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27 Cards in this Set

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What are the risk factors of HTN?
Family Hx
Age- arteries are less compliant w/ age
Race- black women and hispanic men
Mineral intake- increased sodium
Obesity
Insulin Resistance
Excess alcohol consumption
Stress
What are the later manifestations of HTN?
HA
Symptoms from organ damage:
-nocturia
-confusion
-N&V
-Visual disturbances
Narrowed arterioles of retina
HTN causes what in the body? specifically to the heart and to the peripheral vascular system
ventricular hypertrophy
accelerated atherosclerosis-which increases risk of stroke
What diagnostic procedures are used to diagnose HTN before Tx?
ECG, urinalysis, blood glucose, hCT, Electrolyte, Creatinine, Ca, Lipid Profile
What are the classifications of drugs used to treat HTN?
Ace inhibitors(Sartans)
ARBs(Prils)
Alpha adrenergic blockers(osins)
Beta Blockers(olol)
Ca Channel Blockers(dipines)
Diuretics-specifically thiazides
BB are contraindicated in what patients?
asthma and COPD
What is the first choice of treatment of HTN?
Diuretics
Causes of Secondary HTN?
kidney disease
coarction of aorta
endocrine disorders
neurologic disorders
drug use
pregnancy
What are the clinical manifestations of DVT?
usually asymptomatic
dull, aching pain
tenderness, warmth, erythema
cyanosis
edema
What diagnostic procedures are used to determine DVT?
duplex venous ultrasonography
plethysmography-changes in blood flow
MRI
ascending contrast venography
How can you treat a DVT?
BR w/ legs elevated, TEDS, SCDs
surgery such as venous thrombectomy or venal caval filter
What are the manifestations of varicose veins?
pain, leg fatigue, leg heaviness, itching, and feelings of heat in the affected area
What are the treatment options for varicose veins?
compression stockings, daily walking
sclerotherapy-sclerosing solution to obliterate pain
surgery to remove
Starling's Law
the greater the stretch of cardiac muscle fibers, the greater the force of contraction
Systolic failure manifestations
decreased CO
weakness
fatigue
decreased exercise intolerance
Diastolic failure manifestations
SOC
tachypnea
respiratory crackles
JVD
liver enlargement
anorexia
Nausea
Left Sided Failure manifestations
activity intolerance
SOB, dyspnea, cough
orthopnea, cyanosis
crackles and wheezes
S3 gallop
Right sided Failure manifestations
edema in feet and legs
congestion of GI tract
Rt upper quadrant pain
JVD
Medications to treat Heart Failure
ACE inhibitors(Prils)
ARBs(sartans
Beta blockers
diuretics
digitalis
Nutrition recommendations in Heart Failure pts
decrease sodium intake to 1.5-2g/day
Medications used to treat Atherosclerosis/ CAD
Statins- they lower LDL
Risk factors for Coronary Artery disease
oral contraceptives
premature menopause
impaired fasting glucose
age
heredity
metabolic syndrome
What is the metabolic syndrome?
caused by obesity, inactivity and genetic factors related to insulin resistance
Variant Angina(prinzmetal)
atypical angina that occurs unpredictably, often at night
Manifestations of Angina in women
GERD and upper back pain
What should you monitor when administering Statins?
muscle pain and tenderness as well as cholesterol and liver enzyme levels
What is the Virchow's triad?
combination of 3 different things:
-stasis of blood flow
-endothelial injury
-hypercoagulability