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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is clutter and why is it a problem?
Clutter is the multitude of messages all competing to get your attention.
Why is it important to add interaction to the traditional communication model?
Interaction, or two-way communication, is one of the objectives of an IMC-focused
program because it leads to a long-term relationship with a brand.
What is the hierarchy of effects model? Give an example.
The most common and long-standing explanation of advertising effects is one
referred to as AIDA, which stands for attention, interest, desire, and action. The idea
is that first an ad gets attention, then it creates interest, then desire, and finally
stimulates action. Because AIDA assumes that consumers start with attention and
wind up with a decision, it is referred to as a hierarchy of effects model.
Explain the role of perception in consumer response to a message and describe
the components of perception that affect a consumer’s response to advertising.
Perception is the process by which we receive information through our five senses
and assign meaning to it. If an advertisement is to be effective, it has to get noticed.
• Exposure: making contact
• Selection and Attention: creating stopping power
• Interest and Relevance: creating pulling power
• Awareness: making an impression
• Recognition: making a mental note
If a friend tells you that subliminal advertising is commonly used by advertisers,
how would you respond?
Most advertising professionals and professors believe that there is no real support for
subliminal advertising. Studies that have gained attention have not been replicated. If
a message can be found, seen, or heard, it is not subliminal.
What is the role of cognition in explaining the effects of an advertising message?
What are the components of cognition?
Cognition refers to how consumers respond to information, learn, and understand
something. It’s a rational response to an advertising message. The key components of
cognition and their roles in effectiveness are:
• Needs: matching product features to consumer needs
• Information: facts about products and their features
• Learning: creating understanding
• Differentiation: understand the differences between competitive products
• Recall: locking information in memory
Differentiate between wants and needs.
Needs are something you think about and wants are based on feelings and desires.
How does an affective response to advertising work? What are its components?
Affective responses mirror our feelings about something. Affective describes
something that stimulates wants, touches the emotions, and creates feelings. Liking of
the brand or the ad is an important affective response that advertisers monitor.
The components of the affective response and their roles in effectiveness are:
• Wants: creating desire
• Emotions: affecting feelings
• Liking: creating positive feelings for the ad and the brand
• Resonance: appeals to self interest
In what way does association show up in a consumer’s response to adverting?
What are the components of association?
You see association at work in advertising in the practice of linking a brand with
qualities and characteristics, personalities, places, a positive experience, or a lifestyle.
The idea is to associate the brand with things that resonate positively with the

The components of association and their roles in effectiveness are:
• Symbolism: something that stands for something else, such as a quality or value
• Conditioned Learning: creating links and bonds through repetition
• Brand Transformation: creating brand meaning
What does transformation mean and why is it important as an advertising
Transformation means a brand takes on meaning when it is transformed from a mere
product into something special, something that is differentiated from other products in
the category by virtue of its brand identity and image. A transformation in a
consumer’s mind is a perceptual shift, one that is created almost exclusively by
Persuasion is sometimes thought to be the most important effect of advertising.
Why would that be? Explain its role in creating advertising impact.
Persuasion is the conscious intent on the part of the source to influence or motivate
the receiver of a message to believe or do something. It’s central to how advertising
works because persuasion can be produced by both rational arguments and
compelling emotions.
Describe and explain the components of persuasion.
Persuasion is designed to change attitudes and behavior and build beliefs. Following
is a list of components connected to persuasion:
• Attitudes: a state of mind, tendency, propensity, position, inclination
• Argument: reasons, proof
• Involvement: engagement, intensifies brand relationships
• Motivation: incentive or reason to respond
• Influence: external people or events that shape attitudes and behavior
• Conviction and Preference: creating agreement and consideration (into to try or
• Loyalty: repeat purchase, satisfaction, advocate
Why is involvement considered to be an important factor in analyzing
advertising effects?
Involvement refers to the degree to which you are engrossed in attending to an ad or
making a product decision. Creating a sense of involvement in a marketing
communication program is a persuasive tactic because it gets people engaged with a
message about a brand. A high level of involvement intensifies the brand/customer
relationship. It is built on relevance.
Involvement is built on relevance—various types of media are intrinsically more or
less involving. An advertisement can be more or less involving depending upon the
creative strategy used in the message, as well as the medium.
The idea is that you think about some products and reflect on the advertising you see
for them: but with other products you don’t spend much time thinking about them
before you buy them. Nor do you pay much attention to their advertising, which you
may perceive and file away or even ignore without much thought.
Describe the different ways people can respond to an advertising message with
Examples of ways people respond include trying or buying, visiting a store, returning
an inquiry card, calling a toll-free number, or clicking on a Website.
What are the behavioral components of an action response?
The components are:
• Try: initiating action through trial
• Buy: making it easy to buy
• Contact: responding by visiting, calling, sending back a card, clicking on a
Website, and so forth
• Prevention: discourage unwanted behaviors
What is a cultural value? Give an example of one that is important to you.
Culture is made up of tangible items and intangible concepts that together define
group of people or a way of life. Values, particularly our cultural values, represent
our underlying belief system.
What are consumer core values and how are they used in advertising?
Core values govern people’s attitude and advertisers refer to them when selecting an
ad’s primary appeals—meaning the core values of the brand should match the core
consumer values. A simplified list includes:
• A sense of belonging
• Excitement
• Fun and enjoyment
• Warm relationships
• Self-fulfillment
• Respect from others
• A sense of accomplishment
• Security
• Self-respect
What are reference groups? List the reference groups to which you belong or
with which you associate yourself.
A reference group is a group of people we use as a guide for behavior in specific
As the students create their lists, they will be surprised to find how many groups they
each belong to.
What is the difference between a family and a household?
A family consists of two or more people—related by blood, marriage, or adoption—
who live in the same household. A household differs from a family in that it consists
of all those who occupy a dwelling whether they are related or not. The family is
responsible for raising and training children and establishing a lifestyle for family
Distinguish between psychographic and demographic influences on a consumer
Demographics are the statistical, personal, social, and economic characteristics used
to describe a population, including age, gender, education, income, occupation, race,
and family size.
Psychographics refers to lifestyle and psychological characteristics, such as attitudes,
interests, and opinions. The term combines the psychological factors with other
consumer characteristics that may have bearing on how people make decisions.
Consumers who have different values, attitudes and beliefs, opinions, interests,
motivations, and lifestyles make their product decisions in different ways.
What are the key demographic variables? Give an example of how each one
might be used in analyzing an advertising problem.
The key factors include: age, gender, education, income, occupation, race, and family
size. Students will develop various scenarios showing how the factors can be used in
analyzing an advertising problem. They should recognize that advertisers need to
understand each factor and analyze trends and changes and adjust strategies
accordingly. They should also recognize that these factors relate to the target market.
Advertisers use these factors in advertisements to model the target market. In other
words, the target market should be able to self-identify with the advertisements using
the specific demographic variables.
Explain psychographics. How does this category influence consumer decision
making? Give an example from your own life.
Psychographics refers to lifestyle and psychological characteristics, such as attitudes,
interests, and opinions. The term combines the psychological factors with other
consumer characteristics that may have bearing on how people make decisions.
Consumers who have different values, attitudes and beliefs, opinions, interests,
motivations, and lifestyles make their product decisions in different ways. The term
AIO (activities, interests, opinions) is used to construct psychographic profiles of
• Activities: work, hobbies, social events, vacation, entertainment, club
membership, community, shopping, sports
• Interests: family, home job, community, recreation, fashion, food, media,
• Opinions: self, social issues, politics, business, economics, education, products,
future, culture
Advertisers use psychographics because of their ability to understand fairly complex
consumer pattern groupings.
What is the difference between innate needs and acquired needs?
Each person has his or her own set of unique needs; some are innate (biological) and
others are acquired. Innate needs include the need for water, food, air, shelter, and
sex. Because satisfying these needs is necessary to maintaining life, they are also
called primary needs.
Acquired needs are those we learn in response to our culture and environment. These
may include needs for esteem, prestige, affection, power, and learning. They are
considered secondary needs.
How does selection work in a consumer’s response to an advertisement? Explain
the difference between selective exposure, selective distortion, and selective
We select some stimuli and ignore others because we cannot be conscious of all
incoming information at one time. Because consumers are exposed to so many
advertisements, this response is particularly obvious. It is called selective perception.
Following are the steps in the selection process:
• Selective exposure is the way our minds filter incoming information. We
naturally tend to notice messages that are pleasant or sympathetic with our views
and avoid those that are painful or threatening. Advertising is particularly
vulnerable to this filtering process. Making messages relevant is the key to getting
past this selection and filtering problem.
• Selective distortion happens when we are exposed to a message that conflicts
with what we believe. We naturally modify incoming information to fit into our
own personal pattern of interests.
• Selective retention is the process we go through to save information for future
use. A large part of what the brain processes is lost after only an instant.
Advertising can aid this process by using repetition, vivid images, easily
remembered brand or product names, jingles, high-profile spokespeople, music,
and so forth.
Define cognitive dissonance and explain how it impacts on consumer satisfaction.
According to the theory of cognitive dissonance, we tend to compensate or justify the
discrepancies between what we actually received and what we thought we would
receive. People engage in a variety of activities to reduce cognitive dissonance, such
as seeking out information that supports our decisions and ignoring and distorting
information that does not. Advertising can play a significant role in reducing
What are the key steps in the adoption process and how do they relate to
product purchases?
This adoption process is identified in terms of the personal behavior of people and
how their behavior reflects the speed with which they are willing to try something
new, such as innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, and laggards.
For a high-involvement decision, the steps include: need recognition, information
search, evaluation of alternatives, purchase decision, and postpurchase evaluation. In
a low-involvement decision, the information search may be skipped.
What is a market segment and why do marketers think segmentation is
A market segment is a group of people who have similar characteristics in certain key
product-related areas. To make advertising interesting, relevant, and attention-getting
marketers align messages with the audience’s interests. Marketers also adjust
marketing strategies to meet the needs of segments or homogenous groups of people.
Explain the VALS™ system. How is it used in targeting?
VALS™ is a conceptual model that categorizes people according to their values and
then identifies various consumer behaviors that go with these values. It then groups consumers according to shared values. Advertisers correlate these VALS™ groups
with their clients’ products and use this information to design ads and select media.
What is a niche market? Can you give an example of one?
Many advertisers have moved toward tighter and tighter niche markets. Niche
markets are subsegments of a more general market. They must be of sufficient size to
be profitable although not large enough to be of interest to large marketers.
What is a target audience profile?
The target audience is profiled using descriptive information based on factors such as
age, income, education, and so forth. Profiles are descriptions of the target audience
that read like a description of someone you know. These are used in developing
media and message decisions.
Explain the difference between segmenting and targeting.
Segmentation involves dividing a market into groups of people who can be identified
as being in the market for a product. Targeting is identifying the group that would be
the most responsive to an advertising message about the product. Both segmenting
and targeting use social/cultural, psychological, and behavioral characteristics to
identify these critical groups of people.
What is the difference between marketing research and market research?
Marketing research is formal research, such as survey, in-depth interviews,
observational methods, focus groups, and all types of primary and secondary data,
used to develop a marketing plan and, ultimately, provide information for an
advertising plan. A subset of marketing research, known as market research, is
research used to gather information about a particular market.
Explain the difference between primary and secondary research.
Information that is collected for the first time from original sources is called primary
Background research that uses available published information about a topic is called
secondary research. It’s called secondary because it is information that has been
collected and published by someone else.
Explain the difference between quantitative and qualitative research.
Qualitative research provides insight into the underlying reasons for how consumers
behave and why. Common qualitative research methods include such tools as
observation, ethnographic studies, in-depth interviews, and case studies.
Qualitative methods are used early in the process of developing an advertising plan or
message strategy for generating insights, as well as questions and hypotheses for
additional research. Because qualitative research is typically done with small groups,
advertisers are not able to draw conclusions about or project their findings to the
larger population.
Quantitative research delivers numerical data such as number of users and purchases,
their attitudes and knowledge, their exposure to ads, and other market-related
Two primary characteristics of quantitative research are large sample sizes and
random sampling. The most common qualitative research methods include surveys
and studies that track such things as sales and opinions. In contrast to qualitative
research, quantitative is usually designed to either accurately count something, such
as sales levels, or to predict something, such as attitudes.
What is the difference between concept testing and copy testing?
Research is used in the development of the message strategy to evaluate the relative
power of various creative ideas, which is called concept testing, and the relative
effectiveness of various approaches to the sales message, which is called copy testing.
How many different ways are there to contact people to gain information for use
in advertising planning?
Researchers can contact subjects in person, by telephone, by mail, through the
Internet or cable TV, or by a computer kiosk in a mall or store.
What is survey research and how is it conducted?
Survey research is a quantitative method that uses structured interviews to ask large
numbers of people the same set of questions.
What is the difference between a sample and a population?
A population is the entire group. A sample is a subset of the population that is
representative of the entire population.
How do in-depth interviews differ from surveys?
The primary difference between an interview and a survey is the interviewer’s use of
an unstructured questionnaire.
What is a focus group and why is it useful in advertising research?
A focus group is a group of eight to ten users (or even up to fifteen of potential users)
of a product who are gathered around a table to have a discussion about some topic,
such as the brand, the product category, or advertising. The objective is to get them
talking in a conversational format so researchers can observe the dialogue and
interactions among the participants.
Focus groups can be used at any step in the planning process but they are often used
early in the information gathering process to probe for patterns of thought and
behavior that are then tested using quantitative research tools, such as surveys. They
are also useful in testing advertising ideas or exploring various alternatives in
message strategy development.
How is observational research used in advertising?
Observation researchers study the actual behavior of consumers in naturalistic
settings where they live, work, shop, and play. A qualitative form of research, direct
observation research, is closer and more personal than quantitative research. It takes
researchers into natural settings where they use video, audio, and disposable cameras
to record consumers’ behavior at home, in stores, or wherever people buy and use
their products.
A marketer will often use observation in the aisles of grocer, drug, and discount stores
to watch people making their product selection.
How is ethnographic research conducted? How might it be used in advertising?
Ethnographic research involves the researcher living the lives of the people being
studied. Advertisers use ethnographic research to get close to their customers.
Customers are observed and their behaviors interpreted to aid in developing
advertising strategy.
How and why are diaries used in media research?
Sometimes consumers are asked to record their activities through the use of diaries.
Diaries are particularly valuable in media research because they tell media planners
exactly what programs and ads the consumers watched.
Explain the difference between validity and reliability.
Validity means that the research actually measures what it says it measures.
Reliability means that you can run the same test again and get the same answer.
How is advertising research changing because of globalization?
Advertisers are becoming increasingly more global. Multinational advertisers and
their marketing communication agencies are expanding all over the world. In-depth
understanding of the economic and cultural conditions, government regulations, and
communications media of each country is more important than ever before. The key
issues that global researchers face include how to manage and communicate global
brands in different local regions and how to shift from studying differences to finding
similarities around the world. The biggest problem is cross-cultural communication
and how to arrive at an intended message without cultural distortions or
What is virtual research and how does it apply to advertising?
Virtual research gathers real-time information through online media and streaming
video. The low cost and quick speed of gathering research data online has made the
Internet a popular survey tool with companies.
Creating effective ads for the new interactive media is a particular challenge. Those
who want to plan or evaluate Internet ads must stay abreast of the latest development
in research on this interactive medium because methods are still being developed.
How is embedded research being used in advertising?
The development of embedded research is related to virtual research. In this case, the
research methods are embedded directly into real purchase and use situations, so that
the consumer is a recipient and direct beneficiary of the information.
Call centers, both inbound and outbound, can also be used as research centers to gain
real-time feedback about the brand and its marketing and advertising strategies.