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21 Cards in this Set

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Food source examples with full-spectrum vitamin E:
soy foods, wheat germ, rice bran, almond, walnut, peanuts, pistachio, canola oil
Supplement forms of vitamin E that should be purchased:
But only the "d" forms. Avoid "dl" mixtures which are commonly sold. Supplements of d-alpha-tocopherol ranging from 200IU to 400IU/day have been commonly used. Some advocate purchasing "full-spectrum" supplements only (probably best to select more full-spectrum foods)
RDA of vitamin E
15 mg expressed as d-alpha-tocopherol for both adult male and female
UL of vitamin E
UL-1000mg (1500IU) as d-alpha-tocopherol.

1.5IU=1mg d-alpha-tocopherol
How is vitamin E absorbed?
via the chylomicron
What are vitamin E functions?
1. Protects cell membranes
2. Protects lung tissue from air oxidants
3. Protects eicosanoids made from EFAs
4. Protects Vitamin A (needed for conversion of beta-carotene to retinal)
5. May lower risk for heart disesase (may lower oxidation of LDL-controversial)
6. May lower cancer risk
Chemically vitamin E functions as a what?
an antioxidant
Deficiency signs of vitamin E:
Hemolytic anemia and reduced immunity (people with fat malabsorption as in celiac disease and cystic fibrosis and individuals with poor food selection or very low fat intakes are susceptible to deficiency)
Toxicity of vitamin E:
Intakes of up to 200IU/day of d-alpha-tocopherol appear very safe. Avoid large doses when taking anticoagulant drugs since vitamin E will enhance the anticoagulant effect of the drug.
Vitamin E assessment measures:
1. Serum total tocopherol (mg/100mL) normal: 0.80-1.20
2. Hydrogen Peroxide Hemolysis Test (functional test) Acceptable: less than 10% of control hemoglobin; Deficient: greater than 20% control hemoglobulin
For those who have problems digesting fat what type of vitamin E supplemental form should be used?
water-soluble vit E (an ester form)
Selenium can function with vitamin E to do what
have anticancer effects
Selenium RDA:
55 mcg
Selenium UL:
400 mcg
Canathaxanthin dose on bottle vs. possible safe dose
bottle: 4 30 mg pills/day
safe: 15 mg/day
What are composed of a conjugated polyene chain which is a chromophore (color)?
Why are beta-carotene and alpha-carotene called provitamin A?
They can be converted to vitamin A in the gut mucosal cell and liver
What are some food sources of vitamin A?
fish liver oil, liver, egg yolk, butter, milk
What form is vitamin A present in foods?
retinyl esters
Why shouldn't vitamin A supplements be used?
potential toxicity
What are some food sources of carotenoids?
1. dark green leaves
2. deep yellow/orange fruit/veg
3. red sweet pepper
4. broccoli
5. red tomato
6. foods colored with beta-carotene (like margarine)