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38 Cards in this Set

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Changes in identity that take place during adol. involve the first substancial ___________ and _______ of the individual's _______ of _______ at a time when he has the _________ ______ to appreciate just how significant the changes are
reorganization, restructuring, sense of self, intellectual capabilities
What are two specific ways that adolescents think about themselves that have implications for identity development?
1. Individuals become much more able to imagine their possible selves.
2. There is an impressive increase in individual's future orientation.
What is possible selves?
the various alternative identities that adol. may adopt.
What is future orientation?
the ability and tendency to consider the long-term consequences of their decisions and imagine what their life might be like in the years to come.
Identity is better understood as a _____ of _________ _________
series, interrelated developments
What are the three different approaches to the question of how the individual's sense of identity changes over the course of adolescents?
1. changes in self-conceptions
2. adol.'s self-esteem
3. changes in the sense of identity
What is self-conceptions?
udeas that individuals have of themselves
what is self-esteem?
self image, how postivitely or negativiely individuals feel about themselves.
What is sense of identity?
the sense of who one is, where one has come from, and where one is going
Adolescents link traits and attributes that describe themselves to ____ _____, rather than using them as _____ ______
specific situations, global characterization
teenagers differentiate between their own ____ of _____ and the ____ of _____
opinions, themselves, views, others
With the shift toward increased differentiation in self-conceptions, comes:
better organization and integration
adolescents who have more complex self-conceptions are less likely to be:
depressed
and advantage of having a more differentiated self-concept is that the adolescent is able to:
distinguish amoung his or her actual self, ideal self, and feaered self
What makes a healthy self-concept?
having a balanced ideal and feared self
Who is less likely to have this balanced view?
delinquent adol.
Adol. are not always consistent between their ____ and ____ selves
true and false
Adolecents may engage in false self behavior because they are ___ in___ _____, while others experience a drop in ___ ___ because they knowingly put on a ___ ___
low, self-esteem, self-esteem, false front
Five Factor Model
based on the observation that there are five critical personality dimensions, often refferred to as the Big Five
What are the Big Five?
extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness to experience.
delinquent adol. are more likely than their peers to score high on the _____ dimension and low on the _____ and ______ dimensions
extraversion, agreeableness, consciousness
adol. who are high achievers in school score high on the ______ and _______
conscientiousness, openness
From about ___ _____ on, self esteem remains highly stable
8th grade
What are 3 aspects of adol.'s self-image?
self esteem, self-conciousness, and self-image stability
What is self-consciousness?
how much they worry about their self-image
what is self-image stability?
how much they feel that their self-image changes from day to day
fluctuations in adol's self-image are most likely to occur between the ages of ___ and ___
12 and 14
compared with ___ adol, ____ adol have lower self esteem, are more self-concious, and have a more unstable self-image.
older, early
What is barometric self-esteem?
the aspect of our feelings about outselves that shifts and flucuates rapidly from moment to moment.
What is baseline self-esteem?
less transitory and less likely to fluctuate from moment to moment, stable over time
The determiniations of baseline self-esteem are relatively stable factors such as:
social class, sex, birth order, and academic ability
you adol. are more likely than children or older adols to experience:
moment to moment shifts in self-esteem
adlo's _____ self esteem is the most important predictor of overall self esteem, followed by self esteem about _____ with ____. less important are self esteem about ____ ___, ____ ____, or ____ ___
physical, relationships with peers, acedemic ability, athletic ability, moral conduct
african american girls have a ___ overall self-esteem and how ___ of a decline in self-esteem over adol.
higher, less
what are 3 explainations for why africam amer teems have higher self-esteem?
1. they benefit from the support and positive feedback from the africam amer community, especially in their family
2. all teenagers tend to shift their priorities over time so that they value those activities at which they excel.
3. Strong sense of ethnic identity
adols who derive their self-esteem more from peers, as opposed to teachers or parents, show more:
behavioral problems and poorer school achievement
adol with ___ self esteem are more likely to experiment with alcohol, opposed to those with ___ self esteem
high, low
Erikson's theory
viewed the developing person as moving through a series of eight psychosocial crises over the course of the life span