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71 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a Microsystem?
Smallest relational units
What is a Mesosystem?
Interactions between microsystems
What is a Macrosystem?
Large-scale sociocultural systems
What is an Exosystem?
Social institutions
Family Systems Theory...evolved
Examination of the function of systems
Family Systems: 4 categories
Microsystems/Mesosystems/Exosystems/Macrosystems
5 patterns of relationships with siblings
-Caregiver relationships
-Buddy relationships
-Critical relationships
-Rival relationships
-Casual relationships
Family Systems theory...application
Application to psychopathology
-Disorder exists within relationships
-Resolution lies in improving relationships
Family Systems theory...premises
-relationships primary
fundamentally related
-inextricable parts
-perturbations spread
A look at sibling relationships
-Conflict most common in middle childhood
-most common kind of family conflict for adolescents
-adolescents include siblings on list of most important people
-siblings count “favorite sibling” as a best friend
Parent-child conflicts
-Over “petty stuff”
-About 1 argument every 3 days
-More conflictual than a typical distressed marriage
-Highest during early adolescence
Risks of divorce and remarriage
-Riskiest during major life transitions
-Associated with increased risk of substance use, depression, externalizing behavior problems, school problems
How peers change in adolescence (reorganize)
peer interaction increases significantly
-less guidance and supervision from adults
-geographic diversity
-oppposite-sex peer interactions increase
-group size increases
Selman on adolescent friendship: early life
-intimate and mutually shared relationships
-intimate and supportive
-enduring
-hindered by enmeshment, jealousy, possessiveness
Selman on adolescent friendship: later in life
-Autonomous, interdependent friendships
-Acceptance of others’ autonomy
-Acceptance of others’ need to establish relations with other people
Units of peer interaction
-Friendship dyads
-Friendship triads (unstable)
-cliques
-crowds
Cliques
-primary peer group
-homogeneity
-teens may be in many, context-dependent cliques
Crowd
-large groups
-transcend grade level and gender
-most common in high school
2 Types of crowds
-Clique-banding crowd
-Reputation-based crowd
Clique-banding crowd
-social grouping
-can be mixed-gender
-can involve romantic “entanglements”
Reputation-based crowd
-cognitive grouping often imposed from outside
-members may or not be friends
-perceived to share behavior, attitudes, interests
What do crowds do for social life?
-help teens learn about alternate identities and their implications
-influence who teens will meet and spend time with
-shape interpersonal relationships
-impact social status (waddington’s landscape?)
ED: Specific risk for girls in adolescent transition
-primary onset 14-18 years
affect 8 million girls
-girls at 10 times greater risk than boys
Formula for body image in adolescence
Social comparison + Self-reflection + Cultural context + Physiological and hormonal changes = Heightened body awareness
DSM-IV criteria for AN
-Refusal to maintain minimal weight
-Fear of gaining weight and of being fat
-Distortion of body perception
Amenorrhea
Subtypes for Anorexia nervosa
-Restrictive type
-Bingeing/purging type
DSM-IV criteria for Bulimia nervosa
-Recurrent episodes of binge eating
-Inappropriate compensatory behaviors
-Perceptual distortions
-Not within anorexic episode
Subtypes for Bulimia nervosa
-Purging type
-Nonpurging type
Psychological Risks for EDs
-Depressive symptoms
-Obsessive and compulsive behaviors
-Intense preoccupation with food
Anxiety regarding social interaction
Substance abuse
Physiological Risks for EDs
-Emaciation and malnutrition
-Constipation and abdominal pain
-Hypotension
-Anemia
-Hypothermia
-Dehydration and electrolyte disturbances
-Osteoporosis
-Arrhythmia
-Cardiac arrest & congestive heart failure
Physiological Risks for EDs (purging)
-Dental enamel erosion and cavities
-Scars and calluses on the hands
-Chipping of the teeth
-Erosion of the esophagus
ED warning signs
-change in weight
-Hair loss, blueness in extremities, lanugo
-Refusal to eat around friends and family
-preoccupation with being fat
-Obsessive exercising
-Frequent use of diuretics or weight-loss pills
3 Dimensions of love
-Passion
-Intimacy
-Commitment
Dimensions of Romantic love in adolescence
-High passion
-Low commitment (lacking)
-High intimacy
2 principal types of adolescent love
-infatuation
-romantic love
Dimensions of Infatuation in adolescence
-High passion
-Low intimacy
-Low commitment
Hill et al. study
study in 1979...found that after following college couples for 2 years
-45% had broken up at end of 2-year study
-Couples who broke up had:
lower levels of intimacy & love at first assessment
-fewer demographic characteristics in common
-one partner more committed than the other
Reasons for breaking in Hill study
-boredom and differences in interests
-One person negatively affected more than other
-Woman more likely to end relationship than man
-Rejected men lonelier, unhappier, more depressed than rejected women
Sexual patterns in adolescents
-masturbation
-petting
-oral sex
-same sex experience
Masturbation
-Males: 60-80%,
-females: 40-75%
-Embarrassment and demand characteristics
Petting
-The bases (4 years?)
-Recent increase in oral sex
-Method of birth control
-Misconceptions about STD transmission
Same-sex experiences
-males: 11%
-females: 6% (???)
-not predictive of adult orientation
-most “gay” adults knew in adolescence
Motivations for sexual behavior
-Curiosity
-Tension release
-Communication of emotions
-Identity formation
-Control
-Social norms
-Proving oneself
Teen attitudes about sex
Sex = love = marriage ??
-females: 60% expect to marry 1st partner
-males: 20% expect to marry 1st partner
Readiness vs. coercion
-Females
Unwanted: 25%
Ambivalent: 53%
Wanted: 22%
-Males
Unwanted: 15%
Ambivalent: 15%
Wanted: 70%
Reaction to first experience
-Males
Maturity, joy, excitement, major turning point
-Females
disappointment, guilt, regret, pain
ED: Specific risk for girls in adolescent transition
-primary onset 14-18 years
affect 8 million girls
-girls at 10 times greater risk than boys
Formula for body image in adolescence
Social comparison + Self-reflection + Cultural context + Physiological and hormonal changes = Heightened body awareness
DSM-IV criteria
-Refusal to maintain minimal weight
-Fear of gaining weight and of being fat
-Distortion of body perception
Amenorrhea
Subtypes for Anorexia nervosa
-Restrictive type
-Bingeing/purging type
DSM-IV criteria for Bulimia nervosa
-Recurrent episodes of binge eating
-Inappropriate compensatory behaviors
-Perceptual distortions
-Not within anorexic episode
Subtypes for Bulimia nervosa
-Purging type
-Nonpurging type
Psychological Risks for EDs
-Depressive symptoms
-Obsessive and compulsive behaviors
-Intense preoccupation with food
Anxiety regarding social interaction
Substance abuse
Physiological Risks for EDs
-Emaciation and malnutrition
-Constipation and abdominal pain
-Hypotension
-Anemia
-Hypothermia
-Dehydration and electrolyte disturbances
-Osteoporosis
-Arrhythmia
-Cardiac arrest & congestive heart failure
Physiological Risks for EDs (purging)
-Dental enamel erosion and cavities
-Scars and calluses on the hands
-Chipping of the teeth
-Erosion of the esophagus
ED warning signs
-change in weight
-Hair loss, blueness in extremities, lanugo
-Refusal to eat around friends and family
-preoccupation with being fat
-Obsessive exercising
-Frequent use of diuretics or weight-loss pills
History of thinking about childhood depression (early on)
-up to 1970s: childhood depression does not exist clinically
-depression thought to be related to superego dv
-not enough self-reflection in childhood
History of thinking about childhood depression 70s
-1970s: increase in suicide in children and adolescents
-how do we rectify this increase w/o acknowledging childhood depression?
-depressive equivalents: depression exists in masked form,hyperactivity, bedwetting, aggression, learning problems
-problem: low specificity
History of thinking about childhood depression 80s
-early 1980s: mini-adult depression (DSM III)
-childhood depression is adult depression on small scale
-notion developed through structured interviews
youth admit to many symptoms of adult depression
History of thinking about childhood depression 90s
-1990s: childhood depression like adult depression but with key differences
-somatic complaints, irritability, and social withdrawal
-psychomotor retardation and hypersomnia
-kids lack adult symptoms of insomnia, guilt ruminations
-not distinct category in DSM-IV
DSM-IV criteria for adolescent depression (part 1)
-Five or more of the following for 2 weeks:
-depressed or irritable mood
-diminished pleasure in activities
-significant weight loss/gain, failure to make expected gain
-hypersomnia
DSM-IV criteria for adolescent depression (part 2)
-psychomotor retardation observable by others
-fatigue or loss of energy
-feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness
-diminished concentration
-recurrent thoughts of death or suicide
Features of depression
-Symptoms do not meet criteria for Mixed Episode
-Symptoms cause significant distress and social impairment
-Symptoms not due to drug or medical condition
-Symptoms not better explained by bereavement
Comorbidities of depression
-More often than not, adolescent depression coexists with significant dysfunction elsewhere
-anxiety: share high negative affect, lack of positive affect
-substance abuse
-eating disorders
-conduct disorder
CD: Conduct Disorder
-lack of concern for rights and feelings of others, violation of age-appropriate societal norms
-mixes internalizing & externalizing problems
-polarity not valid
-1/3 of kids with depression also “act out” severely
-masked depression? Not quite, more a coexistence
Comorbid CD/depression is...
-highly sensitive predictor of suicide attempts
-hopelessness, interpersonal anger, impulsivity
Suicide info
-3/4 of attempts are low risk, only about 1-2% high risk
-70-90% of adolescent suicide attempts are by drug overdose
-firearms account for 54% of suicide completions
Emotional correlates of depression and suicide
-Depression
-Hopelessness
-Anger
Cognitive correlates of suicide and depression
-Problem solving deficits
problems generating alternative viable solutions
rigidity
-Impulsivity
can identify high risk subgroups
-Cognitive distortions
tendency to attribute negative events to global, internal, and stable causes
What can trigger/domino suicide?
-Parental problems (50%)
-Romantic relationship problems (30%)
-School problems (30%)
-Sibling/peer problems (15%)
Contagion effect
-Increase in suicide attempts following highly publicized news stories about completed suicide
-Higher coverage associated with higher increase
age of completer and of “copycats” correlated
not associated with seasonal, cohort effects, grief
-Increase in attempts following televised movies about youth suicide
-Suicide attempters more likely than controls to know sibling/friend who had attempted suicide