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45 Cards in this Set

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how can health care workers assess a patients level of pain?
observing the patiens reaction to pain through vitals signs, positions and emotional responses by the patient
define endorphins?
endogenous analgesics producted within the brain as a reaction to sever pain or intense exercise. the endorphins block the transmission of pain
what are the three classificaions of analgesics?
opioid nonopioid and adjuvant
list the side effects of opioids?
sedation, confusion, euphoria, restlessness, hypotension and bradycardia. the respitory rate may be depressed, urinary retention may occure, along with blurred vision, and seizures with large doses.
what does the lay public need to be aware of when considering nonopioid analgesics?
aware of dangers of sef-medication, over dosage, side effects and interactions by inappropriate use of thes readily availabe drugs.
list five disorders anti-inflammaroties are commonly prescribed?
arthritis, bursitis, gout, muscle strains and sprains that cause swelling limiting an individuals mobility
explain the funcion of cox-2 inhibitor?
newer nonsteroidal anti-inflammaorty drugs that selevctively inhibit cycloosygenase-2, prostaglindin sythesis, they do not inhibit platelet aggression
barbiturates are commonly associated with what situation and why?
fatalitie due to accidental overdoses, expecially when combined with another CNS depressants or alchohol. they are particularly dangerous because they are metabolized and excreted slowly and remain in the system longer
list the side effects of nonbarbiturates?
nausea vomitin gdiahhrea, rash, dizziness, and ataxia. it is containdicted for patients with known severe liver and renal impairment and porphyria.
how do phychotropic medications work?
exert a therapeutic effecxt on an indivuals mental process, emotions or behavior
why are CNS stimulants given?
promoting central nervous system functioning
antidepressents work in conjunction with which neurostansmitters
dopamine, serotinins and norepinephrine
what is the function of an antideppresant
enables neurotransmittes to travel across the synapse to transmit the message
both remeron and sersone are used for the treament of what disorders?
calming antidepressants that are useful in treating agitaed depression, mixed antiety and depressions or fibromyalgia.
what is the antidepressant actions of the MAOIs?
increase the concentraion of sertonin, norepinephrineand dopamine in the neuronal syanpse by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase enzyme
what are the signs of lithium toxicity?
drowsiness, confusion, blurred vision, and phophobia. with toxicity some of the side effects signs worsen, sucha as tremors, muscle weakness, seizures may develop, or the cardiovascular system may collapse resulting in coma or death.
describe the final progressive stage of alcoholism?
the alcoholic deteriorates in all facets of thier life incluiding loss of family, a collapse of thier staus as a result of occupational failure and financial disrepair, physical truama, and irrationals fears
what are the actions of psychomotor stimulants?
produce wadefulness, increased activiey and decreased appetite
how long does marijuana last in the body system?
4-6 weeks
what are some of the factors considered when antiarrhythmics are chosen?
the type of arrhythrmia, the frequency, cardiac and renal condition, and the current signs and symptoms the patients is showing
how do b-adrenergic blockers work?
by inhibiting adrenergic nerve receptors
the use of local anesthetics for antiarrhythmic therapy is contraindicted for what type of patients?
patients who are hypersensitive to local anesthetics, which have respiratory depression or known heart block, children and for women who are pregnant and lactating
what are the initial Tx used for mild hypertension?
the initial Tx includes life style changes that range from diet modification, weight reduction, mild exercise program, smoking cessation, and stress reduction planning.
what drug is used to Tx hypertensive patients with neuropathy and why?
ACE inhibitors can be used alone or combined with a diuretic. ACE inhibitors slow the progression of renal disease.
explain the action of coumarin derivatives?
Coumarin derivatives alter the synthesis of blood coagulation factors in the liver by interfering with vitamin K.
explain the guidelines for giving thrombolytic agents?
admin of thrombolytic agent is administered in the emergency room, or intensive care unit in the first few hours after the onset of acute myocardial infarction or cerbral vascular accident.
choice of antacid used will be dependant on what factors?
palatability, adverse effects acid neutralizing capacity, the sodium content and the patients renal and cardiovascular function
what is the primary use of antidiarrheal agents?
reduce the number of loose stools an individual is having
what should the patient education include when taking absorbents and protectants?
avoid self medication for longer than 48hrs
what are the contraindications for taking lomotil and imodium?
diarrhea induced by infection or poisoning, patients with colitis associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, ulcerative colitis, and cirrhosis. it is contraindicated to medicate young children and pregnant patients with these drugs
Lactinex is used for the Tx of what conditions?
simple diarrhea caused by antibiotics, infection, irritable colon, colostomy or ambebiasis.
what is the Tx of choice for simple constipation and are available in what form?
cellulose derivatives and bran, powders, flakes, granules, tablets or liquids
which form of cathartic is the primary choice for pregnant women and children?
stool softener, docusate.
stimulation laxatives are used for what situations?
used when rapid, thorough empyting of the bowel is required. when a patient is scheduled for a simoidocopy, gi x-rays when barium is used for proctoscopies, the use of stimulant laxatives is commonly given as pre-procedure medication dosaging
emetics should not be used under what condition?
1-ingestion of corrosive substance 2-ingestion of volatile petroleum products 3- ingestion of convulsants 4-when an individualis semiconscious 5- is patient is less than 1 year of age
antimetics are used to what conditions?
to treat or prevent nausea, vomiting, or motion sickness
how do the adrenal glands functions?
secrete hormones called corticosteroids that act on the immune system to suppress the bodys response to either infection or truama
Explain hypthyroidism, and the signs and symptoms?
underutilization of the thyroid, fatigue, dry skin, weight gain, sensitivity to cold, irregular menses and mental deteioration if untreated
why is insulin administered parenterally?
administered parenterally because it is destroyed through GI tract
explain peak, onset, and duration of medication concentration?
the onset is the amount of time between the time a drug is administered and the first sign of its effects. the peak is the gighest concentration attained from a dose. the duration is the time period from the onset of the drug action to the time when response is no longer seen
list the signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, and when do these signs usually occur?
develops sudenly and is usually seen during the peak of the insulin action. these symptoms may include increased perspiration, irritablity, confusion or bizarre behavior. individuals may experience tremors, weakness, headache or tingling of the fingers. in severe cases the individual may lose consciousness and convulsions if untreated
list the contraindications of sulfonylureas?
patients with known liver and kidney impairment, debilitated or malnourished patients, and patients with severe infection.
explain the action of glucophage?
works by decreasing hepatic glucose output and enhancing insulin sensitivity in muscle
What is the first step in antiinfective drug therapy?
determine the causative organism and the specific medication to which it is sensitive
list the four classifications of cephalosporins and what they treat.
first gen- is usually effective against gram-positive, such as those that cause some pneuminas or urinary tract infections, sec gen- are usually effective against gram-positive like bacterial influenza