
2. Body of Theory & knowledge
3. Subculture
What is wrong with the position that any given broadly defined occupation is either a profession or it is not?
Leads to the conclusions that only doctors and not nurses are members of the medical profession; or officers and not enlisted are professionals in the POA.
What is the impact of unprofessional behaviors upon the AF?
Degraded mission effectiveness
Decrease in organizational efficiency
Lack of subordinate growth & dev
No mentorship
Perpetuates a "just a job" attitude
Discipline and morale suffer
Why is it important that we continue to move along the professional continuum?
The profession as a whole can not advance along the continuum of occupations. A weak link here and there will cause the entire organization to lose status.
What 3 core objectives steer our national strategy process?
1. Enhancing our security
2. Promoting democracy abroad
3. Bolstering Americas Economic Prosperity
What is the primary focus of national Security Strategy?
Myriad of military threats that the nation must confront.
What was Airlift first used as a mechanism for National Security?
Berlin Airlift
Which command solely provides Air Mobility for the U.S. ?
AMC - Air Mobility Command
How is National Security beneficial to National Strategy?
Nat'l security utilizes Air Mobility resources effectively by adhering to Nat'l security strategy. Encourages prevention and limitations on terrorist activity.
Identify 3 categories relative to determining a nation's needs and interests?
1. How crucial is an interest
2. How vital is an interest
3. Which basic interest is at stake
Who is responsible for determining the nation's needs and interests?
Strategists & policy makers
Identify the 4 levels of intensity?
How does National Power support National Security?
Strategists must match the instruments of power to the interests of the state. Strategists must determine to what ends will the allocation of scarce or abundant resources be dispersed.
Identify each instrument of power.
1. Military
2. Economic
3. Diplomatic
What is the responsibility of the Military Instrument of power?
The extent to which the armed forces can be employed to achieve national ends.
What is the responsibility of the Economic Instrument of power?
Manipulations of economic assistance & foreign aid
What is the responsibility of the Diplomatic Instrument of power?
Ability to mediate successfully and to produce unique and mutually acceptable solutions to complex issues without application of military or economic power.
When do strategist determine which instrument of power to utilize?
When they have identified the various levels of intensity for basic threats.
Explain how National Strategy processes support National Security.
4 distinct areas of importance:
Objectives & initiatives
Developing military strategy
Designing operational strategy
Formulating battlefield strategy
What is the first step towards implementing a National Security Strategy?
Define objectives and initiatives.
Why is defining objectives and initiatives the first step towards implementing a National Security Strategy?
Doing so ensures strategist are formulating an effective National Security; it is the reasoning for devising a strategy process.
What is the difference between military strategy and operational strategy?
Military - sets in motion teh actions required to develop a military force structure and then deploys that force structure.
Operational - Employes the forces provided by military strategy
Military strategy is _____ in scope, whereas Operations strategy is _____.
Differentiate between tactics and higher levels of strategy relative to battlefield strategy.
Tactics - govern the use of forces on the battlefield.
Other (military, operations, & grand strategies) bring forces to the battlefield.
Tactics "doing the job right"
Other "doing the right job"
How are national decisions defined?
Decisions about the content of grand strategy & the resources available to implement that that strategy. These decisions are products of political processes with the Fed. Govt.
What elements comprise the coordination of military strategy?
Explain the coordination process?
Geared primarily to relationships between instruments of power at the grand strategy level and refers to relationships within the military instrument of power.
How does Major Regional Conflict (MRC) affect National Security?
They pose a heavy demand on US forces and definitely drive most force requirements.
Identify the 4 phases of the department planning framework for MRC.
1. Halting the invasion
2. Force buildup
3. Counteroffensive
4. Ensuring postwar stability
When does regional conflict exist?
Anytime the use of military power by force is contemplated or activated.
Define terrorism.
Systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective.
Identify two terrorist groups.
Baader-Meinhof gang of W. Germany
Japanese Red Army
Italy's Red Brigades
Puerto Rican FALN
al-Fatah & other Palestinian orgs
Shining Path of Peru
France's Direct Action
Ku Klux Klan
How do terrorist groups finance their violent activities?
Drug trafficking
Arms smuggling
What is the responsibility of the HIDTA Program?
Reducing the production, manufacturing, distribution, transportation & chronic use of illegal drugs, as well as the money laundering tied to the drug proceeds.
Which drug does the intelligence community believe has been the primary narcotics threat since 1985?
Which drug is the most widely abused and readily available, illicit drug in the US?
How does international organized crime negatively impact our nation?
Cause our economy to weaken financially and reduce National Security while placing the US in an extremely vulnerable position.
What 3 risks are associated with nuclear proliferation?
1. Potential losses to US forces
2. Damage to allied nations
3. Escalation to a superpower confrontation
What are 2 major problems posed by biological and chemical weapons?
1. Easy to produce
2. Easy to conceal
What does Information Warfare (IW) consist of?
Actions taken to achieve information superiority in support of national military strategy by affecting adversary information and information systems while leveraging and protecting our own information and information systems.
Describe the emphases of Offensive Information Warfare.
Manipulation of electronic information systems to influence and adversary's perceptions and behavior.
What are some methods/tools of Offensive Information Warfare?
Computer viruses
Infiltration of telecommunication systems
Direct broadcast satellites
Commercial media
Holography (visual stimulus & illusion)
What does Defensive Information Warfare entail?
Requires the ability to detect and thwart attempts to tamper with one's own sources of information.
What is the American information infrastructure vulnerable to?
Infiltration and sabotage
Identify the 9 critical issue areas of an infrastructure.
1. Fragmentation of responsibility
2. Technology
3. Architectural framework
4. People
5. Facilities
6. Data bases
7. Network control
8. Threat & risk
9. Security in a global infrastructure
What are the 3 keys to protecting the nations information infrastructure?
1. PROTECT the system from attack
2. DETECT and event when it is occurring and be able to decide if it is an attack, a failure mode, or an isolated hacker
3. REACT to the event
What does MOOTW stand for?
Military Operations Other Than War
How does MOOTW support National Security
Deterring war
Resolving conflict
Promoting peace
Supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crisis
What does Combat Operations of MOOTW include?
Protections of shipping
Enforcement of exclusion zones
Counter air interdiction & attack
What is the goal of MOOTW during noncombat?
Achieve national objectives as quickly as possible and conclude military operations on terms favorable to the US & its allies.
When is overlapping operations of MOOTW prevalent?
When combat MOOTW and noncombat MOOTW is conducted simultaneously.
How do space operations support national security?
Eliminating the use of hostile forces ability to disrupt navigation signals.
What responsibilities lie within space systems structure?
Force enhancement products
Global communications
What is the EAF concept?
Improve our ability to rapidly deploy light, lean, and lethal elements of air and space forces anywhere on the globe, while providing predictability and stability to all airmen.
What is the goal of the EAF?
Provide an integrated total force that is organized, trained and equipped. It is designed to cope with the high tempo of operations experienced since the Gulf War.
Explain the deployment process of AEF?
All active, guard, & reserve will be divided into 10 force packages.
Each AEF will be able to respond within 72 hours.
Contingency operations for about 90 days every 15 months.
How does EAF/AEF support national security?
*Increasing morale and retention

*Decrease negative effect that high operations tempo has on airman

*Presents and organized, trained and fully equipped force to deal with threats
What was the name of the Berlin Airlift operation?
Operation Vittles
What was the significance of the Berlin Airlift to air transport?
Underlined the feasibility of sustained, round-the-clock mass movement of cargo by air.

Experience in operational techniques, air traffic control, and maintenance and reconditioning of aircraft.

Proved the need for larger cargo aircraft.
What air power lessons learned in WWII were further developed in the Korean War?
Air tactics & techniques
Use of jet aircraft to control air strikes efficiently
System of tactical air control was developed
What was the most significant use of air power during the Vietnam War?
LINEBACKER II - highly concentrated attack on sanctioned areas
Why was LINEBACKER II significant during the Vietnam War?
The offensive played a key part in bringing about the N. Vietnamese decision to sign the peace agreement on 15 JAN 1973.
What was the final analysis of air power from Desert Storm?
Its swiftness, decisiveness and scope brought about the coalition's victory. Air power found, fixed, fought, and finished the Iraqi military.
What significant contribution did Corporal Edward Ward make to the AF enlisted heritage?
First enlisted man in the Aeronautical division of the US Army Signal Corps.
What significant contribution did Corporal Frank S. Scott make to the AF enlisted heritage?
First enlisted man to lose his life in an air accident.
What significant contribution did Corporal Eugene Bullard make to the AF enlisted heritage?
First black pilot and fighter pilot.
What significant contribution did SSgt Ester Blake make to the AF enlisted heritage?
First woman to enlist in the first minute of the first hour of the first day that regular AF duty was authorized for women.
What significant contribution did CMSgt Grace E. Peterson make to the AF enlisted heritage?
First woman to be promoted to the highest NCO grade.
What are the duties of the CMSgt of the AF?
Advise and assist the Chief of Staff and Secretary of the AF in matters concerning enlisted members of the AF.
What are the duties of a First Sergeant?
Promote health, morale & welfare
Maintain discipline & standards
Prepare/present training
Supervise dormitories
Monitor unit administration
What does adhering to the standards of dress and appearance promote?
Unity within and organization, pride in oneself and in the organization.
If we maintain proper wear of the uniform at all times, including in public, how ill this influence the public's opinion of the military?
Public will see the military as a well-disciplined organization capable of carrying out its mission.
What is considered the most important benefit of drill for the military member?
Teamwork development
How do ceremonies restore morale and build esprit de corps?
it takes a cooperative effort by all members to reach a common goal requiring a great deal of discipline and practice.
What are the 3 ways to honor the flag?
Place it in place of honor
Never dip it to an person or object
What are 2 elements of military etiquette?
What is the impact of gossip on the work center?
Creates a barrier to effective communications that inhibits productive work and accomplishment of the mission.
What is the purpose of the military salute?
Serves as a greeting and as an acknowledgment of being a member of the POA.
Where is the first place of honor?
Always on the right
Where is the second place of honor?
In front or "going first"
Define the aspects of wellness.
Managing weight & stress
Not smoking
Immunizations & physicals
What is the purpose of aerobic exercise?
Beneficial changes occur in the heart, lungs, vascular system, and other tissues of the body.
What benefits do you gain from strength training?
Stronger muscles
Greater endurance of movement
Improved alignment & muscle balance
Increase in metabolic rate
Better physique
What is the purpose of the warm-up phase?
Produces a physical state of readiness by gradually increasing the breathing, heart rate, and body temperature to prime muscles for activity.
Explain the FIT concept.
Frequency (times per week)
Intensity (effort)
Time (duration)
How does dehydration affect your exercise workout?
Consistency of your blood thickens which causes the heart to work harder.
What are the 6 major categories of nutrients?
1. Carbohydrates
2. Proteins
3. Fats
4. Vitamins
5. Minerals
6. Water
What is the most efficient method to achieve permanent weight loss?
Decrease your calorie intake and increase your calorie output.
What causes stressful events to become a problem?
Persons inability to cope with too much stress.
Explain how stress can be positive.
In can serve as a motivator or initiator for activity.
What are the effects of smoking?
High blood pressure
Stomach ulcers
Birth defects
What factors influence maintaining a health lifestyle?
Living & working environments
Inherited characteristics
Medical care received
What are some of the responsibilities a military citizen has in maintaining a state of well being?
Eat healthy
Exercise regularly
Get plenty of sleep
Abstain from smoking
Manage stress effectively
How can you be a wellness role model?
Your commitment will provide and example for subordinates to follow.
How does effective stress management help us as military citizens?
Recognizing stressful situations
Managing our time
Controlling our emotions
What are some "common" meanings of ethics?
* Knowing the difference between right and wrong
* Used to determine what action to pursue
* Standards by which we act
* Values
* Behaviors
* Adopted attitudes and beliefs
List examples of the written forms of our military code of ethics.
* Oath of enlistment
* Code of Conduct
* DOD Reg. 5500.7-R, Joint Ethics Regulation
Based on AFI 36-2909's assertions concerning professional relationships, what are some inferences we can make concerning unprofessional relationships?
Deadly to the organization
Create distrust
Destroy communications
Foster disrespect
Distract from the mission
How do Fraud, Waste, and Abuse differ from each other?
Fraud - deliberate
Waste - extravagant, careless
Abuse - Intentional, wrongful use
Why is "integrity first" first?
Essential. Inner voice of self-control and the starting point in everything we do in the AF.
Why is "responsibility and accountability" an important tenant of integrity first?
NCO's do not try to shift blame to others, take credit for the work of others, and are responsible for their actions.
Why is "faith in the system" an important tenet of service before self?
When we lose faith in the systems, we start to adopt a view that our way of doing things is better.
What are some examples of the Air Force "systems" we trust?
Enlisted Evaluation system
Decoration system
Promotion system
Supervisors supervising properly
Chain of command
IG system
What are some of the important milestones in the history of the Code of Conduct.
* Aftermath of Korean Conflict
* 18 MAY 1955 - Committee to draft a Code of Conduct
* Exec Order 10631, 1955
* After Vietnam war review of POW's and Code of Conduct
* Nov 1977 - Article V changed to say "required" instead of "only"
* Mar 1988 - Exec Order 12633 gender-neutral language
Define the term "parole" in the context of prisoner of war.
Promise by a prisoner of war to a captor to fulfill certain conditions, in exchange for favors.
Why would the enemy employ "parole"?
To get on our good side to gain military information.
Define the 3 general types of hostile peacetime detention.
1. Hostile government detention
2. Hostile government-sponsored terrorist detention
3. Independent terrorist group detention
What are the key points of Article IV?
* Carry out our responsibilities and exercise our authority
* Senior person must take control
* Discipline
* Communication
What is the purpose of LOAC?
Rules defining how war is fought.
Under LOAC, what should your response be if you are given an order which would result in a crime being committed?
You are not required to carry out the order; you are required to do what you can to stop the act from occurring and to report it to your chain of command.
According to the text, what are some characteristics of leadership?
Leaders lead
Leaders are not always on top
Leaders motivate others
What measurement tools are available to assess leadership skills?
Assessments, evaluations, tests, indices, surveys, etc..
In developing an effective time management plan, what two step plan can you use?
Establish a to-do list
Prioritize your tasks
Explain the A-B-C Priority system.
Categorize tasks by level of importance
A - "have to do" today
B - Not quite as urgent
C - nice to do, non time consuming
What is the key to prioritizing tasks?
To establish and focus on the 20% of teh "80-20" Rule.
How does time management impact work center effectiveness?
Leads to efficiency & increased productivity.
Name a key element to keep in mind when organizing your desk or workstation.
Don't concentrate on prettiness
Think about organization and how it contributes to productiveness.
How can you use delegation as an effective time-saving technique?
Allows you to distribute a portion of the workload to others.
What planning tools are available to help you manage your work center responsibilities?
Personal digital assistants
What is recognized worldwide as one of the biggest time-wasters?
The telephone
Regarding time management, how do we fulfill our responsibilities as NCOs and demonstrate our adherence to the AF Core Values?
Effective time management
What programs should we be actively involved in to maintain a high degree of proficiency in our specialty?
Career development courses
CCAF Programs
In meeting the objective of PME how does time management help?
Improves performance by helping free up time that can be used to increase knowledge and the AF as a profession and the role we play in it.
_____ is the reaction or wear and tear our bodies experience to an external demand placed by our environment; it has physical and emotional effects on us creating positive or negative feelings or behaviors.
What does GAS stand for?
General Adaptation Syndrome
What are the 3 stages of GAS?
Alarm reaction
What are the 4 variables related to the stress intensity level?
1. Personal perception
2. Social support
3. Locus of control
4. Behavior/personality types A&B
Give an example of the variable "personal perception"
Public speaking
Give an example of the variable "social support"
effective relationships buffer effects of stress
Give an example of the variable "locus of control"
How people view their fate
Give an example of the variable "personality types"
Type A - struggle aggressively to achieve

Type B - go with the flow
What are the seven subcategories of organizational stressors?
1. job
2. role
3. environmental
4. interpersonal
5. leadership
6. organizational
7. change
What is the difference between role conflict and role ambiguity?
Conflict - job roles conflict
Ambiguity - not enough information
What is social density and how can it create stress in the workplace?
Individuals need for personal space to feel comfortable.

If space is violated it can result in stress.
What does organizational structure and change stressors stem from?
Level of decision making and the magnitude of rules and regulations.
Why do extra-organizational stressors need to be addressed?
Can build up and cause problems, either alone or in concert with organizational stressors.
What are the three outcomes of distress?
What is the most common behavioral reaction to stress seen in the workplace?
How is an organization impacted from the behavior of personal distress?
Impacts quantity and quality of work
Abuse of equipment
Waste of resources & supplies
Low morale
What are the 2 goals of stress management programs and methods?
Promote individual/organizational health

Minimize individual/organizational distress
What is the purpose of individual stress management methods?
Individual - changing view of potential stressors, altering response pattern and treating specific problems caused by stress.
How does an individual accomplish overload avoidance?
Avoid busy work
Learn to say NO
Negotiate reasonable deadlines
What are organizational stress methods used for?
Help members adjust to and manage those stressors which cannot be removed.
What are the 5 potential benefits of increased subordinate involvement?
1. Reduction in tardiness/absenteeism
2. Improve sup/sub relations
3. Acceptance of change
4. Ease in leading subordinate
5. Buy-in to decisions
____ is a specific type or pattern of behaviors intended to ensure work center effectiveness & mission accomplishment brought about by a state of order and obedience.
AF concept of discipline
How does discipline affect the AF culture?
Negative or positive
Why is the status of discipline important to the AF?
Compare it to the pulse of a person. Makes a statement about the health of the unit and its members.
What is the purpose of the enlisted force structure?
Define responsibilities of each rank
Define relationship between ranks
Career progression
How does the enlisted structure contribute to discipline in the AF?
Lays the foundation for effective discipline
Provides guidance/direction to NCOs
What is the supervisor's role in helping subordinates adjust to the military environment?
Engage in activities that shows they care about the individual and their career development.
Describe the actions you would take in preventing disciplinary problems.
Communicate expected standards/behaviors

Enforce consistently/fairly

Be positive role model
What are some corrective measures you would utilize in order to maintain discipline?
verbal/written counseling
Non-judicial punishment
The ____ is the process of gaining and maintaining discipline within your organization. It provides a way for the supervisor to establish lines of acceptability and communicate those lines to your subordinate.
Progressive Discipline Process (PDP)
Explain how substance abuse impacts productivity in the work center.
Affect ability to perform
Explain how time in the work center is impacted by substance abuse.
Missed deadlines
Other individuals must pick up slack
Describe the steps you should take as a supervisor to prevent substance abuse in your work center.
Explain policies and standards
Deglamorize the use of alcohol
Lead by example
Why is documentation so important to you and the subordinate in the identification phase of a substance abuse problem?
Provides the experts information needed to help the person.

Ensure the appropriate punitive measure are carried out should it be necessary to take such action.
Describe the supervisor's role during the intervention phase of a substance abuse problem?
*Communicating with EE about observed behaviors
*Proper & timely referral to proper agency
*Direct involvement and genuine concern during treatment.
___ is the systematic approach to optimizing risk to support the best mission outcomes.
List the principles of ORM.
* Accept no unnecessary risk
* Make risk decisions at the appropriate level
* Accept risk when benefits outweigh the costs
* Integrate ORM into AF doctrine at all levels
What are some factors to consider when determining if benefits outweigh the costs.
A comparison of:
What step of ORM deals with prioritizing the control measures?
Step 3 - analyze risk control measures.
What are the 6 steps of ORM?
1. Identify
2. Assess
3. Analyze
4. Make decision
5. Implement risk controls
6. Supervise & review
What is the purpose of step 1 of the ORM?
Identify as many hazards in the process as possible
Why is ORM not just a safety program?
Safety is only one consideration. ORM is a continuous process designed to detect and assess risk.
______ Model
A person has a need and sets a goal to meet that need. The person than acts in a way that will accomplish the goal. Based on feedback behavior is adjusted.
Behavior model
How do coping behaviors impact you as a leader?
Help deal with successes/failures of EE
Explain the role of learning in behavior.
Learning conditions us to react to a given situation or process a given set of information in a certain way.

Learning helps us to gain understanding of right & wrong and react accordingly.
______ theory asserts that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are caused by different work related factors called hygienes. Worker dissatisfaction occurs when these hygienes are lacking.
Herzberg theory
______ theory states that three critical needs, power, affiliation, and achievement may be fulfilled through the organization. The organization can place you in charge of something or someone, social and interpersonal actives satisfy the achievement need, and reaching a goal fills the achievement need.
McClelland's theory
Based on the ___ ___ theory, motivation occurs because a person assigns meaning or value to what they see or perceive as a realistic outcome based on their behavior.
Vroom's Expectancy theory
How do aspirations fit into the behavior process?
Aspirations are a motivational force that play a role in long term goals.
Explain the role of personality in the behavior process.
Personality motivates us and impacts how we are typically going to respond to any given situation.
How would a poor self-concept in your subordinate make it more challenging for you as a supervisor?
Do not believe they are capable or important.
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Supervisor must put forth extra effort
What is self efficacy?
Degree of control people FEEL they have in a given situation.
What is locus of control?
Relates to whether people feel the outcomes of their behavior are truly a result of their action.
Describe the role of values as a behavior influence.
We use values to pass judgement and make decisions.
We use values to assess the actions of others, develop positions on issues, and avoid certain tasks.
Values are the foundation of our behavior.
Define "team".
A group organized to work together.
Define "group dynamics".
On ongoing process involving interaction of individuals within a team to achieve the desired objective.
How are team goals developed?
Through a group process of team interaction and agreement in which each team is willing to work toward achieving these goals.
What must a team do to be effective, and how is the effectiveness measured?
Actively participate
Provide feedback
Partake in decision making process

Measure effectiveness by:
Observing leadership being shared
Conflict addressed
Resources maximized
Creativity encouraged
As a supervisor, what techniques would you use to get your subordinates to perceive themselves as team members.
*Communicate effectively

*Convey work goals as team goals

*Ensure team mbrs know roles & how they contribute to the mission
What are task elements?
Actions associated with accomplishing the team's specific task, solving a problem or accomplishing a goal.
List the 3 categories of non-task elements?
1. Personal identity in the team
2. RElationships among team mbrs
3. Identification within the organization
What effort is necessary in team building?
Team studies its own process of working together and act to create a climate that encourages and values the contributions of team members.
Name the most important responsibility of a leader and how it is accomplished.
Develop an exciting vision for the team to achieve.

Accomplished through the cooperation of the team members.
Team members must do what in order to accomplish desired results?
Build commitment, trust, and support for one another.
One important attribute is necessary for long-term goals. What is this attribute?
What conditions must be met for team building to be successful?
High level of interdependence among team members.

Commitment from team members working on important tasks.

Team work
List the stages of team development.
Which stage of team development is known as the exploration period, and what behaviors are associated with this stage?
Forming stage.

Being cautious
Exploring boundaries
Hidden agendas
No group identity
Forming cliques
Feeling a need to be liked
In which stage of team development is flexibility the key and hierarchy is of little importance?
Performing stage
What is the definition of conflict?
Disharmony brought about through differing behavior, aims, or methods.
During ____ conflict, individuals with differing points of view and personalities show mutual respect for each other's thoughts and feelings.
Positive conflict
During ___ conflict individuals often view others as adversaries.
Negative conflict
Explain how managerial behaviors can cause negative conflict in the organization.
When the leader is not properly using the influence s/he has over others.

Failure to make decisions or delegate at the appropriate times slows progress and creates an environment of disagreements and conflict.
Describe factors to consider before deciding on a conflict management technique.
Who (traits & position)
What is at stake
The situation
Explain how collaboration impacts organizational performance.
Attempts to satisfy both parties. It makes the best of both sides, resources, talents, and ideas.
Win-win situation.
What are the 5 steps in the 5-step approach to conflict management?
1. Take responsibility for dealing with conflict
2. Uncover, discuss and define the real problem
3. Ask questions & listen
4. Set goals and create action plan
5. Follow-up
How does the 5 Step approach help to positively manage conflict?
Requires the individuals to identify and define the root cause of the conflict.
Why is assertiveness effective in overcoming barriers to conflict?
Assertive people personify strong self-esteem.
Risk takers
How does cross-training contribute to reducing the potential for conflict in an organization?
Reduce potential for conflict by giving people a better understanding and appreciation for other positions and processes in the work center.
Describe how conflict management impacts organizational performance.
Improves efficiency and effectiveness by allowing workers to focus on their job.

Fosters an environment of open communication where creative thinking occurs.
Define organizational effectiveness.
Attaining or surpassing of objectives and tasks dealing with mission accomplishment.
Describe the following situational factor: Interpersonal
Personal relationships among supervisors & subordinates, supervisors & superiors, and supervisors & other supervisors.
Describe the following situational factor: Structure of the job or organization.
Fire departments may require more directive styles of leadership, whereas a technical job may require more delegating or empowering.
Describe the following situational factor: Time
The time an individual has to act. Emergency may require a more directive approach.
Describe the following situational factor: Outside influence
Social issues and movements that will affect attitudes of subordinates and supervisors alike.

Environmental conditions
Social unrest
Current world situation
Describe the following situational factor: Awareness of self
Leadership inclinations and tendencies. How you prefer to lead.
Describe directive behaviors.
Task-oriented behaviors
Explain the Situational Leadership concept of competence.
Degree of knowledge or skills possessed by the subordinate.

Explain the Situational Leadership concept of commitment.
Combination of confidence and motivation.
Explain the Situations Leadership development level D1.
Low competence
High commitment
Explain the Situational Leadership development level D2.
Some competence
Low commitment
Explain the Situational Leadership development level D3.
High competence
Variable commitment
Explain the Situational Leadership development level D4.
High competence
High commitment
____ style of leadership implies that the manager will exhibit more directive behavior; provide specific instructions, control task accomplishment, & make most of the decisions.
Directing style
____ style of leadership implies that the manager still decides what the game plan will be ad directs task accomplishment, but may consult with subordinates or ask for ideas.
Coaching style
___ implies an increase in supportive behavior and a decrease in directive behavior.
Supporting style
___ implies that the leader assigns responsibility to the subordinate and then backs off.
Delegating style
Describe situations in which the DIRECTING style is appropriate.
Emergency situation
Short timeline
Major organizational change
Describe situations in which the COACHING style is appropriate.
D2 Some C/LC
Describe situations in which the SUPPORTING style is appropriate.
EE has skills, but is a little insecure
Describe situations in which the DELEGATING style is appropriate.
D3'S HC/VC if the timelines are longer
How does the subordinate benefit when Situational Leadership is practiced?
Cultivates overall positive behavior
How does the organization benefit when the situational Leadership model is followed?
*Training & Development of EE is more organized

*Production is easier to manage

*NCO fulfillment of responsibilities is easier
Name the 2 objectives of performance management?
1. Provide feedback
2. Provide long term record of performance
Give an example of each objective of performance management.
Feedback - initial, mid-course, or follow-up feedback

Record - EPR
How does knowing yourself contribute to performance management?
Helps you deal with subordinates because you know how you are going to respond to likely situations in your work center.
In regards to knowing your people, why is it important to match personal interests with jobs?
Prevents boredom or complacency
Explain how supervisors can get to know their subordinates.
Asking about interests
Asking about past experiences
Asking about past employment
Needs & values
EE expectations
Explain the limitations of a job description.
Activity oriented rather than results

Subordinates may see the JD as defining the limits of their job, & refuse to do anything outside of the JD.
What elements should be addressed in order to write and effective performance standard?
Why should you monitor over a period of time long enough to determine your subordinates typical performance?
Typical behavior will give a more accurate picture to make decisions on.
How do common evaluations pitfalls impact your evaluations?
Closed mindedness
Logical errors
Result: unclear, inaccurate evaluation
How does preventative feedback help your subordinate?
Starts the relationship out right
Provides expectations/standards
Explain how properly conducting the feedback session strengthens organizational effectiveness.
Lets EE know if they are meeting, exceeding, or failing to meet standards.

Provides a plan to continue or modify behavior
When should you refer your subordinate to other people or other agencies for follow-up feedback?
If problem is too much for you to handle or you do know have the knowledge to assist the EE.
What is the difference between performance feedback and counseling?
Performance feedback
Main focus is how well the person is doing

Counseling feedback
Addresses job performance as well as items such as discipline issues, personal issues or career decisions.
Explain why the nondirective counseling approach is often the preferred method of counseling.
It puts the responsibility for a solution on the shoulders of the subordinate.
How does effective counseling strengthen organizational effectiveness?
Provides guidance and direction for the EE resulting in them becoming more well-rounded & fully developed member of the AF.
Explain how you can improve your subordinate when developing an improvement plan.
Building on their strengths
How does job rotation contribute to the development of the improvement plan?
Prevents complacency and boredom.
What are some things to consider as a supervisor to improve the situation while developing an improvement plan?
Don't over or under supervise
Maintain good situational awareness
What are the 4 levels of change?
Give an example of the following level of change: Knowledge
Reading a publication, manual or AFI
Give an example of the following level of change: Attitudinal
Adoption of a positive feeling for the task at hand
Give an example of the following level of change: Behavioral
Observable change in behavior
Give an example of the following level of change: Group/organizational
Alteration of long-standing and deeply engrained customs & traditions
Explain why organizational change is a challenge for a manager/supervisor
"but we've always done it this way" syndrome.
What are the 2 change cycles?
The ___ change cycle is "from the top down"
The ___ change cycle is "from the bottom up"
Provide and example of when you would implement each of the change cycles.
Military in most cases would use this
Work center with achievement-oriented individuals
What are some advantages/disadvantages of each of the change cycles?
Wrong change cycle can demotivate
Identify each of the 3 roles in the change process.
1. Change sponsor
2. Change agent
3. Change target
What is the responsibility of the Change Sponsor?
Individual responsible for initiating the change and supervising it through each of the 3 processes.
What is the responsibility of the Change Agent?
Responsible for implementing change within a specific group.
What is the responsibility of the Change Target?
Individual undergoing change
What are the 4 organizational norms?
1. Technology
2. Task
3. Structure
4. People
What does the technology norm comprise of?
Test equipment
Weapons systems
What does the task norm comprise of?
General procedures
Job steps
What does the structure norm comprise of?
Administrative procedures
Evaluation systems
What does the people norm comprise of?
Technical or leadership training
New jobs
What role might the core values play in effecting change?
"Service Before Self" encourages faith in the system

"Integrity First" encourages responsibility and loyalty

"Excellence in all that We Do" encourages a quality effort
What are the 3 stages of the change process?
Describe the following stage of the change process: Unfreezing
Creating a need for the change
Describe the following stage of the change process: Changing
Moving the 4 organizational norms from the old state to the new
Describe the following stage of the change process: Refreezing
Locking-in the expected outcomes
Explain the responsibility and NCO has to each subordinate during the change process.
Create positive atmosphere
Anticipate and deal with resistance
What are the 6 groups of personalities in an organization?
Early adopters
Early majority
Late majority
Late adopters
What are the 6 steps of the Problem Solving Process?
Step 1 - Recognize problem
Step 2 - Gather data
Step 3 - List possible solutions
Step 4 - Test possible solutions
Step 5 - Select best solution
Step 6 - Implement and follow-up
In Step 1 of the 6-step problem solving process, how does recognizing the problem contribute to work center effectiveness?
Breaks down the elements of the goal/obstacle & identifies the problem
Why is it important to gather data at the right point during the six-step problem solving process?
Facts are known truths used to make sound decisions.
In step 3 of the problem solving process, which 2 techniques are used to generate a list of possible solutions?
Creative thinking
How do you know if a possible solution is feasible?
If resources such as authority, time, money & material are available.
What should you do if you have more than one feasible and acceptable solution to choose from after performing step 4?
Get input from others to help choose
Consider combining ideas if feasible
Describe the impact that not following-up on the implementation of solutions to the problem (step 6) would have on the work center.
Can never determine if the solution in Step 5 actually worked.

Learn from mistakes
Explain how your use of the 6 Step approach to problem solving can impact you as a supervisor.
Better able to resolve problems with your subordinates.

Credibility reinforced

Open lines of communication
According to Hersey, Blanchard & Johnson what 3 skills are required for leading?
What 2 key aspects should you focus on when you are diagnosing an organizations?
Status of the people
Status of the environment
What 4 categories are used by the US Marine Corps to gain a complete picture of the status of its people?
Esprit de corps
As a leader, what 2 areas must you look at when assessing the "organizational environment"?
human, financial, physical & informational)

(Est direction & priorities, creating policy, making decisions, & providing info)
What type of leader exhibits a high task, low relationship style?
What type of leader exhibits a high task, high relationship style?
Team Leader
What type of leader exhibits a low task, low relationship style?
Impoverished Leader
What type of leader exhibits a low task, high relationship style?
The Country Club
What are the 2 categories of leadership power?
Name the 4 types of position power.
Describe Coercive power.
Founded in your authority to use sanctions in response to poor performance.
Describe Connection power.
Based on your association with influential people and organizations.
Describe Reward power.
Ability to provide things people like.
Describe Legitimate power.
Based on the perception that you should make certain decisions based on your title, role or position.
What AFI states that NCOs are delegated authority necessary to exercise leadership commensurate with their rank and responsibility?
AFI 36-2618
The Enlisted Force Structure
Name the 3 types of Personal power.
1. Referent
2. Information
3. Expert
Describe Referent power.
Determined by how followers feel about interacting with you.
Interpersonal skills
Describe Informational power.
Access to, or possession of useful information and your ability to provide at the time it's needed.
Describe Expert power.
Based on education and experience
What are 3 key attributes of a role model?
1. Integrity
2. Commitment
3. Mentoring
What term is used to describe a supportive relationship, where a senior member of an organization counsels, coaches, teaches, and provides feedback to a junior member.

What is the term used for the subordinate in this relationship?
Technical proficiency, as a leadership tenet, is most closely related to which AF Core Value?
Excellence in all that we do
When should you understand the capabilities and limitations of your organization?
When developing objectives
When creating priorities
When assigning tasks
Into what 2 categories is planning usually divided?
Which planning category will most commonly be used by NCOs on a daily basis?
Operational planning
What are the 5 steps in the planning process?
1. Analyze the mission
2. Establish goals
3. Identify alternatives
4. Select the best alternative
5. Implement plan
As an AF supervisor, you will manage budgets at different organizational levels and with varying degrees of control. Identify and describe the 2 areas mentioned in the text.
Responsibility Center

Cost Center
Describe the purpose of the Unit Personnel Management Roster (UPMR).
Lists the people assigned, projected losses and gains, & should accurately reflect the UMD (Unit Manning Document).
What does the UMD (Unit Manning Document) tell you?
The number of people authorized, the AFSCs, position numbers, & total number assigned to your work center.
What are the primary professional development programs for enlisted people?
PME (Professional Military Education) courses
Define organizing as it pertains to the functions of management.
Process of dividing work into manageable sections and coordinating the results to serve a purpose.
What 3 approaches to job design are discussed in the text?
Job rotation
Job enlargement
Job enrichment
Describe job rotation.
Practice of periodically shifting workers through a set of jobs in a planned sequence.
Describe job enrichment.
Process of upgrading the job-task mix in order to increase the potential for growth, achievement, responsibility, and recognition.
Describe job enlargement.
Allocation of a wider variety of similar tasks to a job in order to make it more challenging.
What is the main purpose of the controlling function?
Organizational activities are regulated so that the elements of performance remain within acceptable limits.
What are the 4 steps in the controlling process?
Establish standards of performance
Measure actual performance
Compare performance standards
Evaluate performance & take action
How does the text describe the leading function?
Harnessing our personal and professional traits to influence others to accomplish the mission.
What is effective planning?
Requires a vision and the ability to communicate that vision to others.
How would you describe effective organizing?
Understanding of the organizational structure

Ability to convince people that cross utilization is best for them and the AF
What does effective controlling require?
Understanding of performance standards

Ability to see what kind of controlling mechanisms are best

Balance between over/under control
Define personal discrimination.
Action(s) taken by an individual to deprive a person/group of a right because of color, national origin, race, religion, or sex.
Personal discrimination can occur how?
Define systemic discrimination.
Action(s) by an institution (or system) that, through its policies or procedures, deprive a person or group of a right.
Explain the ways sexual harassment occurs and give and example of each.
Verbal - sexual compliments
Non-verbal - leering, photos
Physical - touching, hugging
Explain how alcohol is a significant contributor to human relations incidents.
Alcohol serves as a catalyst for conflict.

Inhibitions are lowered
Describe how morale is impacted by human relations incidents.
Discriminatory acts cause people to feel frustrated, helpless, and unaccepted.
Give an example of how human relations issues impact productivity.
When rights/opportunities are denied performance slips.

Substandard work

Frustration, anger, & embarrassment
Explain how human relations issues negatively impact quality of life.
Impact on individuals abiltiy to positively interact with the rest of the team.

Climate of hate, fear, and disrespect degrades life inside and outside the work center.
What is the supervisors role in preventing human relations issues?
Must establish, communicate & enforce human relations policies

Lead by example

Foster environment of open & honest communication
Explain the supervisors role in using corrective measures when dealing with human relations issues.
Must be prepared to take action and stop unacceptable behavior.

Must not ignore the acts and be prepared to give detailed factual reports to commanders and others in the chain-of-command.
Why is it important for you as a leader to effectively manage diversity in the military?
Allow individuals to reach their fullest potential while in pursuit of mission objectives.
Define diversity.
A composite of racial, gender, ethnic, national origin, cultural, attitudinal, socio-economic, & personal differences.
What are the 4 steps in managing diversity?
1. Learn to understand and respect individual differences

2. Promote assertiveness in your subordinates regarding their feelings

3. learn how others want you to treat them

4. Act as a force for acceptance of diversity
What are the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity?
Primary - Genetic characteristics
Physical abilities

Marital/parental status
Religious beliefs
Work experience
What barriers hinder acceptance of diversity?
Personal bias
Discrimination & collusion
How can diversity be managed?
Encouraging open and honest communication
What can we do to embrace diversity?
Embrace diversity by being open minded, listen to others, ask questions to gain understanding.
What are some negative effects of poor diversity management?
Decreased productivity
Faulty communication
Acts of favoritism
Dissatisfied workers
What positive effects occur when diversity is managed effectively?
Reduced conflict
Better team work
Enhanced work relationships
Increased productivity
Higher Level of creativity and
How does embracing diversity impact the work center?
Gives exposure to new insight and ways to do things.
Explain how family care plans can impact mission accomplishment.
Ensures the family is cared for in the military members absence. Contributes to reducing stress
Describe the benefits of using a power of attorney as part of your family care plan.
It allows someone to carryout various administrative functions in the absence of the member.

Reduces stress & anxiety
As a supervisor, how does knowing the functions of the on and off base support agencies contribute to the family care plan?
You are better able to provide guidance to your subordinates.
What is the AF policy regarding financial responsibility?
AF members are responsible for paying their debts in a proper & timely manner.
As an AF member, how does your proper use of a budget impact mission accomplishments?
Controlling your finances with a budget will reduce stress and helps you stay focused on your job.
In regards to financial responsibility, describe how fulfilling your supervisory role impacts mission accomplishment.
Ensure subordinates are trained and aware of responsibilities.

Reduce chances of subordinates having financial problems.

Reduce the stress and counter-productive effects caused by financial problems.
What are the major risk factors associated with suicide?
Poor coping skills
Legal problems
Substance abuse
Financial problems
Job problems
Relationship problems
Social isolation
Previous attempts
List the significant warning signs of suicide.
Threats or statements
Previous attempts
Personality/behavioral changes
Giving away personal belongings
Deterioration in work performance
Sudden attempt to put affairs in
Explain the process used to assist someone who is considering suicide.
Be actively concerned
Listen carefully
Be positive
Get the person to referral agency
Do not leave the person alone
Explain the impact voting has on effective leadership.
Providing a positive example
Self-education of the issues which
lends credibility to you as a leader
Explain the impact communicating with public officials has on mission accomplishment.
Lets them know your feeling and concerns on issues.

Highlights things that are important to you as an individual and as a member of the military.

Educates officials about the environment and issues surrounding the military.
Explain the role of Public Affairs.
Liaison between media and the base.
Describe the benefits of a positive encounter with the media.
Prepares you for assignments of
increasing responsibility
High unit morale
Better public understanding and
What is the objective of the AF environmental program?
Responsibly manage the irreplaceable natural and cultural resources it holds in public trust.
How does successful implementation of the AF environmental program impact mission accomplishment?
Leads to better use of resources
Maintain safer, cleaner work
American people we serve will have
better perception of its military
How are the concepts of communication preparation universal?
Basic philosophy and guidance for effective writing and speaking are the same.

Getting started
Subject research
Support selection
What is effective communication?
Results in the receiver interpreting your message as you intended.
For what 3 reasons do we generally try to communicate with each other?
Direct audience
Influence audience
Inform audience
Explain the 2 audience concept as it applies to communication.
Sending and receiving audience.

Sending audience is the group we represent

Receiving audience is the group to whom we are communicating
Name 4 resources for researching your subject.
Reference books
List 5 categories of reference tools.
Name the five types of support.
Describe Definitions.
Explain or clarify unfamiliar items
Describe Examples
Provide illustration of what we are trying to communicate.
Describe Comparisons
Provide reference to a similar and usually better known item.
Describe Testimony
Expressed the item through the words/thoughts of others
Describe Statistics
Show relationships and/or summarize collections of facts or data.
In what manner did Socrates describe a speech?
Analogized the parts of a speech to the body of an animal having a head (introduction), body, and tail (conclusion)
Name 5 different patterns used with organizing a presentation.
Time or chronological
Spatial or geographical
Describe mind-mapping.
Brainstorming activity in which you allow your unorganized thoughts to flow onto paper, connecting like items as you progress.
What outlining formats are mentioned in this lesson?
Talking paper
What do the terms "faulty analogy", "asserted conclusion", "loaded question", and "non sequitur" have in common?
Examples of flaws, or fallacies in logic.
How are transitional devices valuable tools when arranging the elements of your message?
When woven skillfully into your message, can assist your audience in following your train of thought.
What are the accepted standards for the format of the printed presentation?
1. Double space
2. Main points supported
3. 12 point, Times New Roman
1" margins
Align text to left margin
4. If handwritten, legible
8.5" by 11" college ruled
Remove frayed edges
Distinguish capital letters
What are the 3 areas to focus on when writing a paper?
Technical accuracy & coverage
Arrangement & flow
Readability & mechanics
Why is the "extemporaneous" approach to speaking appealing?
Least hostile and most intimate form of communicating with an audience.

Speak "off-the-cuff"
What are the 3 areas to focus on when preparing a speech?
Technical accuracy & coverage
Arrangement & flow
Presentation & delivery
What 3 components are evaluated in the introduction of a written or spoken presentation?
What section is used to evaluate punctuation, grammar, and spelling?
Readability and mechanics
In which part of a speech or written presentation would you evaluate the use and integration of transitions?
What are 3 responsibilities of commanders and supervisors when it comes to organizational communication?
Keep communication channels open
Maintain an environment conducive to
Communicate effectively
In what way can organization personnel verify whether they are engaging critically and constructively in the exchange of ideas?
Completing short, self-diagnostic exercise that reveals personal but applicable barriers to communicating.
Name 4 barriers that can hinder effective communication.
Describe organizational barriers.
Personnel not understanding their responsibilities and the lines of authority within a given organizational structure.
Describe language barriers.
Result from our in ability to use the proper words to communicate with our receiver.
Describe managerial barriers.
Stem from managers not listening and not taking an understanding attitude toward information and suggestions that reach them.
Describe psychological barriers.
Result from psychological needs not being met.
Feeling of security
Opportunity for advancement
Desire to be teated fairly
Useful work
What are the 2 steps in overcoming communication barriers?
1. Establish an organizational policy that defines lines of responsibility and authority, establishes communication channels, provides a climate for effective communication, and keeps key people informed.

2. Increase skills in written and oral presentation.
How do communications flow within an organization?
Often, what is the result of communications having to pass through many organizational levels?
Causes delay
Creates chance of distortion
The misuse of abstractions and a lack of common core experience are main contributors to which communications barrier?
Language barriers.
What is the difference between a concrete and an abstract noun?
Concrete - objects that humans can directly experience. Usually convey the same meaning to everybody.

Abstract - tends to be vague and open to interpretation.
What is a clique? Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of a clique within and organization.
Social instinct to band together in groups.

Advantage - binds people together
Disadvantage - Can become
independent of organization
What are the 4 steps in the process of writing?
What 5 steps are involved in the prewriting phase?
Selecting purpose/objective
Analyzing your audience
Researching subject
Selecting pattern
When writing your draft, what areas should you focus on?
During the editing phase, what specifically are you looking for?
Basic grammatical errors
Correct format
Complete para/sentences
Compare to outline
Describe the revising phase.
Finishing step to improve the communication based on the editing phase and the feedback from reviewers.

Revise or rewrite to make it into a more formal presentation.
What is sentence Unity?
All the parts of the sentence matching in number, verb, possession, etc.
Define the 4 types of sentences you should use throughout your written communication.
Simple - expresses one complete thought

Compound - union of 2 simple sentences

Complex - simple sentence with a dependent clause attached to it

Compound/complex - combination of a compound & complex
Name the standard sentence mechanics your should be aware of when writing.
Describe each of the common obstacles to sentence coherence.
Faulty order of sentence parts & misplaced modifiers

Faulty parallelisms - simple ideas or parts are not expressed in a parallel way

Faulty relationship of ideas - reader cannot tell the relationship of sentence parts due to dangling modifiers or omissions.
What are 3 basic components of a paragraph?
Topic sentence
Support sentence
Closing sentence
What is the basic concept of paragraph coherence?
All of the paragraph parts should be arranged so that their relationship is clear to the reader.
What are some examples of transitional devices you can use to show a contrasting relationship?
Considering the point of view for your communication, describe how writing in the second person is done.
Second person is the person spoken to; using the second person allows the writer to maintain some personal relationship with the reader.
Describe the 3 common forms of tense you will use in your communication.
1. Past
2. Present
3. Future
What does the voice of your writing indicate?
Shows if the subject acts or is acted upon.
How do you use number to maintain paragraph coherence?
If the controlling idea is singular, you keep all the references to it singular.
What is the basic idea behind writing a draft?
To get your ideas down on paper in some form so you can edit and revise.
Each time your work is edited, what should the editor be reading for?
Arrangement & flow
What is the definition of a bullet statement?
A concise, written statement of a single idea or a single accomplishment and the impact?
What form of communication does the construction of a bullet statement resemble?
Name the types of bullet statements.
Single idea
Single accomplishment
Explain the following formula:
Single accomplishment bullet = specific/accurate/concise single accomplishment/achievement, and impact
What are the attributes of an effective bullet statement?
What are the 3 most common uses for bullet statements in the AF?
Award/decoration nomination
Talking paper
There are 3 types of accomplishment bullets are there, name them.
Action verb bullet
Modified verb bullet
Specific achievement bullet
What is a SIB?
Single idea bullet
Where would you most likely use a SIB?
Talking paper
Point paper
Bullet background paper
Where would you most likely use a SAB?
Award/decoration nomination package
When starting a presentation, what are some attention-getting devices you might consider?
Rhetorical questions
Direct questions
Startling statement
Unusual or dramatic devices
References to the importance of the
What is a rhetorical question
One requiring no answer
What is the purpose of the overview step in the process of speaking?
Provides the audience with a road map of the information to follow.
What should be accomplished during the summary?
Restate the main points, the relationship between points, & the specific objective of the presentation.
What devices are used to ensure the continuity of thought?
Interim summaries
What are the phases of the speaking process?
Name the 3 types of physical behaviors.
Eye contact
Body movement
According to Dr. Kline, what are the properties of voice?
Upon what factors does the intelligibility of a presentation depend?
Vocal pauses
Overuse of stock expressions
Substandard grammar
What fundamentals of speech add variety to a presentation?