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110 Cards in this Set

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reach
number of different audience members at least once in a given time period *
COverage
the potential audience that might recieve the message thru the vehicle
Frequency
the number of times the receiver is exposed to the media vehicle in a specific time period
Brand Development Index BDI
Percentage of brand to total Us sales in market/ percentage of total us population in market X 100
Higher the BDI
more market saturation
Catagory developmetn index
(Percentage of total product category sales in market/ % of total population in market) X 100
High CDI
High BDI
High mkt share
Good Market potential
The market usually represents good slaes potential for the product and for the brand
Low CDI
High BDI
high mkt share
monitor for sales decline
The category isn't selling well but the brand is, may be good market in which to advertise but should be monitored for sales decline
LOW BDI
High CDI
low market share
good market potential
the product category shows high potential but the brand isn't doing well the reason should be determined
LOW CDI
LOW BDI
both the product category and the brand are doing poorly, not likely to be a good place to advertise
cost per thousand
[cost of ad space (absolute cost)/ circulation] X 1,000

mainly used with print media
cost per rating point
cost of commercial time/ program rating

Advertisers use these numbers but cannot use them in isolation
Advantages of television
creativity and impact
coverage and cost effectiveness
captivity and attention
selectivity and flexibilty
Julia
Clarke
needs
a job
televison disadvantages
fleeting message-here and then gone
cost-high
low selectivity
clutter
distrust-sceptism, esp. younger generation
Negative evaluation
limited attention-audience controls
Tv advertising works best when
the budget us large enough to produce high quality commercials
the media budget is suffcient to generate and sustin the number of exposures needed
The market is large enough and reachable effciently thru a specific network, station or program
there's a genuine need for a medium w/high creative potential to exert a strong impact
network
affiliated stations are linked, regardless of geography
spot & local
commercials shown on local stations
maybe local or "national spot"
Rating
(house holds tuned to show/ total Us Households)
Share
(households tuned to show/ Us households using tv)
tv and radio similarities
are time oriented
are sold in time segments
have network affiliates
have some independents
use the public airway
are regulated by FCC
are externally paced media
are passive, low involvement
market coverage
optimal goal of media
partial market coverage
coverage of the media does not allow for coverage of the entire market leaving some potential customers without exposure to the message
coverage exceeding target market
waste coverage- media coverage exceeds the targeted audience, media coverage reaches people who are not potential users and is wasted
continuity
a continuous pattern of advertising, which may mean every day, every week, every month
flighting
a less regular schedule with intermittent periods of advertisisng and nonadvertising
pulsing
continuity is maintained but at certain times promotional efforts are stepped up
marketing factors determining frequency
brand loyalty
brand share
usage cycle
brand history
share of voice
purchase cycle
target group
brand loyalty
an inverse relationship exists between loyalty and frequency. High BL lower the frequency level required
brand share
an inverse relationship exists between brand share and frequency
usage cycle
products used daily or more often need to be replaced quickly so a higher level of frequency is desired
brand history
new brands generally require higher frequency levels
share of voice
higher frequency levels are required when a lot of comptetitive noice exists and when the goal is to meet or beat competitors
target group
the ability of the target group to learn and to retain messages has a direct effect on frequency
Message or creative factors
message complexity
message uniqueness
new vs. continuing
image vs product sell
message variation
wearout
advertising units
message complexity
the simpler the message, the less frequency required
message uniqueness
the more unique the message, the lower the frequency level required
new versus continuing campaigns
new campaigns require higher levels of frequency to register the message
image versus product sell
creating an image requiew s higher levels of frequency than does a specific product sell
message variation
a single message requires less frequency, a variety of messages requires more
Wearout
higher frequency may lead to wearout
advertising units
larger units of advertising require less frequency than smaller ones to get the message across (length0
media factors
clutter
editorial environment
attentiveness
scheduling
number of media used
repeat exposures
clutter
the more advertising that appears in the media used, the more frequency is needed to break through the clutter
editorial environment
the more consistent the ad is with the editorial environment the less frequency is needed
attentiveness
the higher the level of attention achieved by the media vehicle, the less frequency is required. low attention getting media requires more repetition
scheduling
continuous scheduling requires less frequency than does flighting or pulsing
number of media used
the fewer media used, the lower level of frequency required
repeat exposures
media that allow for more repeat exposures (i.e monthly magazines) require less frequency
zipping
occurs when customers fasst forward through commercials on a previously recorded program
zapping
changing the channel during commercials
up-front market
a buying period that occurs before the TV season begins
scatter market
runs through the tv season
spot advertising
commercials shown on local tv stations, with time negotiated and purchased directly from the individual stations
national spot advertising
all nonnetwork advertising done by a national advertiser
local advertising
airtime sold to local firms, limmited to geographic market in which they do business
station reps
individuals who act as sales representatives for a number of local stations in dealing with national advertisers
syndicated program
shows that are sold or distributed on a station-by-station market-by-market basis
sponsership
an advertiser assumes responsibility for the production and usually the content of the program as well as the advertising that appears within it.
radio and tv differences
radio is more limmited communication
costs much less to produce
costs much less to purchase
has less status and prestige
offers
only and audio message
Advantages of radio
cost and efficiency
selectivity
flexibility-can change message up to the time it appears
mental imagery-image of the tv commercials are implanted in listeners mind
integrated marketing- djs popular figues, host community events
disadvantages of radio
creative limitations
audience fragmentation
chaotic buying process
limmited research data
limmited listener attention
clutter
cume
cumulative audience- the estimates total number of different people who listened to a station at least five minutes during any quarter hour period withing a reported daypart
classfication of magazines by audience
consumer magazines
farm magazines
business magazines
classification of magazines by geography
local
regional
national
classfication of magazine by size
large
standard
small or pocket
advantages of magazines
selectivity
reproduction quality
creative flexibility
permanence
prestige
receptivity, involvement- more receptive to ads in magazines than any other medium
services-for advetisers
gatefolds
enabel an advertiser to make a striking presentation by using a third page that folds out an gives the ad an extra large spread
bleed page
when an advertisment extends all the way to the end of the page
split runs
where two or more versions of an ad are printed in alternate copies of a particular issue of a magzine. this is a service can be used to conduct split-run test
disadvantages of magazines
costs
limited reach
limited frequency
long lead time- 30-90 days needed to place an ad
clutter
primary circulation
the number of copies distriubuted to these original suscribers or purchasers
base rate
average of primary circulation rate
circulation verfication
most major publications are audited by one of the circulation verification services
external companies
pass along readership
how many other peopld will see the magazine
total audience
primary and pass-along
Newspaper advantages
extensive pentetration
flexibilty
geographic selectivity
involvement and acceptance
services offered
newspaper disadvantages
production quality may be low
short life span
not demographically selective
not psychographically selective
heavy ad competition
potentially poor placement
may be overlapping circulation
Newspapers have a wide audience
read by almost all consumers
read daily in an ordered way
readers look over 3/4ths of pages
flexibility of newspapers
few limitations on ad size
spot and full color available
many shapes, sizes paper and printing
Support media
alternative media
nonmeasured media-some are measurable
nontraditional media
out-of-home advertising
encompasses many advertising forms including outdoor, transit, skywriting and a variety of other media
outdoor advertising- reach
can reach a varity of aduiences very quickly
outdoor advertising- frequency
potential for high frequency of impressions
outdoor advertising- flexibilty
many options available to reach specific groups
outdoor advertising- cost
low cost per exposure, depending on medium used
outdoor advertising- impact
size, shape, lighting, motion and apecial impressions may lead to impact
Advantages of outdoor advertising
wide local coverage
frequency
geographic flexibility-can be placed anywhere the law admitscreativity
ability to create awareness
efficiency
effectiveness
production capabilities
disadvantages of outdoor advertising
wasted coverage
limmited message capability
wearout
high cost
measurement problems-difficult to measure reach etc.
image problems
aerial advertising
sky banners
blimps
sky writing
mobile billboards
trucks, vans, trailers
in-store media
signs, videos, kiosks, point of purchase media
miscellaneous outdoor media
wall drawings
trucks
car top signs
ski lift poles
gasoline pumps
trash cans
atm displays
parking meters
sidewalk signs
Transit advertising
platform posters
terminal posters
outside posters-taxis, buses, trains
inside cards- buses
station posters
transit advertising advantages
exposure
frequency
timeliness
selectivity
economy- least expensive
transit advertising disadvantages
image factors
reach
waste coverage
copy limitations
mood of audience
Promotional products marketing
a medium of advertising, sales promotion and motivational communication employing imprinted, useful or decorative products called advertising specialties, a subset of promotional products
always distributed free
promotional products advantages
selectivity
flexibility
frequency-retained
economy
goodwill
augmentation-can suppliment any other form of communication (reinforcing)
disadvantages of promotional products
image
saturation- can only take so many ball point pens
lead time- to put together
direct marketing
the total of activites by which the seller directs efforts to a target audience using one or more media for the purpose of soliciting a response by phone, mail or personal visit from a prospect or customer
direct marketing includes
catalog selling
diretc selling
telemarketing
tv selling
direct mail
direct action advertising
growth of direct marketing
consumer credit cars
direct marketing syndicates-list development, sweepstakes, inserts, catalogs
changing structure of the society-increased income and less time have made direcct purchasing more popular
techcnological advanaces
miscellaneous factors- image, values
direct response advertising
all forms of advertising designed to obtian an imediate, direct response by mail, telephone, or personal visit from individual audience members
outbound telemarketing
telephone calling by the marketer or marketer's agent to individual prospects, seeking purchase, subscription, membership or participation by the call recipient
inbound telemarketing
marketers' invitation to prospects to call a central location or long distance # or toll free 800, fixed cost
three forms of direct sellinig
repetive person-to-person selling -avon
nonrepetive person-to-person selling
party plans
direcct response advanatages
advertisers aquire a data base of individual customers
customers are served with greater selection from central inventory
response options enable audience to act right after exposure
no store is required and consumers can buy from their own homes
direct response disadvantages
customers can't handle or inspect the product before purchasing
merchandise returns and subscription cancellations may be numerous
seller reputation and prestigue may be compromised by methods or poor image
You will
make it through somehow