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353 Cards in this Set

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Protostome
-types of cleavage
-type of developement
-fate of blastopore
Protostome
- Spiral and determinate cleavage
- Shizocoelous developement
- mouth derived from blastopore
Deuterostomes -types of cleavage -type of developement -fate of the blastopore
Deuterostomes -Radial and indeterminate cleavage - Enterocoelous developement - Blastopore develops into anus
5 phylogenetic points of agreement
1. All animals share a common ancestor 2. Sponges are basal animals 3. Eumetazoa is a clade with true tissue 4. Most animals are bilaterally symmetric 5. Vertebrates and some others belong to the deuterostome clade
Phylum: Porifera
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Porifera
Habitat: Fresh and Marine Water
Important Classes: Calcarea, Hexactinellidae, Demospongiae

Level of Organization: Cellular
Developement: NA
Symmetry: Assymetric
Type of Body Cavity:Spongocoel
Type of Digestive System: No system, intracellular digestion
Type of Excretory System: NA
Type of Circulatory System: NA
Type of Repiratory System: NA
Type of Nervous System: Localized reactions
Type of Asexual Reproduction: Budding
Type of Sexual Reproduction: Hermaphrodites. Egg and Sperm
Phylum: Cnidaria
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Cnidaria
Habitat: Fresh and Marine waters
Important Classes: Anthozoa, Scyphozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa
Level of Organization: Tissue level
Developement: NA
Symmetry: Radial
Body Forms: Polyp (sessile) and Medusae (free swimming)
Type of Body
Cavity: Aceolomate
Type of Digestive System: Gastrovascular Cavity
Type of Excretory System: NA
Type of Circulatory System: NA
Type of Repiratory System: NA
Type of Nervous System: Nerve Net
Type of Asexual Reproduction: Budding
Type of Sexual Reproduction: Monoecious or Dioecious
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Habitat: Fresh and Marine water along with damp terrestrial habitats
Important Classes: Turbellaria, Monogenea, Trematoda, Cestoda
Level of Organization: Organ level
Developement: Protostome
Symmetry: Bilateral
Type of Body Cavity: Acoelomate
Type of Digestive System: Gastrovascular cavity
Type of Excretory System: Protonephridia
Type of Circulatory System: None
Type of Repiratory System:None
Type of Nervous System: Ganglia with nerve cords
Type of Asexual Reproduction: Regeneration
Type of Sexual Reproduction: Gametes, monoecious
Phylum: Ctenophora
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Ctenophora
Habitat: Marine waters Important Classes: NA Level of Organization: Tissue level Developement: Protostome Symmetry: Radial Type of Body Cavity: Acoelomate Type of Digestive System: NA Type of Excretory System: NA Type of Circulatory System: NA Type of Repiratory System: NA Type of Nervous System: NA Type of Asexual Reproduction: NA Type of Sexual Reproduction: NA Important Physical Structures and their function:
Phylum: Rotifera
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Rotifera
Habitat: Fresh and Marine water, damp soil
Important Classes: NA
Level of Organization: Organ level
Developement: Protostome
Symmetry: Bilaterally symmetric
Type of Body Cavity: Pseudocoelomate
Type of Digestive System: Alimentary canal
Type of Excretory System: Alimentary anus
Type of Circulatory System: NA
Type of Repiratory System: NA
Type of Nervous System: NA
Type of Asexual Reproduction: Parthenogenesis
Type of Sexual Reproduction: Parthenogenesis, Males to form resistant zygotes in stressful environments
Important Physical Structures and their function:
Phylum: Nemertea
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Nemertea
Habitat: Fresh and Marine water, and damp soil
Important Classes: NA
Level of Organization: Organ level
Developement: Protostome
Symmetry: Bilaterally symmetric
Type of Body Cavity: Acoelomate (possible pseudocoelom)
Type of Digestive System: Alimentary canal
Type of Excretory System: Protonephridia
Type of Circulatory System: Closed circulatory system
Type of Repiratory System: NA
Type of Nervous System: Ganglia with nerve cords
Type of Asexual Reproduction: NA
Type of Sexual Reproduction: NA
Phylum: Mollusca
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Mollusca
Habitat: Marine and Fresh water, and land
Important Classes: Monoplacophora, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, Bivalvia, Cephalopoda
Level of Organization: Organ level
Developement: Protostome
Symmetry: Bilaterally symmetric
Type of Body Cavity: Eucoelomate
Type of Digestive System: Alimentary Canal
Type of Excretory System: Metanephridia
Type of Circulatory System: Open system, 3 chambered heart
Type of Repiratory System: Gills or Lungs
Type of Nervous System: Paired cerebral ganglia with nerve ring or cords
Type of Asexual Reproduction: NA
Type of Sexual Reproduction: Gametes, Monoecious or Dioecious
Phylum: Nematoda
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Annelida
Habitat: Fresh and Marine water, and damp soil
Important Classes: Oligochaetae
Level of Organization:
Developement: Protostome
Symmetry:Bilateral
Type of Body Cavity: Eucoelomate
Type of Digestive System: Alimentary canal
Type of Excretory System: Metanephridia
Type of Circulatory System: Closed system with true heart
Type of Repiratory System: Skin, Gills, or Parapodia
Type of Nervous System: Ventral nerve cord with cerebral and segmented ganglia
Type of Asexual Reproduction: Budding
Type of Sexual Reproduction: Hermaphroditic, monoecious or dioecious
Phylum: Nematoda
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Nematoda
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement: Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Oncyphora
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Oncyphora
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement: Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Arthropoda
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Arthropoda
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement: Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Echinodermata
Habitat:
Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Phylum: Echinodermata
Habitat: Important Classes:
Level of Organization:
Developement:
Symmetry:
Type of Body Cavity:
Type of Digestive System:
Type of Excretory System:
Type of Circulatory System:
Type of Repiratory System:
Type of Nervous System:
Type of Asexual Reproduction:
Type of Sexual Reproduction:
Porifera - - Important Physical Structures and their function:
Porifera
-notable characteristics
-choanocytes
-amoebocytes
-spicules
-spongin
-Asconoid, Synconoid, Leuconoid
Cnidaria
-notable characteristics
-Cnidocytes
-Nematocysts
-Cnidocils
Ctenophora
-notable characteristics
-bioluminiscent
-ctenes - rows of fused cilia used for locomotion
-tentacles with adhesive colloblasts used to capture food
Platyhelminthes
-notable characteristics
-flattened dorsoventrally, placing cells close to water
-gas exchange and waste disposal via diffusion
Rotifera
-notable characteristics
-ciliated mouth crown
- pharynx bear jaws (trophi)
Nemertea
-notable characteristics
-nervous,excretory, and sensory systems similar to platyhelminthes
-hydraulic proboscis
Mollusca
-notable characteristics
-body plan
Most are protected by a shell (calcium carbonate)
Most contain a radula
Body Plan:
Foot: muscular and used for movement
Visceral Mass: contains the internal organs
Mantle: covers visceral mass and secretes shell
Annelida
-notable characteristics
-metanephridia
-setae
-digestive system with specialization
Characteristics of bacteria
No nucleus Single chromosome no membrane bound organelles ribosomes peptidoglycan capsule - glucocalyx falgella pilli fimbriae
What do aerobic bacteria have that anaerobic lack
A respiratory membrane facilitating gas and chemical exchange
How do prokaryotes asexually reproduce
Binary fission - the DNA replicates and the cell divides into 2
Transformation
Prokaryote receives fragments of DNA from the environment and incorporates it.
Transduction
DNA carried into a cell by a virus
Conjugation
Direct exchange of DNA fragments via a cojugation tube
Modes of bacterial classification
Shape Gram stain O2 Requirements Feeding strategy
Prokaryotic Shapes
Cocci - Spherical Bacilli - Rod Shaped Helical - Spiral Shaped Filamentous - Long and straight
What is a gram stain.

Gram positive vs. Gram negative
A prokaryote is stained with violete dye and iodine, rinsed with alcohold and stained again with red dye,

Gram positive backteria are violet, and have peptidoglycan on the outside.

Gram negative stain red, and have a phospholipid bilayer covering the peptidoglycan
What are the different bacterial oxygen requirements
Obligate anaerobe Obligate aerobe Facultative anaerobe
Prokaryotic feeding strategies
-type of energy source and carbon source
Photoautotroph - light energy, and CO2 from inorganic material
Chemoautotroph - inorganic materials for energy and carbon
Photoheterotroph - light for energy and organic material for carbon
Chemoheterotroph organic material for energy and carbon
Bacteria and nitrogen metabolism?
Bacteria fix nitrogen and convert it to ammonia. This makes nitrogen available to other organisms
Salmonella -
Group:
Shape:
Gram Stain:
O2 Requirement:
Other:
Salmonella -
Group: Proteobacteria
Shape: Bacillus
Gram Stain: Negative
O2 Requirement: Facultative anaerobe
Other: Endotoxin in cell membrane is released when the bacteria is lysed. This causes diarrhea and nausea. Commonly from Chicken and reptiles.
E. Coli
Group:
Gram Stain:
O2 Requirement:
Other:
E. Coli
Group: Proteobacteria
Gram Stain: Negative
O2 Requirement: Facultative Anaerobe
Other: Exotoxin actively released as a protein, causing diarrhea
Clostridium
Group:
Shape:
Gram Stain:
Oxygen Requirement
Other:
Clostridium
Group: Gram positive bacteria
Shape: Bacillus
Gram Stain: Doesnt stain
Oxygen Requirement: Obligate anaerobe
Other: Releases exotoxins. Causes Gangrene and botulism. Botulism can be due to canned food.
Streptococcus
Group:
Shape:
Gram Stain:
Oxygen Requirement:
Other: -where its found, diseases caused, what it is used to make
Streptococcus
Group: Gram positive
Shape: Coccus
Gram Stain: Positive
Oxygen Requirement: Air tolerant anaerobe
Other: Found in intestinal tract, causes strep throat and toxic like shock syndrome, and helps make buttermilk.
Staphylococcus
Group:
Shape:
Gram Stain:
Oxygen Requirement:
Other:
Staphylococcus G
roup: Gram positive
Shape: Coccus
Gram Stain: Positive
Oxygen Requirement: Facultative anaerobe
Other: Most common type of food poisoning. Causes Toxic Shock Syndrome.
Oscillatoria
Group:
Shape:
Gram Stain:
Oxygen Requirement:
Other:
Oscillatoria
Group: Cyanobacteria
Shape: Filamentous
Gram Stain: N/A
Oxygen Requirement: Fixes Nitrogen and releases Oxygen
Other: Contains Chlorophyll A and phycocyanin
Treponema Pallidum Group Causes
Spirochete Syphillus
Borrelia Burgdoferi Group Causes
Spirochete Lime disease
Chlamydia Group: Shape: Gram Stain: Other:
Chlamydia Group: Chlamydia Shape: Coccus Gram Stain: Negative Other: Causes blindness and most common STD in the US
Archaea Groups and what makes the groups unique What makes them like eukaryotes
Methanogens - release methane Halophiles - live in high salt areas Thermophiles - live in extreme temperatures Replicate DNA and make protein like eukaryotes
Mutualism
Both organisms benefit
Commensalism
One organism benefits, the other remains the same
Parasitism
One organisms benefits and one is hindered
Kochs Postulates
Isolate microorganism from dead animal Grow in pure culture Inject into healthy animal Microorganism reproduces and reinfects animal Reisolate microorganism
Anagenesis
One species evolves directly into another
Cladogenesis
One species diverges into 2 or more
Allopatric speciation
A geographical barrier causing speciation
Favorable conditions of Allopatric speciation
Small population Isolation Different environmental conditions
Autopolyploidy
When an organism doubles its chromosomes and can only reproduce with organisms that have done the same - leading to speciation
Allopolyploidy
Species with a different number of chromosomes combining to form a new species
Adaptive Radiation
The emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems
Macroevolution
Large scale evolution occuring above the level of just species
Gradualism
Small changes occurring over time
Populational gradualism
New traits becoming established in a population by increasing their frequency from a small fraction of the population to the majority
Phenotypic gradualism
New traits, even those strikingly different, are produced in small increments
Phyletic Gradualism
On a geological time scale, the intermediate forms connecting the phenotypes of ancestors and descendants
Punctuated Equilibrium
Long periods of little change and short periods of drastic change. Niles Eldridge and Stephen Gould
Exaption
Most novelties are modified versions of older structures
Modern Synthesis
Gradual evolution can be explained by small genetic changes that produce variation which is acted upon by natural selection and the evolution at higher taxonomic levels and of greater magnitude can be explained by long periods of time
HOX Genes
Genes important to developement
Homeobox
Gene group similar in multiple organisms
Allometric growth
Proportions change as an organism ages. Parts grow at different rates
Heterochrony
Different parts grow at different rates
Paedeomorphosis
Retention of juvenille features as an adult.
Paedeogenesis
Sexual maturity at the larval form.
Limitations to the fossil record
Habitat bias, the need for immediate fossil coverage, temporal bias, and the common bias - high populations are more likely to be fossilized.
Monophyletic
Ancestral group and all of its descendants
Paraphyletic
Lacking in descendants, but common ancestor is identified
Polyphyletic
No common ancestor
Homology
Likeness due to a common ancestor
Analogy
Likeness due to convergent evolution
Molecular homeoplasy
Similar DNA sequences through independent evolution
Maximum Parsimony
The simplest explanation is the correct one
Tissue systems
One or more tissues organized into a functional unit connecting the organs of a plant
Ground tissue -what it is - types
Various specialized cells for storage, photosynthesis and support. Pith and Cortex
Pith
Ground tissue, internal to vascular tissue
Cortex
ground tissue, external to vascular tissue
Parenchyma Tissue structure and function
Made of parenchyma cells Living Primary walls Photosynthesis and storage
Collenchyma tissue structure and function
made of collenchyma cells livin thickened primary wall function in support
Sclerenchyma tissue
- made of sclerenchyma cells - usually dead - lignin thickened primary and secondary wall - fibers or sclereids - function as support
Vascular tissue system function
conduction and support
Dermal tissue system constituents and their function
Dermal tissue system - Epidermis - complex usually transparent tissue that secretes cuticle - Periderm - replaces the epidermis in woody plants and protects
Xylem - function - types of tissue
Xyem - Conveys H2O and dissolved minerals upwards from roots to shoots - tracheids and vessel elements
Tracheids - type of vascular tissue - function
Tracheids - Xylem tissue - have pits to allow cell to cell water movement
Vessel elements - type of tissue - function
Vessel elements - Xylem tissue - has perforations to allow water to move directly cell to cell
Phloem -Included cells, their characteristic, and functions
Phloem - transports organic materials to roots, fruits, and leaves. -Sieve tube members: alive at maturity, no nucleus, Sieve plates - end wall helping transport - Companion cells - alive at maturity and help control the sieve tube member cell
Monocot Root (inside to outside) including function
Pith Xylem - Transports water Phloem - Transports food Pericycle - dividing cells Endodermis - casparian strip made of suberin to regulate water and minerals; passage cells to allow water to pass through Cortex - sotrage Epidermis - protection
Cuticle -what secretes it -function
Cuticle -Secreted by epidermis - helps prevent H2O loss in leaves and stems
Root systems
Absorb and transport minerals and H20; and store food
Taproot system
One main vertical root (taproot) developed from an embryonic root. gives rise to lateral roots. In eudicots and gymnosperms.
Lateral Root
Arises from the outer most layer of the pericycle of a root.
Fibrous root system
Seedless vascular plants and monocots. Many small roots growing from stem, each forming its own lateral roots.
Adventitious
Roots arising from the stem.
Where does most plant absorption occur in plants and why
Primarily in the root tips, tiny hairs increase surface area of the root.
Stem structure

- where does stem elongation occur
Node - point at which leaves attach to the stem
Internode - stem segment between the nodes
Axillary bud - in the angle formed by the leaf and the stem. Can form lateral shoots or branches.

-elongation occurs near the shoot apex
Terminal bud
structure at shoot apex responsible for elongation
Apical dominance -why is it advantageous
The proximity of a terminal bud inhibitting the growth of axillary buds. Increases the plants exposure to light
Leaf structure monocot vs dicot veination
a flattened blade, a stalk and a petiole. veins run along its length parallel veins in monocots branching complex in dicots
petiole
joins leaf to node of the stem
Meristem
Perpetually embryonic tissue important for growth
Apical Meristem
At the tips of roots and buds of shoots. Provides additions cells for length (primary growth)
Protoderm
Lies around te outside of the stem, develops into the epidermis
Ground meristem
Develops into ground tissue
Procambium
Gives rise to vascular tissue
Vascular tissue in monocots vs dicots
Monocots - scattered throughout the stem Dicots - focused in a ring in center of stem
Stele (definition) -in roots vs in stems and leaves
Collective vascular tissue of a root or stem in roots forms the vascular cylinder in stems and leaves divided into vascular bundles
Indeterminate growth
Growth occurring throughout an organisms life
Determinate growth
Growth that stops at a certain size.
Annual
complete life cycle in a year or less
Biennials
Generally live two years with a intervening cold period.
Perennials
Live many years
Primary growth
Growth produced by apical meristems, lengthening stems and roots.
Herbaceous plants -characterized by what type of growth
Primary growth
Secondary growth
Growth produced by lateral meristems, thickening the roots and shoots of woody plants
Vascular Cambium
Adds layers of secondary xylem (wood) and secondary phloem. A type of lateral meristem
Cork Cambium
Replaced epidermis with periderm - which is thicker and tougher. A type of lateral meristem
Lateral meristem
Thickens the roots and shoots of woody plants.
Primary Growth in Roots -Important regions
Root Cap Zone of Cell Division Zone of elongation Zone of maturation
Root Cap
Protects apical meristem, secretes polysaccharide lubricant. Growth occurs behind root cap.
Zone of Cell Division
Behind Root Cap and before Zone of Elongation. Produces new cells
Zone of Elongation
After zone of cell division. Where cells get longer, and responsible for pushing the root further into the soil
Zone of Maturation
Where cells complete their differentiation
Dicot Root (inside to outside) -What structure does it lack that monocots have
Xylem - Transports water Phloem - Transports food Pericycle - dividing cells Endodermis - casparian strip made of suberin to regulate water and minerals; passage cells to allow water to pass through Cortex - sotrage Epidermis - protection LACKS A PITH
Pericycle
Outermost cell layer in vascular cylinder, where lateral roots arise
Endodermis
Innermost layer of the cortex. Cylinder one cell thick forming a boundary with the vascular cylinder. A selective barrier regulating the passage of substances into the vascular cylinder
Structures in the shoot system and function
Stems - support, conduction, and growth Leaves - photosynthesis Flowers - pollination Fruits - seed protection, dispersal
Leaf Primordia
Fingerlike projections along the flanks of a shoot apical meristem, gives rise to leaves
Monocot Vs Dicot Stem
Pith (dicot) Ground tissue (monocot) Vascular bundles Cortex (very small in dicots) Epidermis
Secondary growth in stems - why does it occur - structures involved - how growth occurs
Secondary growth in stems - Occurs to increase girth - Vascular Cambium and Cork Cambium - On the layer of cambium xylem develops on one side and phloem grows on the other side, each starts out as a differentiated cell
Structure of a stem with secondary growth (inside to outside)
Pith Primary Xylem Secondary Xylem (wood) Periderm -Vascular cambium -Secondary Phloem -Primary Phloem -Cortex -Phelloderm -Cork Cambium -Cork
Stolon
Type of modified stem, horizontal stems above the ground
Rhizomes
Type of modified stem, horizontal stems below the ground
Tubers
Swollen areas of Rhizome
Bulbs and Corms
Type of modified stem, vertical shoots under the ground
Cladophylls
Type of modified stem, Cactus pad
Leaf Tissue organization
Epidermis -Stomata -Guard Cells -Cuticle Mesophyll Palisade layer - photosynthesis Spongy layer - gas exchange
Mesophyll
Region of ground tissue between upper and lower epidermis. Consists of parenchuma cells for photosynthesis. Two distinct areas - palisade and spongy.
Types of modified leaves and their function
Needles - reduce water loss Tendrils - long and thin for clinging Spines - protection Storage leaves - water storage (succulent)
Primary growth in Stems
-Structures involved
-Monocot/Dicot differences
Protoderm Procambium
-Xylem and phloem in vascular bundles
Ground Meristem - gives rise to cortex

Dicot includes pith and vascular bundles are found in a ring Monocots vascular bundles are scattered throughout
Types of cellular transport in plants
Passive transport:
Diffusion - movement of molecules from high conc to low conc
Osmosis - diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane
Facilitated Diffusion - diffusion aided by a protein channel
Active Transport - low conc to high conc with ATP
Proton Pump - Active transport with H+ Ions.
Water potential
-definition
-2 factors it depends on
Physical property predicting the direction water will flow

based on solute concentration and pressure
Turgid
Plant cell made stiff by H2O pushing against the cell wall
Flaccid
Plant cell is isoosmotic to surrounding environment
Plasmolysis
Plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall due to hyperosmotic situation, causing plant cell to shrink
Aquaporin
Special osmosis facilitating membrane proteins, allowing H2O to move in and out of the cell quicker
Types of Tissue Level Transport
Trans membrane - through the cytosol and cell wall (membrane) Symplastic - only through the cytoplasm Apoplastic - only travels in cell walll
Bulk Flow - what type of transport - what is it - how is it different from osmosis
Bulk flow - Long distance transport - the movement of fluids driven by negative pressure - moves water and solutes
Path of absorption of water and minerals
-what aids this
-what pathways can water and minerals follow
- what path way can water and minerals enter stele from
- inside stele what pathway must be switched to and why
Soil -> epidermis ->root cortex ->xylem pathway
-Surface area is increased by root hairs and mycorrhizae

Pathways: 1. Apoplastic ---> Symplastic ----> Apoplastic
2. Symplastic ---> Symplastic ---> Apoplastic
-Water and minerals can only enter stele through the symplastic pathway
- Apoplastic must be used because the xylem has no protoplast
Casparian Strip -Where is it located -What is its structure -How does it alter water and mineral flow.
-In the walls of an endodermal cell. -A belt made of suberin. -By blocking water and mineral entrance via the apoplast. They must enter the vascular cylinder via the symplast because of this
Pushing Xylem -what does it do -how does it induce root pressure
-pushes H2O up small plants -uses root pressure caused by root cells actively pumping minerals into the xylem
Guttation
A positive pressure pushing H2O out of the leaves of a plant, where it accumulates at the tips.
How do pulling Xylem function in long distance transport
-Transpiration occurs at the stomata - In the spaces between plant cells, water sticks to other water molecules (cohesion) and also sticks to the cell wall (adhesion) - Surface tension from water loss causes a negative pressure - This forms a meniscus which is concave ---> the more concave the greater the pressure - Water is pulled out of cells due to negative pressure, and must be replaced - Water from the plant body replaces lost water - Cohesion helps pull the sap up the plant and adhesion fights the gravity impeding it
Guard Cells -How do they control transpiration -What state are they in to cause open and closed stomata -How do guard cells become turgin or flaccid
Guard Cells - flank stomata pore and regulate its opening and closing - To be open the cells are turgid, to be closed the cells are flaccid - Active transport of hydrogen ions out causes potassium ions to move in. K+ ions shuttled in makes the cell turgid, shuttled out makes the cell flaccid.
Stomata -How do they detect the first light of the day - What makes them open
Stomata - Blue light receptor - Depletion of CO2 makes them open
How do plants reduce transpiration
-Small thick leaves (lower surface area to volume ration) -Thick cuticle - Recessed Stomata - Deciduous leaves
Phloem Loading -pathway -mechanism involved
Sugar made in the mesophyll is moved through apoplastic and symplastic pathways pass through bundle sheath, parenchyma and companion cells to sieve tube members chemiosmosis used to move sucrose from apoplast to symplast
Translocation of Phloem -What does this do - What causes this movement - Explain the process
Translocation of Phloem - Moves sugar from a source to a sink, reducing water potential in the sieve tube - Movement is due to hydrostratic pressure flow - H2O intake generates hydrostatic pressure near a source cells forcing water to lower pressure areas near the sink cell --->sugar is uploaded into sink cell by active transport causing cells to lose water, easing pressure ---> Xylem recycles water up back towards the source cell.
Soil -how does it develop -how does it aid plants -whats its composition -what are the different textures
Soil -Developed from weathered rocks -anchors plants, provides water and dissolved minerals -Sand, silt, clay, rocks, humus, microorganisms - pertain to particle size. Sands (largest) silt (middle) and clay(smallest)
Protist - 3 Nutritional Categories
Protozoa -animal like - heterotrophic - ingestive Algae - plantlike - photosynthetic - autotrophic Fungi-like - absorptive - mixotrophic
Protist Reproduction
Asexual Sexual Syngamy - diploid zygote splits to produce 2 new haploid organisms
Diplomonadida
-nuclei
-flagella
2 equal sized nuclei
multiple flagella which are extensions of the cytoplasm, consisting of bundled microtubule covered by cell memebrane
Clade: Parabasala
-mitochondria?
Characteristics
Groups
Clade: Parabasala
- Have small or are completely lacking mitochondria
Groups: Trichomona
Group: Trichomonads
Clade
-movement
Clade - Parabasala
Undulating membrane for movement.
Clade: Euglenozoa
-type of flagella
-mitochondria shape
Groups
Clade: Euglenozoa
Flagella containing spiral or crystalline rods.
Disk shaped mitochondrial cristae.
Paramylum the storage carbohydrate.
Groups - Euglenoids and Kinetoplastids
Group Euglenoids
-storage carbohydrate
-flagella?
Clade
Euglenoids
-Pocket at one end where one or two flagella emerge
-Paramylon

Autotrophic and heterotrophic. Phagocytotic.

Can detect light and have an eyespot.

Clade - Euglenozoa
Kinetoplastids
Clade -
-special mitochondria
-mitochondrial DNA
-immune avoidance
Diseases caused:
Kinetoplastids Clade -
Euglenozoa General
Characteristics: - Single large mitochondrion
- Kinetoplast, a large organized mass of DNA in the mitochondrion
- Bait and switch immune system defense, changing surface protein structure to avoid detection Diseases: African sleeping disease (Tse Tse fly) and Chagas (kissing bug)
Alveolata
G. Characteristics
Groups included
Alveolata
G. Characteristics: - membrane bound sacs (alveoli) under the plasma membrane.
Groups - Dinoflagellates, Apicomplexans, and Ciliates.
Dinoflagellates
-flagella location
-pigment
-visibility
-component of internal wall
Clade?
Dinoflagellates
G. Characteristics: - fresh and salt water.
- Two flagella located in perpendicular grooves
- Xanthophyll
- Bioluminescence
- phototrophic and heterotrophic
- internal walls of cellulose.
Clade: Alveolata
Group: Apicomplexans
-mode of living
-organelle complex
-control of vital functions
Clade: Alveolata
Group: Apicomplexans
- parasites of animals
- apical organelle complex for penetrating host cells and tissue
- apicoplast - performs vital functions like synthesizing fatty acids.
Clade:
Group: Ciliates
-nuclei?
-forms of reproduction
Clade: Alveolata
Group: Ciliates
G. Characteristics: - use cilia to move and feed.
- two types of nuclei: large macronuclei (containing dozens of genome copies, and control feeding, waste removal and water balance) and micronuclei which are haploid and are used during conjugation.
-transverse binary fission and conjugation.
Clade:Stramenopila
Group(s):
-flagella textures
-storage carbohydrate
-chloroplast structure
Clade: Stramenopila
Group(s): Bacilariophyta, Chrysophyta, Phaeophyta, Oomycota
C. Characteristics:
- Flagellum with numerous fine hairlike progections.
- smooth flagellum
- store food as laminarin
- choloroplasts with two additional membranes.
Group: Bacilariophyta (or Diatoms)
-structural integrity
-usefulness
Clade: Stramenopila
Group: Bacilariophyta (or Diatoms)
- glass like wall made of hydrated silica embedded in an organic matrix. wall overlaps, providing protection
- strength comes from lacework of holes and grooves.
- reproduce asexually and sexually (rare)
- major component of phytoplankton
- used as filters and toothpaste
Group: Chrysophyta
-flagella where and how many
-pigments
-cell wall
Clade: Stramenopila Group: Chrysophyta (Golden Algae) G. Characteristics: - biflagellated with both near one end of the cell.
- color from yellow and brown carotenoids
- photosynthetic or mixotrophic
- photosynthetic pigments are carotene and xanthophyll
- cell wall made of silica.
Clade:
Group: Phaeophyta
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Stramenopila
Group: Phaeophyta (Brown algae)
G. Characteristics:
- fucoxanthan
- cell wall of cellulose and algin
- often used as a thickening agent
- include many species knows as seaweed
Seaweed structure
Thallus - seaweed body. Lacks true roots, stems and leaves. Holdfast - anchors the thallus Stipe - like a plant stem Blades - supported by stipe, provide surface for photosynthesis
Clade:
Group: Oomycota
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Stramenopila
Group: Ooymycota (water mold) G. Characteristics:
- no pigment
- cellulose cell wall
- multinucleate filaments (hyphae)
- no plastids
- decomposers or parasites.
- caused potate famine and wine famine
Slime molds protista characteristics and fungi characteristics?
Protist: -Flagellated reproductive cells - cellulose cell wall - amoeba or algae like


Fungi: - hyphae - nonphotosynthetic - produce sporangia
Clade: Cercozoan Group(s):
-pseudopodia?
Clade: Cercozoa
Group: Radiolaria and Foraminiferans
C. Characteristics: - Thin pseudopodia used for movement and feeding.
Clade:
Group: Foraminiferans
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Cercozoans
Group: Foraminiferans
G. Characteristics:
- porous shells (tests) of calcium carbonate.
- symbiotic algae within tests provide nourishment
Clade:
Group:
Radiolarians
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Cercozoans
Group: Radiolarians
G. Characteristics: - test with fused silica
- axopodia (pseudopodia) reinforced by microtubules
Clade: Amoebozoans
Group(s):
-pseudopodia
Clade: Amoebozoans
Group: Gymnamoebas and Entamoebas
C. Characteristics: -Thick pseudopodia used for movement and feeding.
Clade:
Group: Gymnamoebas
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Amoebozoans G
roup: Gymnamoebas G. Characteristics: - naked with broad pseudopodia
Clade: Group: Entamoebas G. Characteristics:
Clade: Amoebozoans Group: Entamoebas G. Characteristics: - free living parasites - cause montezumas revenge
Clade: Slime Mold Group(s): G. Characteristics:
Clade: Slime Mold Group: Plasmodial or Cellular C. Characteristics: - n/a
Clade:
Group: Plasmodial Slime molds
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Slime mold
Group: Plasmodial slime mold
G. Characteristics:
- single mass of cytoplasm with many nuclei
- synchrous mitotic divisions (all nuclei go through mitotic divisions at the same time)
- cytoplasmic streaming to help distrubute nutrients and oxygen
- plasmodium feeding structure; extends pseudopodia through environment and engulfs food particles
Clade:
Group: Cellular slime mold
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Slime mold
Group: Cellular slime mold
G. Characteristics:
- in feeding stage of life cycle, cells function individually
- cells aggregate into a unit when food is depleted or when mating.
- no flagellated stages
Clade: Rhodophyta
Group: Rhodophyta
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Rhodophyta
Group: Rhodophyta (red algae)
G. Characteristics:
- multicellular
- phycoerythrin pigment
- cellulose cell wall
- no flagellated stage in life cycle
- absorb blue green light, and red wavelength does not penetrate deep into water so predators are not adapted to seeing it.
Clade: Chlorophyta
Group: Chlorophyta
G. Characteristics:
Clade: Chlorophyta
Group: Chlorophyta
G. Characteristics:
- unicellular, colonial, and multicellular
- Chlorophyll A, B, and carotenoids
- cell wall made of cellulose
Alternation of generations in: Mosses Ferns Seed Plants
Alternation of generations in: Mosses - sporophyte dependent on gametophyte generation Ferns - gametophyte independent of sporophyte Seed Plants - gametophyte dependent on sporophyte (sporophyte dominant)
Why be sporophyte dominant
Reduced mutations from UV light - the diploid condition copes better
Why retain a gametophyte generation
Phenotypic variation Viable food source
The evolutionary advantages of seeds
- packaging leads to higher higher survival rates - seeds can remain dormant for years - water isnt needed as a gamete medium
Seed ovule consists of - (including haploid or diploid condition)
- A nucelus (megasporangium) (2n) - Integument (2n) - Megaspore (n)
Ovule to Seed process
Megaspore (n) develops into multicellular female gametophyte with an egg Sperm then enters the ovule through the micropyle and reaches the egg through a pollen tube
Products of seed fertilization (including n or 2n)
Embryo (2n) formed by syngamy of sperm and egg Seed coat(2n) formed from the integument Seed develops from the whole ovule
Seed plants
-What generation is reduced
- What do gymnosperms lack
- What do angiosperms lack
Seed Plants
- Gametophyte generation is reduced
- Gymnosperms lack an antheridium
- Angiosperms lack archegonium and antheridium
Seed Plant Phylogeny
Gymnosperm Phyla:
Seed Plant Phylogeny Gymnosperm Phyla:
Gingkophyta
Cycadophyta
Gnetophyta
Gymnosperm Phyla:
Gingkophyta
- wheres it from
- what shape are its leaves
- what sex is preferred
Gymnosperm Phyla: Gingkophyta
- From china
- Fan shaped leaves
- Males preferred
Gymnosperm Phyla: Cycadophyta
- the first to show what
- how are the leaves organized
Gymnosperm Phyla: Cycadophyta
- True secondary growth
- in clusters at the top of the plant
Gymnosperm Phyla: Gnetophyta Subdivisions Characteristics of those subdivisions
Gymnosperm Phyla: Gnetophyta Subdivisions: (Only important one) Ephedra - produces ephedrine
Gymnosperm Phyla: Coniferophyta - what is the sporophyte generation - what types of cones does it contain
Gymnosperm Phyla: Coniferophyta - pine tree is sporophyte generation - male (staminate pollen) cones low on the tree, and female (ovulate) cones high on the tree
Pine life cycle male and female gamete structure
Microsporangia produce pollen grain - 4cells 2 prothallial 1 generative 1 tube and wings Ovule is in ovulate cone Integument (2n) megasporangia (or nucellus - 2n) -produces 4 megaspores - 3die, 1 develops into female gametophyte (archegonium with eggs - n)
Flower structure and function
Angiosperm life cycle

Male gamete structure
Female gamete structure
Embryo sac structure
Type of fertilization
What ovary and ovule become
No antheridium
Pollen grain
- 1 generative cell (making 2 sperm) and 1 tube cell
Ovule in ovary
- megasporangia makes 4 megaspores (3 die). Remaining 1 develops into female gametophyte - embryo sac.
Embryo sac - 7cells (8 nuclei) from 3 mitotic divisions 3 antipodals, 2 polar nuclei, 2 synergids, 1 egg

DOUBLE FERTILIZATION one sperm unites with egg, one with polar nuclei (forming 3n endosperm);

ovule becomes a seed, ovary becomes fruit.
Cross pollination -why do flowers not self pollinate
Cross pollination - stamen and carpal may develop at different times - they may also be arranged to avoid contact
Overall evolution of plants Ordovician Devonian Carboniferous Cretaceous
Ordovician - Nonvascuar seedless (mosses) Devonian - Vascular seedless Carboniferous - Vascular Seed Cretaceous - Flowering plants (angiosperms)
Plant characteristics shared with algae
-Multicellular and eukaryotic - Cellulose cell wall - Chlorophyll A, B and Carotenoids - Store excess sugar as starch
Why do people think modern plants evolved from Charophyceans
-Homologous Cell walls -Peroxisome enzyme (photorespiration) -Homologous chloroplast -Sperm ultrastructure -Phragmoplasts (mitosis and cytokinesis) -Genetic relationship
Plant adaptations to terrestrial life:
-Apical meristems -multicellular embryos dependent on parent tissue for protection -alternation of generations -walled spores to help in dry conditions -cuticle, stomata, xylem, phloem, and secondary components
Plant adaptations to shallow water
-protection from occasional drying -protected gametes -sporopollenin
Bryophyte Gametophytes -What makes up the body of a moss gametophyte -What constrains its height -What anchors the gametophyte -Where do they produce gametes
Bryophyte Gametophytes -A protonema and gametophore - the absence of vascular tissue - needed for long distance transport - Rhizoids - In the gametangia
Protonema -what is it -how does it enhance absorption -what structure does it produce in favorable conditions
Protonema - green branched one cell thick filament produced by germinating moss spores - a large surface area - buds, each with an apical meristem that generates a gametophore
Gametophore
Gametophore - the gamete producing structure of the gametophyte body of a moss
Rhizoids -what are they -how are they unlike roots
Rhizoids - long tubular cells anchoring the gametophyte - not composed of tissue, lack conducting cells, and play no role in absorption
Bryophyte Life Cycle
Nonvascular seedless plants: -structure -nutrient and water movement -sexually
Nonvascular seedless plants: -structure: plant is a thallus; no true leaves, roots, or stems -nutrient and water movement: use diffusion -sexually: embryophytes - had gametangia and antheridium
Nonvascular seedless plants Phylum: Hepatophyta -common name -physical forms and which is most common -reproduction
Nonvascular seedless plants Division: Hepatophyta -liverworts -physical forms: leafy (80%) and thalloid (20%) -reproduce asexually using gemmae cup to spread gametes through water also reproduce sexually with antheridia and archegonia
Nonvascular seedless plants What type of tissue do they lack
Lack conductive tissue
Nonvascular seedless plants Where do their gametes develop
within the gametangia for protection of the embryo
Nonvascular seedless plants What do they require to spread their gametes and to reproduce
Water
What generation becomes increasing predominant as plants evolve
Sporophyte generation
Vascular seedless plants key characteristics
-Formation of vascular tissue (xylem, phloem, roots, and leaves) -Lignin - hard material in cell wall of water conducting cells. -Sporophyte (2N) generation dominant -Flagellates sperm (still needed water to reproduce)
Vascular Seedless Plants Division: Lycophyta -common name -vascular characteristics -specialized leaves producing sporangia
Vascular Seedless Plants Division: Lycophyta -club mosses - true stems, roots, and leaves - sporophylls
Vascular Seedless Plants Division: Pterophyta - included phyla - common name *As a Phylum: -vascular characteristics -type of leaf -leaf for reproduction
Vascular Seedless Plants Division: Pterophytes - Psilophyta, Sphenophyta, and Pterophyta -"ferns" *As a Phylum: - True leaves, stems and roots - megaphylls - sporophylls
Vascular Seedless Plants Phylum: Pterophyte Class: Psilophyta -common name -vascular characteristics - where does it photosynthesize
Vascular Seedless Plants Phylum: Pterophyte Class: Psilophyta - whisk fern - lacks true leaves and roots - photosynthesis in the stem
Vascular Seedless Plants Phylum: Pterophyte Class: Sphenophyta - Common name - Vascular Characteristics - Substance found in the stem - type of small leaf, and what happens when it matures.
Vascular Seedless Plants Phylum: Pterophyte Class: Sphenophyta - horse tails - true leaves, stems and roots - silica on inner cell walls of the stem - microphylls, die at maturity
Vascular Seedless Plants Phylum: Pterophyte ----- Life Cycle?
(Haploid phase) zygote -> fern plant -> sori -> sporangia ......MEIOSIS....... (Diploid phase) Spores -> Prothallus(gametophyte) -> antheridium and archegonium -> SYNGAMY
Nonvascular seedless plants Division: Bryophytes Living phyla: -structure: -nutrient and water movement: -sexually: -which generation is longer living
Nonvascular seedless plants Division: Bryophyta Living phyla: Hepatophyta, Anthocerophyta, and Bryophyta -structure: plant is a thallus; no true leaves, roots, or stems -nutrient and water movement: use diffusion -sexually: embryophytes - had gametangia and antheridium -Gametophyte generation is longer living
Sporophylls
Modified leaves that produce sporangia
Sori
Clusters of sporangia on the underside of sporophylls
Homosporous
One type of sporophyll producing one type of spore that develops into a bisexual gametophyte
Heterosporous
Two types of sporophylls and two kinds of spores
Megaspores
Produced by megasporophylls in megasporangia. Develop into female gametophytes.
Microspores
-produced where
-develop into what
Produced by microsporophylls in microsporangia. Develop into male gametophyte.
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Calcarea
-skeletal structure
-body forms
calcium spicules
asconoid, syconoid, leuconoid
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Hexactinellidae
-skeletal structure
-body forms
silica spicules
syconoid, leuconoid
Phylum: Porifera
Class: Demospongiae
-skeletal structure
-body forms
silica spicules and/or spongin
leuconoid
Cnidocyte structure and function
Stinging cell
nematocyst - thread with barbs
cnidocils - trigger
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
-habitat
-body form(s)
-lifestyle of body stages (only polyp)
-reproductvely
-name of larvae
Most are marine
Most species contain both a polyp and medusa stage
Polyp stage often colonial
Reproduction
asexual: budding
sexual: zygotes and larvae
Larvae called planula
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Scyphozoa
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
-habitat
-body form(s)
-lifestyle of body stages
-common name
All are marine
Polyp stage reduced or absent
Medusa stage is free living
Common name: sea jellies
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Anthozoa
-habitat
-dominant body stage, which one is absent
All are marine
Polyp stage dominant
No medusa stage
Phylum: Ctenophora
-Common name
-locomotion
-tentacles
Comb Jellies
Contain comb plates with cilia
largest animal to move with cilia
Tentacles with colloblasts (adhesive cells)
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Turbellaria
-locomotion
-habitat
-important evolutionary developement
Move by ciliated body structure
Free-living and mostly marine
Cephalization
Gastrovascular cavity
Regeneration
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Monogenea
-feeding strategy
-larval stage
Parasitic (One host)
Fish parasites
Ciliated free swimming larvae
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Trematoda
-type of parasitism
-how many hosts
-skin
Endoparasitic flukes
Two hosts
Tegument
Phylum: Platyhelminthes
Class: Cestoidea
-type of parasitism
-body parts
Endoparasitic tapeworms
Body parts:
proglottids
scolex with hooks and suckers
Schistosoma
-common name
-Class and Phylum
-Mode of entry
-intermediate host
-symptoms
Platyhelminthes, Trematoda
Blood fluke
enters through skin and moves to intestine
invert host - snail
symptoms: pain, anemia, dysentery
Clonorchis
-common name
-Class and Phylum
-Mode of entry
-intermediate host
Liver fluke
Platyhelminthes, Trematoda
enters by eating raw fish and moves to bile ducts
invert host - snail
symptoms: cirrhosis of the liver, death
Swimmers dermatits
larvae enters skin
larvae in skin, can’t complete life cycle in humans
Taeniarhyncus
common name
mode of infection
Beef tapeworms (adult) undercooked beef
Taeniarhyncus
common name
mode of infection
Beef tapeworms (adult) undercooked beef
Taenia Solium
common name
mode of infection
Pork tapeworms (adult) undercooked pork
Taenia Solium
common name
mode of infection
Pork tapeworms (adult) undercooked pork
Diphyllobothrium
common name
mode of infection
Fish tapeworm (adult)
undercooked fish
Taeniarhyncus
common name
mode of infection
Beef tapeworms (adult) undercooked beef
Diphyllobothrium
common name
mode of infection
Fish tapeworm (adult)
undercooked fish
Echinococcus
common name
mode of infection
Unilocular hydatid (cyst)
association with dogs and ruminants
Taenia Solium
common name
mode of infection
Pork tapeworms (adult) undercooked pork
Echinococcus
common name
mode of infection
Unilocular hydatid (cyst)
association with dogs and ruminants
Diphyllobothrium
common name
mode of infection
Fish tapeworm (adult)
undercooked fish
Functions of the pseudocoelom
store nutrients
movement
hydrostatic skeleton
space for organ development
Echinococcus
common name
mode of infection
Unilocular hydatid (cyst)
association with dogs and ruminants
Functions of the pseudocoelom
store nutrients
movement
hydrostatic skeleton
space for organ development
Lophophorates
3 included phyla, basic characteristics of those phyla and their lifestyle
P. Bryozoans - colonial and moss-like
P. Phoronids - marine tube worms
P. Brachiopods - lamp shells
Lophophorates
3 included phyla, basic characteristics of those phyla and their lifestyle
P. Bryozoans - colonial and moss-like
P. Phoronids - marine tube worms
P. Brachiopods - lamp shells
Nematoda
-body structure
Unsegmented, round with tapered ends
Functions of the pseudocoelom
store nutrients
movement
hydrostatic skeleton
space for organ development
Nematoda
-body structure
Unsegmented, round with tapered ends
Ancylostoma
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Hookworm (burrows into skin and moves to intestine)
Nematoda
Lophophorates
3 included phyla, basic characteristics of those phyla and their lifestyle
P. Bryozoans - colonial and moss-like
P. Phoronids - marine tube worms
P. Brachiopods - lamp shells
Enterobius
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Pinworm (pick up eggs from anus or dust with eggs)
Nematoda
Nematoda
-body structure
Unsegmented, round with tapered ends
Ascaris
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Human roundworm (pick up eggs in food)
Nematoda
Ancylostoma
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Hookworm (burrows into skin and moves to intestine)
Nematoda
Trichinella
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Trichina worm (pick up from infected muscle in pork)
Nematoda
Ancylostoma
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Hookworm (burrows into skin and moves to intestine)
Nematoda
Enterobius
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Pinworm (pick up eggs from anus or dust with eggs)
Nematoda
Wuchereria
-phylum
-what it causes
-what it blocks
-mode of infection
Causes elephantiasis
blocks lymph channels
pick up from mosquitoes
Nematoda
Enterobius
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Pinworm (pick up eggs from anus or dust with eggs)
Nematoda
Ascaris
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Human roundworm (pick up eggs in food)
Nematoda
Coelomates

-protostome coelomate phyla and their body structure

-deuterostome coelomate phyla and their symmetry
Protostome:
Mollusca: soft and unsegmented
Annelida: soft and segmented
Arthropoda: hard and segmented

Deuterostome:
Echinodermata: secondary radial symmetry
Chordata: bilateral symmetry
Ascaris
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Human roundworm (pick up eggs in food)
Nematoda
Trichinella
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Trichina worm (pick up from infected muscle in pork)
Nematoda
Trichinella
-phylum
-common name and how its mode of infection
Trichina worm (pick up from infected muscle in pork)
Nematoda
Wuchereria
-phylum
-what it causes
-what it blocks
-mode of infection
Causes elephantiasis
blocks lymph channels
pick up from mosquitoes
Nematoda
Wuchereria
-phylum
-what it causes
-what it blocks
-mode of infection
Causes elephantiasis
blocks lymph channels
pick up from mosquitoes
Nematoda
Coelomates

-protostome coelomate phyla and their body structure

-deuterostome coelomate phyla and their symmetry
Protostome:
Mollusca: soft and unsegmented
Annelida: soft and segmented
Arthropoda: hard and segmented

Deuterostome:
Echinodermata: secondary radial symmetry
Chordata: bilateral symmetry
Coelomates

-protostome coelomate phyla and their body structure

-deuterostome coelomate phyla and their symmetry
Protostome:
Mollusca: soft and unsegmented
Annelida: soft and segmented
Arthropoda: hard and segmented

Deuterostome:
Echinodermata: secondary radial symmetry
Chordata: bilateral symmetry
Mollusca
-Body plan
Foot: muscular and used for movement
Visceral Mass: contains the internal organs
Mantle: covers visceral mass and secretes shell
Mollusca
-Body plan
Foot: muscular and used for movement
Visceral Mass: contains the internal organs
Mantle: covers visceral mass and secretes shell
Class: Monoplacophora
-Phylum
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-foot?
-radula?
Mollusca
Single shelled
Segmented
Deep Marine
Reduced head
Foot for locomotion
Radula present
Class: Monoplacophora
-Phylum
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-foot?
-radula?
Mollusca
Single shelled
Segmented
Deep Marine
Reduced head
Foot for locomotion
Radula present
Mollusca
-Body plan
Foot: muscular and used for movement
Visceral Mass: contains the internal organs
Mantle: covers visceral mass and secretes shell
Class: Monoplacophora
-Phylum
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-foot?
-radula?
Mollusca
Single shelled
Segmented
Deep Marine
Reduced head
Foot for locomotion
Radula present
Class: Polyplacophora
-Phylum
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-foot?
-radula?
Marine
Shell with eight overlapping plates
Foot used for locomotion
Head reduced
Radula present
Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
-Phylum
-symmetry
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-foot?
-radula?
Marine, Freshwater, and Terrestrial
Asymmetrical due to torsion
(dextral vs. sinistral)
Shell coiled (reduced or absent in some)
Foot for locomotion
Radula present
Mollusca
Class: Scaphopoda
-Phylum
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-foot?
-radula?
Benthic marine
Filter feeders
Foot used to burrow into sand
Radula used to move food to gizzard
Mollusca
Class: Bivalvia
-Phylum
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-foot?
-radula?
Marine and Freshwater
Flattened shell with two valves
Head reduced
Filter feeders (siphons)
No radula
Mollusca
Class: Cephalopoda
-Phylum
-shell
-habitat
-head?
-locomotion?
-radula?
All Marine
Head surrounded by tentacles
Shell external, internal or absent
Mouth with radula
Locomotion by siphon (made from mantle)
Mollusca
Class: Oligochaeta
-Phylum
-Head
-Parapodia?
-Setae?
Phylum: Annelida
Class: Oligochaeta
Reduced head
No parapodia
A few setae per segment
Class: Polychaeta
-Phylum
-Head
-Parapodia?
-Setae?
-Habitat
Phylum: Annelida
Class: Polychaeta
Well developed head
Parapodia with setae
Tube-dwelling and free-living
Class: Hirudinea
-Phylum
-Body
-Reduces structures
-Head
-Parapodia?
-Setae?
Phylum: Annelida
Class: Hirudinea
Body usually flattened
Reduced segments and coelom
Setae absent
Suckers at both ends
Parasites, predators and scavengers
Phylum: Oncyophora
-common name
-links what phyla
-appendage structure
Phylum: Onychophora
Walking worm
Shows evolutionary link between annelids and arthropods
Unjointed appendages but segmented
Arthropod Diversity
-factors contributing
Versatile exoskeleton
Segmentation and appendages
Tracheae
Highly developed sense organs
Complex behavior patterns
Metamorphosis
Arthropod Classification
Subphylum: Trilobita
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Merostomata (Horseshoe crabs)
Class: Pycnogonida
Class: Arachnida (Scorpions, Spiders, Ticks, Mites)
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Crustacea (Lobster, Crabs, Shrimp)
Subphylum: Uniramia
Class: Chilopoda (Centipedes)
Class: Diplopoda (Millipedes)
Class: Insecta (Insects)
Subphylum: Trilobita
-body structure exhibit
-appendage characteristics
Segmented without specialization
Paired appendages
Subphylum: Chelicerata
-how many pairs of appendages
-other structures
-lacking structures
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Six pairs of appendages
one pair of chelicerae
one pair of pedipalps (not in horseshoe crabs)
four pair of walking legs
No mandibles
No antennae
Phylum:
Subphylum:
Class:Merostomata
-difference in walking legs
-mising structure
-larvae similar to what
-habitat
Class: Merostomata
five pair of walking legs
no pedipalps
Unchanged since the triassic period
Shallow coastal waters
Larvae similar to trilobites
Phylum:
Subphylum:
Class: Pyconogonida
-appendage abnormalities
-habitat
Class: Pyconogonida
May have extra legs (duplicate segments)
Polar oceans
Class Arachnida
Class: Arachnida
Scorpions are the first terrestrial invertebrates
pedipalps modified as pinchers
tail modified with stinger
Ticks and Mites are parasitic
Spiders contain modified chelicerae
used as fangs to inject poison
produce silk used for webs, eggs, escape, courtship
Subphylum: Crustacea
Subphylum: Crustacea
Contain two pair of antennae
Each appendage is biramous (two main branches)
Mandibles
Body of two or three parts
Mostly marine
Subphylum: Unirama
Subphylum: Unirama
Contain one pair of antennae
Each appendage is uniramous (one main branch)
Mandibles
Class: Chilopoda
-common name
-leg arrangement
-offensive structures
-diet
Class: Chilopoda
Centipedes
one pair of jointed legs per segment
poison claws
predators
Class: Diplopoda
-common name
-leg arrangement
-diet
Class: Diplopoda
Millipedes
two pair of jointed legs per segment (fused)
herbivores
Class: Insecta
-may have been the cause of what?
-types of physical transformation
Class: Insecta
Most diverse of all arthropods
May have been the cause of angiosperm diversity
Metamorphosis
complete
incomplete
Complete VS Incomplete metamorphosis
a
Echinodermata structures
-madreporite
-ambulacral grooves
-ocelli
-pedicellariae
-dermal branchiae
-madreporite - where H2O enters water vascular system
-ambulacral grooves - where tube feet protrude
-ocelli - simple eye
-pedicellariae - pincers preventing algae growth on the body
-dermal branchiae - skin bumps
Water Vascular system
Madreporite
Stone Canal
Ring Canal
Radial Canal
Lateral Canal
Ampulla
Tube Feet
Open/closed Ambulacral Groove
Oral/aboral madreporite
in
Asteroidea
Ophiuroidea
Echinoidea
Crinoidea
Holothuroidea
Asteroidea -Open A.Groove/ Aboral Madreporite
Ophiuroidea - Closed A.Groove/Oral Madreporite
Echinoidea - Closed A.Groove/Aboral Madreporite
Crinoidea - Open A.Groove/Open Madreporite
Holothuroidea - No A.Groove/ Internal Madreporite
4 Characteristics of all chordates
Notochord
Dorsal, Hollow Nerve Cord
Pharyngeal Slits
Muscular, Postanal Tail
Nonvertebrate Chordate containing all 4 chordate characteristics as an adult
Cephalochordata
Nonvertebrate Chordate containing all 4 chordate characteristics only as larvae
Urochordata
Subphylum most closely related to vertebrates
Cephalochordata
Paedogenesis
Sexual maturity as a juvenille
Urochordata
-common name
-lifestyle
-retained characteristics
Tunicates
Sessile
Only contains Pharynx with slits as an adult
Cephalochordata
-common name
-sexual maturity
Lancelates
Paedogenesis
Neural Crest
Forms bones and cartilage of the skull
Key Vertebrate Adaptations
-include why they were advantageous
Living Endoskeleton
better for larger animals
Pharynx and Efficient Respiration
increased metabolic rate
Advanced Nervous System
developed system for distance reception
Paired Limbs
increased movement
Chordate evolution
Vertebrae
Jaws and two sets of paired appendages
Teeth
Lungs
Legs
Amniotic Egg
Hair, feathers
Gnathostomata
-how did jaws evolve
Evolved from skeletal supports of the pharyngeal slits
Class Chondrichthyes
-skeleton
-organisms
-scales
-intestinal modification
-water pressure detection
Class: Chondrichthyes
Cartilaginous skeleton (not primitive)
Sharks, Skates, Rays
Placoid Scales (teeth-like)
Spiral valve within intestine
Lateral line system (detects water pressure)
Class Osteichthyes
-skeleton
-types
-scales
-overlying gull structure
-buoyancy
Class: Osteichthyes
Bony Skeleton
Ray-finned fish
lobe-finned fish
lungfish
Embedded dermal scales
Operculum
Swim Bladder
Class Amphibia
-skin texture
-circulatory system
-type of eggs
Class: Amphibia
Skin smooth and moist
Three chambered heart with a double circulation system
Mesolecithal eggs with jelly-like membrane
Order: Urodela
-common name
-retain what as adults
-limb orientation
-nutritional mode
Order: Urodela
Salamanders
Retain their tail as adults
Limbs are at right angles to the body
Carnivorous
Order: Anurans
-common name
-lose what as adults
-leg adaptation
-tongue attachment
-respiration
Order: Anurans
Frogs and Toads
Lose their tail as adults
Hind limbs are adapted for jumping
Tongue connected to front of mouth
cutaneous and lung
Structure of the amniotic egg
Amnion - Protects from dehydration and mechanical shock
Yolk Sac - Nutrient storage
Albumin - Nutrient storage
Allantois - stores waste, gas exchange
Chorion - gas exchange
How Reptiles differ from Amphibians
Tough, dry skin
Amniotic egg
Crushing or gripping jaws
Copulatory organs
More efficient circulatory system
More developed lungs
Better water conservation
Better body support and limbs
Better nervous system
Turtle shell structure
Plastron (bottom)
Carapace (top)
Feeding Adaptations in Snakes
Teeth curved and pointed inward
Hinged Quadrate bone
Bones of jaw are attached by muscles and ligaments
Moveable palate
Elastic skin
No sternum
Key adaptations in birds
Class: Aves
Hollow bones
Feathers
Wings
Endotherm
Organs reduced
Beak without teeth
No bladder
60% of birds are:____
Two major types of birds
Passeriformes
Ratites and Carinates
Key characteristics of mammals
Hair
Endothermic
Mammary glands
Live birth (2 exceptions)
Teeth differentiation
Jaw modified to incorporate bones into inner ear
Epithelial Tissue
-what it is and what its used for
-cell layers
-cell shapes
-outer covering, used for lining
-simple layer, stratified layer, and pseudostratified layer
-squamous, cuboid, and columnar
Connective Tissue
-tendons connect what
-ligaments connect what
-cells scattered through a matrix (bone, plasma, cartillage, etc...)
-muscle to bone
-bone to bone
Internal Structures:
Pharynx
Esophagus
Crop
Gizzard
Somach
Intestine
Salivary Glands
Pancreas
Liver
Gall Bladder
Pharynx - Breathing
Esophagus- food movement
Crop- stretches for food storage
Gizzard- grinds food
Somach- protein digestion
Intestine- all macromolecule digestion
Salivary Glands- lubrication and starch breakdown
Pancreas-excretes digestive enzymes
Liver-produces bile for emulsification
Gall Bladder-stores bile
Peristalsis
Contraction of involutary muscles to move food through the intestines