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15 Cards in this Set

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ACSM PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL TRAINING FOR FLEXIBLITY, MUSCULAR FITNESS and CARDIOVASCULAR ENDURANCE
* For general fitness program (muscular strength/endurance/flexibility/body composition)
- Frequency: 2-3 days/wk, full body; nonconsecutive days
- Sets/Reps: 1 set of 8-12 to the pt. of fatigue
- Warm-up: general (cardio); specific (strength)
- Rest: 24-48 hrs b/t workouts
* For exercise (cardiorespiratory endurance & body composition)
- 3-5 days/wk cardiorespiratory exercise
- 20-60 mins in duration (depends on intensity)
- Intensity 55/65-90% of target heart rate/RPE
- warm up & cool down
USAGE OF RPE (ratings of perceived exertion)
- experienced exercisers may use this subjective scale to estimate how near they are to their target heart rate zone  provide a fairly good estimate of the actual heart rate during physical activity
- based on the physical sensations a person experiences during physical activity (including increased heart rate/respiration/sweating/muscle fatigue)
RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE, SMOKING
* Heart disease (#1 cause of death in US)
- Diet, inactive life style, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption
* Smoking (#1 actual case of death among Americans= due to lifestyle & environmental factors)
- leading presentable cause of death among Americans
- Individuals can influence their own health risks
ASSOCIATION BETWEEN EXERCISE AND CHRONIC DISEASE
- being physically active, having responsible sexual behavior, managing body weight help protect against chronic illness
TYPES OF RECOMMEND STRETCHING, STATIC, BALLISTIC, DYNAMIC -SAFETY ISSUES
- Static: each muscle is gradually stretched, & the stretch is held for 15-30 secs; most often recommended by fitness experts b/c it is the safest
- Ballistic: muscles are stretched suddenly in a forceful bouncing movement; trains the elastic component of muscle, so it can be an appropriate stretching technique for some well-training athletes
- Dynamic: emphasizes functionally based movements
- involves moving the joints through the range of motion used in a specific exercise or sport in an exaggerated but controlled manner; movements are fluid rather than jerky
- Most challenging b/c they require balance & coordination; may carry a greater risk of muscle soreness & injury
SAFE STRETCHING TECHNIQUES
- Safest, most effective technique is active static stretching w/ an occasional passive assist
A. exercise statically to pt. of mild discomfort, not to the pt. of pain
-soreness should not last more than 24 hrs
- Hold for 15-30 sec/ rest for 30-60 sec (&repeat)
B. increase intensity & duration gradually over time
C. gentle warm-up exercises (e.g. easy jogging) BEFORE a pre-exercise stretch
PRINCIPLES OF PHYSICAL TRAINING – SPECIFICITY, PROGRESSIVE OVERLOAD, REVERSIBILITY
- specify: exercises must be designed specifically for the training component
- Progressive overload: body adapts to the demands of exercise by improving its functioning (F.I.T- frequency, intensity, time)
- Reversibility: body adjusts to lower levels of activity by losing fitness; 50% of improvement lost within 2 mos- keep intensity consistent (indiv. differences)
DIMENSIONS OF WELLNESS – IDENTIFY
A. physical B. Emotional C. Intellectual D. Spiritual E. Social F. Environmental
R-I-C-E- IDENTIFY
Rest, Ice, Compress & Elevate (for minor injuries)
IDENTIFY HEALTH RELATED FITNESS COMPONENTS
A. cardiorespiratory endurance
B. muscular strength
C. muscular endurance
D. flexibility
E. body composition
BASIC DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ANAEROBIC/AEROBIC ENERGY SYSTEMS
A. Anaerobic
(nonoxidative) for intense activity
- supplies energy to muscle cells through the breakdown of muscle stores of glucose & glycogen
- produces lactic acid  accumulation may produce fatigue
B. Aerobic
(oxidative) for prolonged activity
- supplies energy to cells though breakdown of glucose, glycogen, fats, & amino acids
- cannot produce energy as quickly, but can supply energy for much longer periods of times
LOW BACK RISK FACTORS/CAUSES
- Age - excess body weight
- Degenerative diseases - psychological stress/depression
- History of back trauma - poor posture
- Smoking
TRAINING HEART RATE CALCULATION
(target rate @ which you should exercise to experience 50-90% cardiorespiratory benefits)
A. estimate maximum heart rate (MHR) by subtracting age from 220
B. multiply MHR by 65% & 90% to find target heart zone
C. start @ 55/65% or below if you have been sedentary
BENEFITS OF WARM UP AND COOL DOWN
* Warm-up:
- decrease your chances of injury
- increase muscle temperature
- reduce joint stiffness
- bathe joints in lubricating fluid
- increase blood flow to the muscles
- enhance muscle metabolism
- Mentally prepare you for workout
* cool down:
- Helps safely restore circulation to its normal resting condition
VO2 MAX – WHAT IS IT AND HOW DO WE ESTIMATE IT
* Maximal oxygen consumption
483 ÷ your run-walk time (mins) + 3.5 = VO2 max