Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/238

Click to flip

238 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
advertisement
A specific message that an organization has placed to persuade an audience.
advertising
A paid, mass-mediated attempt to persuade.
advertising campaign
A series of coordinated advertisements and other promotional efforts that communicate a single theme or idea.
audience
A group of individuals who may receive and interpret messages sent from advertisers through mass media.
brand
A name, term, sign, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers.
brand advertising
Advertising that communicates the specific features, values, and benefits of a particular brand offered for sale by a particular organization.
brand equity
Developed by a firm that creates and maintains positive associations with the brand in the mind of consumers.
brand extension
An adaptation of an existing brand to a new product area.
brand loyalty
A decision-making mode in which consumers repeatedly buy the same brand of a product as their choice to fulfill a specific need.
client
The company or organization that pays for advertising. Also called the sponsor.
cooperative advertising
The sharing of advertising expenses between national advertisers and local merchants. Also called co-op advertising.
corporate advertising
Advertising intended to establish a favorable attitude toward a company as a whole, not just toward a specific brand.
delayed response advertising
Advertising that relies on imagery and message themes to emphasize the benefits and satisfying characteristics of a brand.
differentiation
The process of creating a perceived difference, in the mind of the consumer, between an organization’s brand and the competition’s.
direct response advertising
Advertising that asks the receiver of the message to act immediately.
economies of scale
The ability of a firm to lower the cost of each item produced because of high-volume production.
external position
The competitive niche a brand pursues.
global advertising
Developing and placing advertisements with a common theme and presentation in all markets around the world where the firm’s brands are sold.
government officials and employees
One of the five types of audiences for advertising; includes employees of government organizations, such as schools and road maintenance operations, at the federal, state, and local levels.
gross domestic product (gdp)
A measure of the total value of goods and services produced within an economic system.
household consumers
The most conspicuous of the five types of audiences for advertising; most mass media advertising is directed at them.
inelasticity of demand
Strong loyalty to a product, resulting in consumers being less sensitive to price increases.
integrated brand promotion (ibp)
The use of various promotional tools, including advertising, in a coordinated manner to build and maintain brand awareness, identity, and preference.
integrated marketing communications (imc)
The process of using promotional tools in a unified way so that a synergistic communications effect is created.
internal position
The niche a brand achieves with regard to the other similar brands a firm markets.
international advertising
The preparation and placement of advertising in different national and cultural markets.
local advertising
Advertising directed at an audience in a single trading area, either a city or state.
market segmentation
The breaking down of a large, heterogeneous market into submarkets or segments that are more homogeneous.
marketing
The process of conceiving, pricing, promoting, and distributing ideas, goods, and services to create exchanges that benefit consumers and organizations.
marketing mix
The blend of the four responsibilities of marketing—conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution—used for a particular idea, product, or service.
members of a trade channel
One of the five types of audiences for advertising; the retailers, wholesalers, and distributors targeted by producers of both household and business goods and services.
members of business organizations
One of the five types of audiences for advertising; the focus of advertising for firms that produce business and industrial goods and services.
national advertising
Advertising that reaches all geographic areas of one nation.
positioning
The process of designing a product or service so that it can occupy a distinct and valued place in the target consumer’s mind, and then communicating this distinctiveness through advertising.
primary demand stimulation
Using advertising to create demand for a product category in general.
professionals
One of the five types of audiences for advertising, defined as doctors, lawyers, accountants, teachers, or any other professionals who require special training or certification.
regional advertising
Advertising carried out by producers, wholesalers, distributors, and retailers that concentrate their efforts in a particular geographic region.
selective demand stimulation
Using advertising to stimulate demand for a specific brand within a product category.
social meaning
What a product or service means in a societal context.
symbolic value
What a product or service means to consumers in a nonliteral way.
target audience
A particular group of consumers singled out for an advertisement or advertising campaign.
trade journals
Magazines published specifically for members of a trade that carry highly technical articles.
value
A perception by consumers that a product or service provides satisfaction beyond the cost incurred to acquire the product or service.
account planner
A relatively recent addition to many advertising agencies; it is this person’s job to synthesize all relevant consumer research and use it to design a coherent advertising strategy.
account services
A team of managers that identify the benefits a brand offers, its target audiences, and the best competitive positioning, and then develops a complete promotion plan.
advertiser
Business, not-for-profit, or government organization that uses advertising and other promotional techniques to communicate with target markets and to stimulate awareness and demand for its brands.
advertising agency
An organization of professionals who provide creative and business services to clients related to planning, preparing, and placing advertisements.
blog (short for Weblog)
A personal journal on a Web site that is frequently updated and intended for public access. Such sites are emerging as new and sophisticated sources of product and brand information.
client
The company or organization that pays for advertising. Also called the sponsor.
commission system
A method of agency compensation based on the amount of money the advertiser spends on the media.
consultants
Individuals that specialize in areas related to the promotional process.
consumer sales promotion
A type of sales promotion aimed at consumers that focuses on price-off deals, coupons, sampling rebates, and premiums.
creative boutique
An advertising agency that emphasizes copywriting and artistic services to its clients.
creative services
A group that develops the message that will be delivered through advertising, sales promotion, direct marketing, event sponsorship, or public relations.
database agency
Agency that helps customers construct databases of target customers, merge databases, develop promotional materials, and then execute the campaign.
designers
Specialists intimately involved with the execution of creative ideas and efforts.
direct response agency
Also called direct marketing agency.
direct-marketing agency
Agency that maintains large databases of mailing lists; some of these firms can also design direct-marketing campaigns either through the mail or by telemarketing.
e-commerce agency
Agency that handles a variety of planning and execution activities related to promotions using electronic commerce.
event-planning agencies
Experts in finding locations, securing dates, and putting together a “team” of people to pull off a promotional event.
external facilitator
An organization or individual that provides specialized services to advertisers and agencies.
fee system
A method of agency compensation whereby the advertiser and the agency agree on an hourly rate for different services provided.
fulfillment center
Centers that ensure customers receive the product ordered through direct mail.
full-service agency
An advertising agency that typically includes an array of advertising professionals to meet all the promotional needs of clients.
in-house agency
The advertising department of a firm.
infomercial
A long advertisement that looks like a talk show or a half-hour product demonstration.
interactive agencies
Advertising agencies that help advertisers prepare communications for new media like the Internet, interactive kiosks, cd-roms, and interactive television.
logo
A graphic mark that identifies a company and other visual representations that promote an identity for a firm.
markup charge
A method of agency compensation based on adding a percentage charge to a variety of services the agency purchases from outside suppliers.
media planning and buying services
Services related to media planning or buying that are provided by advertising agencies or specialized media-buying organizations.
media specialists
Organizations that specialize in buying media time and space and offer media strategy consulting to advertising agencies and advertisers.
pay-for-results
A compensation plan that results when a client and its agency agree to a set of results criteria on which the agency’s fee will be based.
production facilitator
An organization that offers essential services both during and after the production process.
production services
A team that takes creative ideas and turns them into advertisements, direct mail pieces, or events materials.
promotion agencies
Specialized agencies that handle promotional efforts.
public relations firms
Firms that handle the needs of organizations regarding relationships with the local community, competitors, industry associations, and government organizations.
trade reseller
Organizations in the marketing channel of distribution that buy products to resell to customers.
trade-market sales promotion
A type of sales promotion designed to motivate distributors, wholesalers, and retailers to stock and feature a firm’s brand in their merchandising programs.
Action for Children’s Television (act)
A group formed during the 1970s to lobby the government to limit the amount and content of advertising directed at children.
branded entertainment
Embedding one’s brand or brand icons as part of any entertainment property (e.g., a sporting event) in an effort to impress and connect with consumers in a unique and compelling way.
branding
The strategy of developing brand names so that manufacturers can focus consumer attention on a clearly identified item.
consumer culture
A way of life centered around consumption.
creative revolution
A revolution in the advertising industry during the 1960s, characterized by the “creatives” (art directors and copywriters) having a bigger say in the management of their agencies.
dailies
Newspapers published every weekday; also, in television ad production, the scenes shot during the previous day’s production.
e-business
A form of e-advertising and/or promotion in which companies selling to business customers rely on the Internet to send messages and close sales.
Federal Trade Commission (ftc)
The government regulatory agency that has the most power and is most directly involved in overseeing the advertising industry.
Industrial Revolution
A major change in Western society beginning in the mid-eighteenth century and marked by a rapid change from an agricultural to an industrial economy.
infomercial
A long advertisement that looks like a talk show or a half-hour product demonstration.
interactive media
Media that allow consumers to call up games, entertainment, shopping opportunities, and educational programs on a subscription or pay-per-view basis.
National Advertising Review Board
A body formed by the advertising industry to oversee its practice.
principle of limited liability
An economic principle that allows an investor to risk only his or her shares of a corporation, rather than personal wealth, in business ventures.
Pure Food and Drug Act
A 1906 act of Congress requiring manufacturers to list the active ingredients of their products on their labels.
subliminal advertising
Advertising alleged to work on a subconscious level.
TiVo
A service that automatically records a consumer’s favorite television shows every time they air and allows consumers to skip commercials.
WiFi
Wireless technology allowing Internet access connections to reach out about 300 feet.
advertising substantiation program
An ftc program initiated in 1971 to ensure that advertisers make available to consumers supporting evidence for claims made in ads.
affirmative disclosure
An ftc action requiring that important material determined to be absent from prior ads must be included in subsequent advertisements.
appropriation
The use of pictures or images owned by someone else without permission.
cease-and-desist order
An ftc action requiring an advertiser to stop running an ad within 30 days so a hearing can be held to determine whether the advertising in question is deceptive or unfair.
celebrity endorsements
Advertisements that use an expert or celebrity as a spokesperson to endorse the use of a product or service.
comparison advertisements
Advertisements in which an advertiser makes a comparison between the firm’s brand and competitors’ brands.
consent order
An ftc action asking an advertiser accused of running deceptive or unfair advertising to stop running the advertisement in question, without admitting guilt.
consumerism
The actions of individual consumers to exert power over the marketplace activities of organizations.
cookies
Online tracking markers that advertisers place on a Web surfer’s hard drive to track that person’s online behavior.
corrective advertising
An ftc action requiring an advertiser to run additional advertisements to dispel false beliefs created by deceptive advertising.
deception
Making false or misleading statements in an advertisement.
defamation
When a communication occurs that damages the reputation of an individual because the information was untrue.
ethics
Moral standards and principles against which behavior is judged.
libel
Defamation that occurs in print and would relate to magazine, newspaper, direct mail, or Internet reports.
monopoly power
The ability of a firm to make it impossible for rival firms to compete with it, either through advertising or in some other way.
premiums
Items that feature the logo of a sponsor and that are offered free, or at a reduced price, with the purchase of another item.
primary demand
The demand for an entire product category.
puffery
The use of absolute superlatives like “Number One” and “Best in the World” in advertisements.
self-regulation
The advertising industry’s attempt to police itself.
slander
Oral defamation that in the context of promotion would occur during television or radio broadcast of an event involving a company and its employees.
spam
To post messages to many unrelated newsgroups on Usenet.
unfair advertising
Defined by Congress as “acts or practices that cause or are likely to cause substantial injury to consumers, which is not reasonably avoidable by consumers themselves and not outweighed by the countervailing benefits to consumers or competition.”
vertical cooperative advertising
An advertising technique whereby a manufacturer and dealer (either a wholesaler or retailer) share the expense of advertising.
advertising clutter
An obstacle to advertising resulting from the large volume of similar ads for most products and services.
aspirational groups
Groups made up of people an individual admires or uses as role models but is unlikely to ever interact with in any meaningful way.
attitude
An overall evaluation of any object, person, or issue that varies along a continuum, such as favorable to unfavorable or positive to negative.
beliefs
The knowledge and feelings a person has accumulated about an object or issue.
brand attitudes
Summary evaluations that reflect preferences for various products and brands.
brand communities
Groups of consumers who feel a commonality and a shared purpose grounded or attached to a consumer good or service.
brand loyalty
A decision-making mode in which consumers repeatedly buy the same brand of a product as their choice to fulfill a specific need.
celebrity
A unique sociological category that matters a great deal to advertisers.
cognitive consistency
The maintenance of a system of beliefs and attitudes over time; consumers’ desire for cognitive consistency is an obstacle to advertising.
cognitive dissonance
The anxiety or regret that lingers after a difficult decision.
cognitive responses
The thoughts that occur to individuals at that exact moment in time when their beliefs and attitudes are being challenged by some form of persuasive communication.
community
A group of people loosely joined by some common characteristic or interest.
consideration set
The subset of brands from a particular product category that becomes the focal point of a consumer’s evaluation.
consumer behavior
Those activities directly involved in obtaining, consuming, and disposing of products and services, including the decision processes that precede and follow these actions.
culture
What a people do—the way they eat, groom themselves, celebrate, mark their space and social position, and so forth.
customer satisfaction
Good feelings that come from a favorable postpurchase experience.
elaboration likelihood model (elm)
A model that pertains to any situation where a persuasive communication is being sent and received.
emotional benefits
Those benefits not typically found in some tangible feature or objective characteristic of a product or service.
evaluative criteria
The product attributes or performance characteristics on which consumers base their product evaluations.
extended problem solving
A decision-making mode in which consumers are inexperienced in a particular consumption setting but find the setting highly involving.
external search
A search for product information that involves visiting retail stores to examine alternatives, seeking input from friends and relatives about their experiences with the products in question, or perusing professional product evaluations.
functional benefits
Those benefits that come from the objective performance characteristics of a product or service.
gender
The social expression of sexual biology or choice.
global consumer culture
A newer phenomenon in which local small brands are being gobbled up by global trends in brands and marketing culture, creating a homogenization of everyday life all over the world.
habit
A decision-making mode in which consumers buy a single brand repeatedly as a solution to a simple consumption problem.
intergenerational effect
When people choose products based on what was used in their childhood household.
internal search
A search for product information that draws on personal experience and prior knowledge.
involvement
The degree of perceived relevance and personal importance accompanying the choice of a certain product or service within a particular context.
life-stage
A circumstantial variable, such as when a family’s youngest child moves away from home, which changes the consumption patterns of the family.
limited problem solving
A decision-making mode in which consumers’ experience and involvement are both low.
membership groups
Groups an individual interacts with in person on some regular basis.
Movement of meaning
The relationship between an advertisement and a consumer, where in which a person is motivated to buy a product through the ad, and then incorporate that product into their daily lives through its use. The meaning originally conveyed by the ad becomes a ritualistic part of the consumer’s everyday activity.
multi-attribute attitude models (maams)
A framework and set of procedures for collecting information from consumers to assess their salient beliefs and attitudes about competitive brands.
need state
A psychological state arising when one’s desired state of affairs differs from one’s actual state of affairs.
peripheral cues
The features of an ad other than the actual arguments about the brand’s performance.
reference group
Any configuration of other persons that a particular individual uses as a point of reference in making his or her own consumption decisions.
rituals
Repeated behaviors that affirm, express, and maintain cultural values.
salient beliefs
A small number of beliefs that are the critical determinants of an attitude.
selective attention
The processing of only a few advertisements among the many encountered.
sociocultural text
A hyperrealized meaning of an advertisement which shows the dynamics and values of a certain culture.
stratification (social class)
A person’s relative standing in a social system as produced by systematic inequalities in things such as wealth, income, education, power, and status. Also referred to as social class.
taste
A generalized set or orientation to consumer preferences.
values
The defining expressions of culture, demonstrating in words and deeds what is important to a culture.
variety seeking
A decision-making mode in which consumers switch their selection among various brands in a given category in a random pattern.
benefit positioning
A positioning option that features a distinctive customer benefit.
benefit segmentation
A type of market segmenting in which target segments are delineated by the various benefit packages that different consumers want from the same product category.
brand-loyal users
A market segment made up of consumers who repeatedly buy the same brand of a product.
business markets
The institutional buyers who purchase items to be used in other products and services or to be resold to other businesses or households.
competitive field
The companies that compete for a segment’s business.
competitive positioning
A positioning option that uses an explicit reference to an existing competitor to help define precisely what the advertised brand can do.
consumer markets
The markets for products and services purchased by individuals or households to satisfy their specific needs.
demographic segmentation
Market segmenting based on basic descriptors like age, gender, race, marital status, income, education, and occupation.
emergent consumers
A market segment made up of the gradual but constant influx of first-time buyers.
geodemographic segmentation
A form of market segmentation that identifies neighborhoods around the country that share common demographic characteristics.
heavy users
Consumers who purchase a product or service much more frequently than others.
lifestyle segmentation
A form of market segmenting that focuses on consumers’ activities, interests, and opinions.
market niche
A relatively small group of consumers who have a unique set of needs and who typically are willing to pay a premium price to a firm that specializes in meeting those needs.
market segmentation
The breaking down of a large, heterogeneous market into submarkets or segments that are more homogeneous.
nonusers
A market segment made up of consumers who do not use a particular product or service.
positioning
The process of designing a product or service so that it can occupy a distinct and valued place in the target consumer’s mind, and then communicating this distinctiveness through advertising.
positioning strategy
The key themes or concepts an organization features for communicating the distinctiveness of its product or service to the target segment.
psychographics
A form of market research that emphasizes the understanding of consumers’ activities, interests, and opinions.
repositioning
Returning to the process of segmenting, targeting, and positioning a product or service to arrive at a revised positioning strategy.
stp marketing (segmenting, targeting, positioning)
A marketing strategy employed when advertisers focus their efforts on one subgroup of a product’s total market.
switchers
A market segment made up of consumers who often buy what is on sale or choose brands that offer discount coupons or other price incentives. Also called variety seekers.
target segment
The subgroup (of the larger market) chosen as the focal point for the marketing program and advertising campaign.
user positioning
A positioning option that focuses on a specific profile of the target user.
value proposition
A statement of the functional, emotional, and self-expressive benefits delivered by the brand, which provide value to customers in the target segment.
account planning
A system by which, in contrast to traditional advertising research methods, an agency assigns a coequal account planner to work alongside the account executive and analyze research data. This method requires the account planner to stay with the same projects on a continuous basis.
ars Persuasion Method
Testing service that offers true pre-post attitude testing through a theater-type test in which commercials are embedded in television shows and audience members indicate brand preference.
attitude-change study
A type of advertising research that uses a before-and-after ad exposure design.
communication tests
A type of pretest message research that simply seeks to see if a message is communicating something close to what is desired.
concept test
A type of developmental research that seeks feedback designed to screen the quality of a new idea, using consumers as the final judge and jury.
coolhunts
Researchers actually go to the site where they believe cool resides, stalk it, and bring it back to be used in the product and its advertising.
creative brief
A document that outlines and channels an essential creative idea and objective.
dialogue balloons
A type of projective technique that offers consumers the chance to fill in the dialogue of cartoonlike stories, as a way of indirectly gathering brand information.
direct response
Copy research method measuring actual behavior of consumers.
embedded
Tightly connected to a context.
eye-tracking systems
A type of physiological measure that monitors eye movements across print ads.
field work
Research conducted outside the agency, usually in the home or site of consumption.
focus group
A brainstorming session with a small group of target consumers and a professional moderator, used to gain new insights about consumer response to a brand.
frame-by-frame test
Copy research method that works by getting consumers to turn dials (like/dislike) while viewing television commercials in a theater setting.
inquiry/direct response measures
A type of posttest message tracking in which a print or broadcast advertisement offers the audience the opportunity to place an inquiry or respond directly through a reply card or toll-free number.
iri BehaviorScan
Supplier of single-source data testing.
normative test scores
Scores that are determined by testing an ad and then comparing the scores to those of previously tested, average commercials of its type.
physiological measures
A type of pretest message research that uses physiological measurement devices to detect how consumers react to messages, based on physical responses.
pilot testing
A form of message evaluation consisting of experimentation in the marketplace.
projective techniques
A type of developmental research designed to allow consumers to project thoughts and feelings (conscious or unconscious) in an indirect and unobtrusive way onto a theoretically neutral stimulus.
recall tests
Tests of how much the viewer of an ad remembers of the message; they are used to measure the cognitive residue of the ad. These are the most commonly employed tests in advertising.
recognition
In a test, when the audience members indicate that they have seen an ad before.
recognition tests
Tests in which audience members are asked if they recognize an ad or something in an ad. These are the standard cognitive residue test for print ads and promotion.
repositioning
Returning to the process of segmenting, targeting, and positioning a product or service to arrive at a revised positioning strategy.
resonance test
A type of message assessment in which the goal is to determine to what extent the message resonates or rings true with target audience members.
sentence and picture completion
A type of projective technique in which a researcher presents consumers with part of a picture or a sentence with words deleted and then asks that the stimulus be completed; the picture or sentence relates to one or several brands.
single-source data
Information provided from individual households about brand purchases, coupon use, and television advertising exposure by combining grocery store scanner data with TV-viewing data from monitoring devices attached to the households’ televisions.
single-source tracking measures
A type of posttest message tracking that provides information about brand purchases, coupon use, and television advertising exposure by combining grocery store scanner data and devices that monitor household television-viewing behavior.
split-cable transmission
A type of pilot testing in which two different versions of an advertisement are transmitted to two separate samples of similar households within a single, well-defined market area; the ads are then compared on measures of exposure, recall, and persuasion.
split-list experiment
A type of pilot testing in which multiple versions of a direct mail piece are prepared and sent to various segments of a mailing list; the version that pulls the best is deemed superior.
split-run distribution
A type of pilot testing in which two different versions of an advertisement are placed in every other issue of a magazine; the ads are then compared on the basis of direct response.
Starch Readership Services
An example of a company that performs recognition tests.
story construction
A type of projective technique that asks consumers to tell a story about people depicted in a scene or picture, as a way of gathering information about a brand.
thought listing
A type of pretest message research that tries to identify specific thoughts that may be generated by an advertisement.
tracking studies
Studies that document the apparent effect of advertising over time, assessing attitude change, knowledge, behavioral intent, and self-reported behavior. They are one of the most commonly used advertising and promotion research methods.
Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (zmet)
A research technique to draw out people’s buried thoughts and feelings about products and brands by encouraging participants to think in terms of metaphors.
advertising plan
A plan that specifies the thinking and tasks needed to conceive and implement an effective advertising effort.
advertising response function
A mathematical relationship based on marginal analysis that associates dollars spent on advertising and sales generated; sometimes used to help establish an advertising budget.
brand switching
An advertising objective in which a campaign is designed to encourage customers to switch from their established brand.
build-up analysis
A method of building up the expenditure levels of various tasks to help establish an advertising budget.
competitor analysis
In an advertising plan, the section that discusses who the competitors are, outlining their strengths, weaknesses, tendencies, and any threats they pose.
industry analysis
In an advertising plan, the section that focuses on developments and trends within an industry and on any other factors that may make a difference in how an advertiser proceeds with an advertising plan.
market analysis
In an advertising plan, the section that examines the factors that drive and determine the market for a firm’s product or service.
objective-and-task approach
A method of advertising budgeting that focuses on the relationship between spending and advertising objectives by identifying the specific tasks necessary to achieve different aspects of the advertising objectives.
percentage-of-sales approach
An advertising budgeting approach that calculates the advertising budget based on a percentage of the prior year’s sales or the projected year’s sales.
purchase intent
A measure of whether or not a consumer intends to buy a product or service in the near future.
repeat purchase
A second purchase of a new product after trying it for the first time.
share of voice
A calculation of any advertiser’s brand expenditures relative to the overall spending in a category.
situation analysis
In an advertising plan, the section in which the advertiser lays out the most important factors that define the situation, and then explains the importance of each factor.
top-of-the-mind awareness
Keen consumer awareness of a certain brand, indicated by listing that brand first when asked to name a number of brands.
trial usage
An advertising objective to get consumers to use a product new to them on a trial basis.
unit-of-sales approach
An approach to advertising budgeting that allocates a specified dollar amount of advertising for each unit of a brand sold (or expected to be sold).