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259 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anatomy?
Study of the structure
Physiology?
Function of the body
Chemical Level?
Atoms
Cellular Level?
Cells
Tissue Level?
Similar types of cells
Organ Level?
Different types of tissues
Organ System Level?
Different organs that work together
Organismal Level?
Organisms
Variable?
Factor or event being regulated
Receptor?
Sensor that monitors the environment and responds to changes
Control Center?
Determines the set point at which a variable is to be maintained, analyzes the input it receives, and then determines the appropriate response or course of action
Effector?
Provides the means for the control center's response to the stimulus
Negative Feedback?
Shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity
Positive Feedback?
The activity is accelerated
Superior?
Above
Inferior?
Below
Anterior?
In front of
Posterior?
Behind
Medial?
On the inner side of
Lateral?
On the outer side of
Intermediate?
Between a more medial and a more lateral structure
Proximal?
Closer to the origin of the body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Distal?
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk
Superficial?
Toward or at the body surface
Deep?
More internal
Axial Part?
Includes the head, neck, and trunk
Appendicular Part?
Consists of the limbs which are attached to the body's axis.
Sagittal Plane?
Vertical plane that divides the body into left and right parts
Midsagittal Plane?
Plane that lies exactly in the mid-line
Parasagittal Plane?
Plane that is offset from the midline
Frontal Plane?
Divides the body into anterior and posterior regions
Transverse Plane?
Divides the body into superior and inferior parts
Dorsal Body Cavity?
Contains the area in which the brain is encased by the skull and the cavity which runs within the bony vertebral column and encloses the delicate spinal cord
Cranial Cavity?
Contains the brain and skull
Vertebral Cavity?
Contains the spinal column
Ventral Body Cavity?
Contains the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.
Viscera?
Internal Organs
Thoracic Cavity?
Superior portion
Serous Fluid?
Thin, lubricating fluid which is secreted by both membranes
Serous?
Thin, double layer membrane
Parietal Serosa?
Lines cavity walls
Visceral Serosa?
Lines the organs
Umbilical Region?
Centermost region
Epigastric Region?
Above stomach
Hypogastric Region?
Below the navel
Right and Left Iliac Region?
Lateral to the hypogastric region
Right and Left Lumbar?
Lateral to the navel
Right and Left Hypochondriac?
Lateral to the epigastric region
Right Upper Quadrant?
RUQ
Left Upper Quadrant?
LUQ
Right Lower Quadrant?
RLQ
Left Lower Quadrant?
LLQ
Endocrine?
Controls the body with chemical molecules called hormones
Nervous?
Responds to environmental changes by transmitting electrical impulses
Digestive?
Breaks down ingested food into its building blocks
Reproductive?
Site of fetal development
Urinary?
Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes
Brachial?
Arm
Gluteal?
Buttock
Cephalic?
Head
Patellar?
Knee (anterior aspect)
Thoracic?
Chest
Occipital?
Back of Head
Inguinal?
Groin
Mammary?
Breast
Otic?
Ear
Calcaneal?
Heel
Sternal?
Sternum
Oral?
Mouth
Tarsal?
Ankle bones
Orbital?
Eye
Femoral?
Thigh
Medial?
The bridge of the nose is this to the left eye
Superior?
The diaphragm is this to the stomach
Posterior?
The heart is this to the sternum
Distal?
The fingers are this to the wrist
Anterior?
The stomach is this to the spine
Lateral?
The axillary region of the body is this to the sternal region
Proximal?
The patella is this to the tarsals
Inferior?
The femoral region is this to the lumbar region
Superficial?
The skin is this to the pectoralis major
True
Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus
True
Complementarity of structure and function means that the structure of a part reflects its function
False
The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity is called the visceral peritoneum
True
A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function
True
Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least three interdependent components
True
The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region
False
The plantar region is the term that describes the heel
False
Renal physiology deals with the transmission of electrical impulses throughout the body
False
Regional anatomy deals with systems
tissues
Histology could be defined as the study of?
palms turned posteriorly
The anatomical position is characterized by all of the following except?
any sagittal plane except the median
A parasagittal plane is?
lining the thoracic cavity
The parietal pleural would represent a serous membrane?
all of the above are correct
The dorsal cavity contains the?
sensing changes in the environment and then reacting or responding to them
One of the functional characteristics of life is irritability. This refers to?
as a standard reference point for directional terms regardless of the actual position of the body
The anatomical position is used?
sagittal
A vertical section through the body, dividing it into left and right, is called?
thoracic
Which body cavity contains the pleural and pericardial cavities?
thumb
The term pollex refers to the?
axillary
The region of the armpit is called?
organs
Viscera refers to which of the following?
Gross Anatomy
Larger body structures
Regional Anatomy
All the structures in one particular region
Systemic Anatomy
Studied system by system
surface anatomy
study of internal body structures as they relate to the overlying skin surface
microscopic anatomy
too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope
cytology
study of the cells
histology
study of tissues
developmental anatomy
changes in an individual from conception thru old age
embryology
concerns the developmental changes that occur before birth
pathological anatomy
structural changes caused by disease
radiographic anatomy
studies internal structures as visualized by x-ray images or specialized scanning procedures
molecular anatomy
the structure of biological molecules
renal physiology
urine production and kidney function
neurophysiology
workings of the nervous system
cardiovascular physiology
operation of the heart and blood vessels
principle of complementarity of structure and function
what a structure can do depends on its specific form
integumentary
external body covering
skeletal
protects and supports body organs
muscular
allows manipulation of the environment, locomotion, and facial expressions
nervous
fast-acting control system of the body
endocrine
glands secrete hormones that regulate processes such as growth, reproduction, and nutrient use by body cells
cardiovascular
blood vessels transport blood, which carries oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and wastes
lymphatic
picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels and returns it to blood
respiratory
keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide
digestive
breaks down food into absorbable units that enter the blood for distribution to body cells
urinary
eliminates nitrogenous wastes from the body
male reproductive
testes produce sperm and male sex hormone
female reproductive
ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
maintaining boundaries
internal environment remains distinct from the external environment
movement
activities promoted by the muscular system
responsiveness
ability to sense changes in the environment
digestion
breaking down ingested food stuffs to simple molecules
metabolism
sum total of all the chemical reactions that occur within body cells
excretion
removing wastes from the body
reproduction
original cell divides, producing two identical daughter cells
growth
increase in size
nutrients
chemical substances used for energy and cell building
oxygen
needed for maximum atp production
normal body temperature
98.6 F
atmospheric pressure
gas exchange
homeostasis
body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously
homeostatic imbalance
when the body is unable to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world changes continuously
nasal
nose
carpal
wrist
umbilical
navel
acromial
point of shoulder
lumbar
area of back between the ribs, just above the belt line
proximal
the humerus is this to the radius?
anterior
the sternum is this to the spine?
superior
the maxilla is this to the mandible?
parasagittal plane
plane that divides the body into uneven left and right parts
frontal plane
plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior parts
transverse plane
plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts
epigastric
region immediately superior to the umbilical region
right and left lumbar
region lateral to the umbilical region
right and left hypochondriac
region lateral to the epigastric region
adipose tissue
modified areolar tissue, holds nutrients. average person has 18% of this type of tissue
ligaments
these help bone attach to bone
elastic cartilage
made up of elastin fibers and located in the external ear and epiglottis
areolar connective tissue
gel-like matrix with all three fiber types. cushions organs and is located under epithelia
tendons
these attach muscle to bone
fibrocartilage
intermediate between hyaline cartilage and dense regular tissue and is located in intervertebral discs and knee joints
reticular connective tissue
network of reticular fibers, found in lymphoid organs. helps form the stroma
hyaline cartilage
gristle. most abundant type in body. forms embryonic skeleton and covers the ends of bones
dense regular connective tissue
parallel collagen fibers, some elastin fibers. found in tendons and ligaments
messenchyme
1st definitive tissue layer, all others arise from it
blood
atypical connective tissue, surrounded by plasma. helps transport nutrients and waste
cartilage
qualities between dense connective tissue and bone
dense irregular connective tissue
thick collagen fibers. found in dermis of skin and is able to withstand tension
fibroblasts
immature connective tissue fibers
histology
what is the study of tissues?
apical surface
the surface that is exposed to the body exterior or cavity of an internal organ
simple cuboidal
single cell layer; cells are as wide as they are tall
stratified columnar
multiple cell layers; cells look like pillars
transitional
resembles both stratified squamous and cuboidal; found in urinary system
mesothelium
middle covering; lines serous membranes
simple columnar
one cell layer; tall, closely packed cells. like soldiers in a row
pseudostratified columnar
single layer of cells of differing heights, giving impression of multiple layers
endothelium
inner covering; provides a slick, frictionless surface
basal surface
bottom surface; at bottom of epithelium layer
simple squamous
single cell layer; flat, disk-like cells
stratified cubodial
generally two layers of cube-like cells
stratified squamous
thick membrane composed of several cell layers; surface cells are full of keratin
serous membrane
the epithelial membrane that lines the closed ventral cavities of the body
mucous membrane
the epithelial membrane that lines body cavities open to the exterior
cutaneous membrane
consists of keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
mucous membrane
found lining the digestive and respiratory tracts
serous membrane
makes up the pleura and pericardium
endothelium
lines blood vessels and the heart
skeletal
voluntary, striations
cardiac
involuntary, striations and branching cells
smooth
spindle-shaped uninucleate cells
smooth
involved in peristalsis, emptying of the bladder, and the birth process
skeletal
large multinucleate cells with striations
cardiac
has close junctions called intercalated disks
cardiac
forms the walls of the heart
smooth
found in the walls of hollow organs
dense irregular connective tissue
tissue is stressed in many directions
adipose
contains large amounts of neutral fat
dense regular connective tissue
major component of tendons and aponeuroses
blood
transport vehicle for the cardiovascular system
adipose
provide insulation for the body
areolar connective tissue
protects and supports soft tissues
elastic cartilage
structural support of the external ear and other structures that need support with flexibility
hyaline cartilage
forms the embryonic skeleton and covers the articular surfaces of long bones
mesenchyme
embryonic connective tissue that arises from mesoderm and produces all types of connective tissues
mucous connective tissue
wharton's jelly; fetal connective tissue
reticular tissue
forms internal supporting framework of soft organs such as the spleen
True
macrophages are found in areolar and lymphatic tissue
true
epithelial tissues always exhibit polarity; that is, they have a free surface and a basal surface
false
merocrine glands produce their secretion by accumulating their secretions internally and then rupturing the cell
true
cartilage tissue tends to heal less rapidly than bone tissue
false
intercalated discs and striations suggest the presence of skeletal muscle
true
smooth muscle cells possess central nuclei but lack striations
true
squamous cells are flattened and scalelike when mature
false
the suffix -cyte, refers to an immature cell
true
blood is considered a type of connective tissue
false
nervous tissue consists of mainly neurons and collagen fibers
blood vessels
which is not found in the matrix of cartilage but is in bone?
all of the above
tissue changes during aging can be seen in?
has a basement membrane
epithelial tissue?
epithelial tissue
the tissue type that arises from all three embryonic germ layers is?
tissue
organized groups of cells that have a common purpose form a?
elastic tissue
the shape of the external ear is maintained by?
are immature cartilage cells
chondroblasts?
pseudostratified columnar
___ epithelium appears to have two or three layers of cells, but all the cells are in contact with the basement membrane?
adipose tissue
connective tissue proper includes?
ground substance, fibers, and cells
the three main components of connective tissue are?
1. the skin receives a cut that penetrates into the dermis and bleeding begins
2. blood clotting occurs and stops blood flow
3. granulation tissue is formed
4. fibroblasts elaborate connective tissue fibers to span the break
5. macrophages engulf and clean away cellular debris
6. the scar retracts
7. epithelial regeneration is nearly complete
events of tissue repair?
false
salivary glands exhibit simple tubuloalveolar glandular arrangement
true
simple cuboidal epithelia are usually associated with secretion and absorption
false
muscle and connective tissue develop from endoderm
tissue
groups of cells similar in structure and perform a common or related function?
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
four primary tissue types?
histology
study of tissues
epithelial tissue
covers a body surface or lines a body cavity
1.protection
2.absorption
3.filtration
4.excretion
5.secretion
6.sensory reception
6 roles as an interface tissue?
cellularity
close-packed cells
specialized contacts
form continuous sheets
polarity
differ in both structure and function
apical surface
free surface exposed to the body exterior or the cavity of an internal organ
microvilli
fingerlike extensions
cilia
propel substances
basal surface
surface near the base or interior of a structure
basal lamina
lies adjacent to the basal surface of an epithelium
supported by connective tissue
all epithelial sheets rest upon
reticular lamina
fine network of collagen protein fibers
basement membrane
reinforces
innervated but avascular
nerve fibers but contains no blood vessels
regeneration
replace last cells rapidly by cell division
simple epithelia
single cell layer
stratified epithelia
stacked
squamous cells
flattened and scalelike
cuboidal cells
boxlike, tall as they are wide
columnar cells
tall and column shaped
1.simple squamous
2.simple cuboidal
3.simple columnar
4.pseudostratified columnar
four major classes of simple epithelia?
1.stratified squamous
2.stratified cuboidal
3.stratified columnar
4.transitional
four major classes of stratified epithelia?