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138 Cards in this Set

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ABSOLUTE ALTITUDE
The actual distance an object is above the ground
ADVANCING BLADE
The blade moving in the same direction as the helicopter or gyroplane In rotorcraft that have counterclockwise main rotor blade rotation as viewed from above the advancing blade is in the right half of the rotor disc area during forward movement
AIRFOIL
Any surface designed to obtain a useful reaction of lift or negative lift as it moves through the air
AGONIC LINE
Aline along which there is no magnetic variation
AIR DENSITY
The density of the air in terms of mass per unit volume Dense air has more molecules per unit volume than less dense air The density of air decreases with altitude above the surface of the earth and with increasing temperature
AIRCRAFT PITCH
When referenced to an aircraft it is the movement about its lateral or pitch axis Movement of the cyclic forward or aft causes the nose of the helicopter or gyroplane to pitch up or down
AIRCRAFT ROLL
Is the movement of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis Movement of the cyclic right or left causes the helicopter or gyroplane to tilt in that direction
AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVE
When an unsafe condition exists with an aircraft the FAA issues an airworthiness directive to notify concerned parties of the condition and to describe the appropriate corrective action
ALTIMETER
An instrument that indicates flight altitude by sensing pressure changes and displaying altitude in feet or meters
ANGLE OF ATTACK
The angle between the airfoil’s chord line and the relative wind
ANTITORQUE PEDAL
The pedal used to control the pitch of the tail rotor or air diffuser in a NOTAR system
ARTICULATED ROTOR
A rotor system in which each of the blades is connected to the rotor hub in such a way that it is free to change its pitch angle and move up and down and fore and aft in its plane of rotation
AUTOPILOT
Those units and components that furnish a means of automatically controlling the aircraft
AUTOROTATION
The condition of flight during which the main rotor is driven only by aerodynamic forces with no power from the engine
AXIS-OF-ROTATION
The imaginary line about which the rotor rotates It is represented by a line drawn through the center of and perpendicular to the tip-path plane
BASIC EMPTY WEIGHT
The weight of the standard rotorcraft operational equipment unusable fuel and full operating fluids including full engine oil
BLADE CONING
An upward sweep of rotor blades as a result of lift and centrifugal force
BLADE DAMPER
A device attached to the drag hinge to restrain the fore and aft movement of the rotor blade
BLADE FEATHER OR FEATHERING
The rotation of the blade around the spanwise (pitch change) axis
BLADE FLAP
The ability of the rotor blade to move in a vertical direction Blades may flap independently or in unison
BLADE GRIP
The part of the hub assembly to which the rotor blades are attached sometimes referred to as blade forks
BLADE LEAD OR LAG
The fore and aft movement of the blade in the plane of rotation It is sometimes called hunting or dragging
BLADE LOADING
The load imposed on rotor blades determined by dividing the total weight of the helicopter by the combined area of all the rotor blades
BLADE ROOT
The part of the blade that attaches to the blade grip
BLADE SPAN
The length of a blade from its tip to its root
BLADE STALL
The condition of the rotor blade when it is operating at an angle of attack greater than the maximum angle of lift
BLADE TIP
The further most part of the blade from the hub of the rotor
BLADE TRACK
The relationship of the blade tips in the plane of rotation Blades that are in track will move through the same plane of rotation
BLADE TRACKING
The mechanical procedure used to bring the blades of the rotor into a satisfactory relationship with each other under dynamic conditions so that all blades rotate on a common plane
BLADE TWIST
The variation in the angle of incidence of a blade between the root and the tip
BLOWBACK
The tendency of the rotor disc to tilt aft in forward flight as a result of flapping
CALIBRATED AIRSPEED (CAS)
Indicated airspeed of an aircraft corrected for installation and instrumentation errors
CENTER OF GRAVITY
The theoretical point where the entire weight of the helicopter is considered to be concentrated
CENTER OF PRESSURE
The point where the resultant of all the aerodynamic forces acting on an airfoil intersects the chord
CENTRIFUGAL FORCE
The apparent force that an object moving along a circular path exerts on the body constraining the object and that acts outwardly away from the center of rotation
CENTRIPETAL FORCE
The force that attracts a body toward its axis of rotation It is opposite centrifugal force
CHIP DETECTOR
A warning device that alerts you to any abnormal wear in a transmission or engine It consists of a magnetic plug located within the transmission The magnet attracts any metal particles that have come loose from the bearings or other transmission parts Most chip detectors have warning lights located on the instrument panel that illuminate when metal particles are picked up
CHORD
An imaginary straight line between the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil section
CHORDWISE AXIS
A term used in reference to semirigid rotors describing the flapping or teetering axis of the rotor
COAXIL ROTOR
A rotor system utilizing two rotors turning in opposite directions on the same centerline This system is used to eliminated the need for a tail rotor
COLLECTIVE PITCH CONTROL
The control for changing the pitch of all the rotor blades in the main rotor system equally and simultaneously and consequently the amount of lift or thrust being generated
CORIOLIS EFFECT
The tendency of a rotor blade to increase or decrease its velocity in its plane of rotation when the center of mass moves closer or further from the axis of rotation
CYCLIC FEATHERING
The mechanical change of the angle of incidence or pitch of individual rotor blades independently of other blades in the system
CYCLIC PITCH CONTROL
The control for changing the pitch of each rotor blade individually as it rotates through one cycle to govern the tilt of the rotor disc and consequently the direction and velocity of horizontal movement
DELTA HINGE
A flapping hinge with a skewed axis so that the flapping motion introduces a component of feathering that would result in a restoring force in the flap-wise direction
DENSITY ALTITUDE
Pressure altitude corrected for nonstandard temperature variations
DEVIATION
A compass error caused by magnetic disturbances from the electrical and metal components in the aircraft The correction for this error is displayed on a compass correction card place near the magnetic compass of the aircraft
DIRECT CONTROL
The ability to maneuver a rotorcraft by tilting the rotor disc and changing the pitch of the rotor blades
DIRECT SHAFT TURBINE
A shaft turbine engine in which the compressor and power section are mounted on a common driveshaft
DISC AREA
The area swept by the blades of the rotor It is a circle with its center at the hub and has a radius of one blade length
DISC LOADING
The total helicopter weight divided by the rotor disc area
DISSYMMETRY OF LIFT
The unequal lift across the rotor disc resulting from the difference in the velocity of air over the advancing blade half and retreating blade half of the rotor disc area
DRAG
An aerodynamic force on a body acting parallel and opposite to relative wind
DUAL ROTOR
A rotor system utilizing two main rotors
DYNAMIC ROLLOVER
The tendency of a helicopter to continue rolling when the critical angle is exceeded if one gear is on the ground and the helicopter is pivoting around that point
FEATHERING
The action that changes the pitch angle of the rotor blades by rotating them around their feathering (spanwise) axis
feathering (spanwise) axis
FEATHERING AXIS
The axis about which the pitch angle of a rotor blade is varied Sometimes referred to as the spanwise axis
FEEDBACK
The transmittal of forces which are initiated by aerodynamic action on rotor blades to the cockpit controls
FLAPPING HINGE
The hinge that permits the rotor blade to flap and thus balance the lift generated by the advancing and retreating blades
FLAPPING
The vertical movement of a blade about a flapping hinge
FLARE
A maneuver accomplished prior to landing to slow down a rotorcraft
FREE TURBINE
A turboshaft engine with no physical connection between the compressor and power output shaft
FREEWHEELING UNIT
A component of the transmission or power train that automatically disconnects the main rotor from the engine when the engine stops or slows below the equivalent rotor rpm
GROSS WEIGHT
The sum of the basic empty weight and useful load
GROUND EFFECT
A usually beneficial influence on rotorcraft performance that occurs while flying close to the ground It results from a reduction in upwash downwash and bladetip vortices which provide a corresponding decrease in induced drag
GROUND RESONANCE
Self excited vibration occurring whenever the frequency of oscillation of the blades about the lead-lag axis of an articulated rotor becomes the same as the natural frequency of the fuselage
GYROCOPTER
Trademark applied to gyroplanes designed and produced by the Bensen Aircraft Company
GYROSCOPIC PRECESSION
An inherent quality of rotating bodies which causes an applied force to be manifested 90° in the direction of rotation from the point where the force is applied
HUMAN FACTORS
The study of how people interact with their environment In the case of general aviation it is the study of how pilot performance is influenced by such issues as the design of cockpits the function of the organs of the body the effects of emotions and the interaction and communication with other participants in the aviation community such as other crew members and air traffic control personnel
HUNTING
Movement of a blade with respect to the other blades in the plane of rotation sometimes called leading or lagging
INERTIA
The property of matter by which it will remain at rest or in a state of uniform motion in the same direction unless acted upon by some external force
IN GROUND EFFECT (IGE) HOVER
Hovering close to the surface (usually less than one rotor diameter distance above the surface) under the influence of ground effect
INDUCED DRAG
That part of the total drag that is created by the production of lift
INDUCED FLOW
The component of air flowing vertically through the rotor system resulting from the production of lift
ISOGONIC LINES
Lines on charts that connect points of equal magnetic variation
KNOT
A unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour
L/DMAX
The maximum ratio between total lift (L) and total drag (D) This point provides the best glide speed Any deviation from the best glide speed increases drag and reduces the distance you can glide
LATERIAL VIBRATION
A vibration in which the movement is in a lateral direction such as imbalance of the main rotor
LEAD AND LAG
The fore (lead) and aft (lag) movement of the rotor blade in the plane of rotation
LICENSED EMPTY WEIGHT
Basic empty weight not including full engine oil just undrainable oil
LIFT
One of the four main forces acting on a rotorcraft It acts perpendicular to the relative wind
LOAD FACTOR
The ratio of a specified load to the total weight of the aircraft
MARRIED NEEDLES
A term used when two hands of an instrument are superimposed over each other as on the engine/rotor tachometer
MAST
The component that supports the main rotor
MAST BUMPING
Action of the rotor head striking the mast occurring on underslung rotors only
NAVIGATIONAL AID (NAVAID)
Any visual or electronic device airborne or on the surface that provides point-to-point guidance information or position data to aircraft in flight
NIGHT
The time between the end of evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight as published in the American Air Almanac
NORMALLY ASPIRATED ENGINE
An engine that does not compensate for decreases in atmospheric pressure through turbocharging or other means
ONE-TO-ONE VIBRATION
A low frequency vibration having one beat per revolution of the rotor This vibration can be either lateral vertical or horizontal
OUT OF GROUND EFFECT (OGE) HOVER
Hovering greater than one diameter distance above the surface Because induced drag is greater while hovering out of ground effect it takes more power to achieve a hover out of ground effect
PARASITE DRAG
The part of total drag created by the form or shape of helicopter parts
PAYLOAD
The term used for passengers baggage and cargo
PENDULAR ACTION
The lateral or longitudinal oscillation of the fuselage due to it being suspended from the rotor system
PITCH ANGLE
The angle between the chord line of the rotor blade and the reference plane of the main rotor hub or the rotor plane of rotation
PREROTATION
In a gyroplane it is the spinning of the rotor to a sufficient rpm prior to flight
PRESSURE ALTITUDE
The height above the standard pressure level of 29.92 in Hg It is obtained by setting 29.92 in the barometric pressure window and reading the altimeter
PROFILE DRAG
Drag incurred from frictional or parasitic resistance of the blades passing through the air It does not change significantly with the angle of attack of the airfoil section but it increases moderately as airspeed increases
RESULTANT RELATIVE WIND
Airflow from rotation that is modified by induced flow
RETREATING BLADE
Any blade located in a semicircular part of the rotor disc where the blade direction is opposite to the direction of flight
RETREATING BLADE STALL
A stall that begins at or near the tip of a blade in a helicopter because of the high angles of attack required to compensate for dissymmetry of lift In a gyroplane the stall occurs at 20 to 40 percent outboard from the hub
RIGID ROTOR
A rotor system permitting blades to feather but not flap or hunt
ROTATIONAL VELOCITY
The component of relative wind produced by the rotation of the rotor blades
ROTOR
A complete system of rotating airfoils creating lift for a helicopter or gyroplane
ROTOR BRAKE
A device used to stop the rotor blades during shutdown
ROTOR FORCE
The force produced by the rotor in a gyroplane It is comprised of rotor lift and rotor drag
SEMIRIGID ROTOR
A rotor system in which the blades are fixed to the hub but are free to flap and feather
SHAFT TURBINE
A turbine engine used to drive an output shaft commonly used in helicopters
SKID
A flight condition in which the rate of turn is too great for the angle of bank
SKID SHOES
Plates attached to the bottom of skid landing gear protecting the skid
SLIP
A flight condition in which the rate of turn is too slow for the angle of bank
SOLIDITY RATIO
The ratio of the total rotor blade area to total rotor disc area
SPAN
The dimension of a rotor blade or airfoil from root to tip
SPLIT NEEDLES
A term used to describe the position of the two needles on the engine/rotor tachometer when the two needles are not superimposed
STANDARD ATMOSPHERE
A hypothetical atmosphere based on averages in which the surface temperature is 59°F (15°C) the surface pressure is 29.92 in Hg (10132 Mb) at sea level and the temperature lapse rate is approximately 35°F (2°C) per 1000 feet
STATIC STOP
A device used to limit the blade flap or rotor flap at low rpm or when the rotor is stopped
STEADY-STATE FLIGHT
A condition when a rotorcraft is in straightand-level unaccelerated flight and all forces are in balance
SYMMETRICAL AIRFOIL
An airfoil having the same shape on the top and bottom
TAIL ROTOR
A rotor turning in a plane perpendicular to that of the main rotor and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fuselage It is used to control the torque of the main rotor and to provide movement about the yaw axis of the helicopter
TEETERING HINGE
A hinge that permits the rotor blades of a semirigid rotor system to flap as a unit
THRUST
The force developed by the rotor blades acting parallel to the relative wind and opposing the forces of drag and weight
TIP-PATH PLANE
The imaginary circular plane outlined by the rotor blade tips as they make a cycle of rotation
TORQUE
In helicopters with a single main rotor system the tendency of the helicopter to turn in the opposite direction of the main rotor rotation
TRAILING EDGE
The rearmost edge of an airfoil
TRANSLATING TENDENCY
The tendency of the single-rotor helicopter to move laterally during hovering flight Also called tail rotor drift
TRANSLATIONAL LIFT
The additional lift obtained when entering forward flight due to the increased efficiency of the rotor system
T R A N S V E R S E - F L O W EFFECT
A condition of increased drag and decreased lift in the aft portion of the rotor disc caused by the air having a greater induced velocity and angle in the aft portion of the disc
TRUE ALTITUDE
The actual height of an object above mean sea level
TURBOSHAFT ENGINE
A turbine engine transmitting power through a shaft as would be found in a turbine helicopter
TWIST GRIP
The power control on the end of the collective control
UNDERSLUNG
A rotor hub that rotates below the top of the mast as on semirigid rotor systems
UNLOADED ROTOR
The state of a rotor when rotor force has been removed or when the rotor is operating under a low or negative G condition
USEFUL LOAD
The difference between the gross weight and the basic empty weight It includes the flight crew usable fuel drainable oil if applicable and payload
VARIATION
The angular difference between true north and magnetic north; indicated on charts by isogonic lines
VERTICAL VIBRATION
A vibration in which the movement is up and down or vertical as in an out-of-track condition
VORTEX RING STATE
A transient condition of downward flight (descending through air after just previously being accelerated downward by the rotor) during which an appreciable portion of the main rotor system is being forced to operate at angles of attack above maximum Blade stall starts near the hub and progresses outward as the rate of descent increases
WEIGHT
One of the four main forces acting on a rotorcraft Equivalent to the actual weight of the rotorcraft It acts downward toward the center of the earth
YAW
The movement of a rotorcraft about its vertical axis