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32 Cards in this Set

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Statements about Rape:
Date rape – increasing
∙ Communication problem?
∙ Rape culture - Affirming masculinity/femininity
∙ Venting anger
Risk factors for sexual abuse
∙ Living away from home
∙ Have physical or psychological problems
∙ Raised in poverty
∙ Having parents that abuse alcohol or drugs
Depression Equivalents:
Concentration difficulties.....skip from thought to thought
∙ Running away
∙ Sexual acting out
∙ Boredom and restlessness
∙ Aggressive behavior and delinquency
Types of Depression:
- Psychoanalytic- – frustration turned against oneself
∙ Self-destructive behavior
- Cognitive – hopelessness, helplessness, rejection
Reasons Adolescents Engage in Sex
- Rape Culture
- Need for Warm Fuzzies
- Affirmation of femininity and masculinity
Autonomy:
Autonomy includes emotional, cognitive, and behavioral factors
Three types of autonomy
∙ Emotional autonomy – independent from parents
∙ Behavioral autonomy – independent decision-making
∙ Value autonomy – independent beliefs
Emotional autonomy
∙ Anne Freud – detachment
∙ Stanley Hall – storm and stress
∙ Individuation – healthy emotional gradual autonomy
∙ Authoritative and enabling parents


I. Emotional autonomy includes four components
∙ De-idealization (first step)- see different image of parents as not perfect
∙ Parents ...as human beings
∙ Non-dependency (detachment) ... responsible for one’s own behavior
∙ Degree of individuation – progressive sharpening of one’s sense of self as autonomous, competent, and separate from one’s parents
Behavioral autonomy
∙ Susceptibility to peer pressure in early adolescence
∙ Girls report more behavioral autonomy than boys
Autonomy from parents and peers increase in middle adolescence
Value autonomy
∙ What is my reality (often unconscious)
∙ Personal decision about what is right or wrong
∙ Making value judgement (ethical issue about my reality)
∙ Make conscious effort to change
∙ Thoughts about topic
∙ Emotions about topic
∙ Change behavior – 30 consecutive days
Suicide:
Symptoms -
∙ Talk about suicide
∙ Give away priced possessions
∙ Moody, isolated
∙ Accident prone
∙ Change in school grades
∙ Change in eating and sleeping habits
Suicide/ Depression Prevention –
∙ Primary prevention – education
∙ Secondary prevention – intervention
Don’t tease kids –criticism becomes personal and they dwell on their negative attributes
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) – disturbed/negative image of body
- leads to depression, anorexia, cutting and other problems
Intimacy:
Intimacy is characterized by self-disclosure, trust, communication, respect, and concern
- Children’s friendships are based on activities
- Adolescent males’ friendships unfold around activities
- Adolescent females’ friendships based on intimacy/popularity
The social transition in adolescence intimate relationships
∙ Family and siblings
∙ Same-sex friends and mentors
∙ Cross-sex relations ... dating
Gender Depression:
Pre-adolescent boys are more depressed than pre-adolescent girls
∙ Females internalize.....males “act out”
STDs:
∙ Chlamydia most common – asymptomatic – infertility
∙ Gonorrhea and Chlamydia (bacterial)-
Gonorrhea spreads during sexual intercourse, whereby the infective partner does not need to be human. Infected women also can pass gonorrhea to their newborn infants during delivery, causing eye infections (conjunctivitis) in their babies. When the infection occurs in the genital tract, mouth, or rectum of a child, it is most commonly due to sexual abuse. Gonorrhea among females can also be transmitted from one individual to another via contact to surfaces that may still be damp from prior contact.
Between 30-60% of women with gonorrhea are asymptomatic or have subclinical disease. The woman may complain of vaginal discharge, difficulty urinating (dysuria), off-cycle menstrual bleeding, or bleeding after sexual intercourse. The cervix may appear anywhere from normal to the extreme of marked cervical inflammation (cervicitis) with pus.
It is not unusual for men to have asymptomatic gonorrhea. Men may complain of pain on urinating and thick, copious, urethral pus discharge is the most common presentation. Examination may show a reddened external urethral meatus. Ascending infection may involve the epididymis, testicles or prostate gland causing symptoms such as scrotal pain or swelling.

Almost half of all women who get Chlamydia and are not treated by a doctor will get pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), a generic term for infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. PID can cause scarring inside the reproductive organs, which can later cause serious complications, including chronic pelvic pain, difficulty becoming pregnant, ectopic (tubal) pregnancy, and other dangerous complications of pregnancy. Chlamydia causes 250,000 to 500,000 cases of PID every year in the U.S.
Chlamydia is known as the "Silent Epidemic" because in women, it may not cause any symptom and will linger for months or years before being discovered. Symptoms that may occur include: unusual vaginal bleeding or discharge, pain in the abdomen, painful sexual intercourse, fever, painful urination or the urge to urinate more frequently than usual.
In men, chlamydia may not cause any symptoms, but symptoms that may occur include: a painful or burning sensation when urinating, an unusual discharge from the penis, swollen or tender testicles, or fever.
Chlamydia in men can spread to the testicles, causing epididymitis, which can cause sterility. Chlamydia causes more than 250,000 cases of epididymitis in the USA each year.
∙ Herpes and human papilloma (viral)
∙ AIDS
Girls:
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)
Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) - principal characteristics are inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) - most commonly characterized by a subject's obsessive, distressing, intrusive thoughts and related compulsions (tasks or rituals) which attempt to neutralize the obsessions
Sex Education:
∙ Does not lead to increase in sexual behavior
∙ The failure of sex education programs
∙ Teen pregnancy highest in the U.S.
∙ Adolescents learn from peers
Contraception
∙ Lack of accessibility
∙ The morning after pill
∙ Age
Most likely used by a male who has seen peers go through abortion or pregnancy, less likely used by a boy who has no experience with sex
Sexuality:
Homosexuality
∙ Sexual preference
∙ Eight percent of the population is either bi - or homosexual
∙ Very problematic in adolescence
∙ Cause of homosexuality
∙ Suicide – 30 %
Depression:
Symptoms of depression
∙ Emotional manifestations – crying, isolation
∙ Cognitive manifestation – low self-esteem, self-punishment, self-mutilation, indecisiveness, distorted body image
∙ Motivational manifestation – unmotivated, increased dependency, suicidal
∙ Physical manifestation – loss of appetite, sleep, and energy
Treatment of depression
∙ Combination of drugs and CBT/reframing
Work:
Effect of working long hours
- Occupational deviance
- Lower GPA
- Is family or work the problem
- 20 hours maximum work week
Student employment
- Jobs are monotonous and stressful
- Most common for middle class teens
- Unemployment for minority teens
Depression:
- Cognitive manifestation – low self-esteem, self-punishment, self-mutilation, indecisiveness, distorted body image
Intimacy
- The loneliest period of a person’s life is typically in late adolescence
- An 18 year old is more lonely than an 89 year old
Consequence of Stress
Effects of stress:
- Depression – internalizing disorder
- Conduct disorder – anger – externalizing disorder
- Physical illness – psychosomatic disease
- Fatigue
- Listlessness – problems with concentration
- Adolescent stress can lead to mental disorders
- Types of mental disorders:
- Schizophrenia
- Depression
- Anxiety
- Obsessive-compulsive
- Eating disorder
When Love is Betrayed
* Adolescents do not endorse sexual promiscuity
* Youth typically practice serial monogamy
* Erik Erikson: identity must come before intimacy
- Psychosocial moratorium for self-discovery
* Why do subjects betray their partner?
- Bad relationships
- Unsure of relationships
- Distance between partners
- Magnetic attraction to others
- Vindictiveness/making a partner jealous
Masturbation as a Problem in Society:
- Developmental progress of sexual behaviors
1. Autoerotic behavior (masturbation)
- Cultural stigma – causes disease
2. Same-sex play
3. Socio-sexual behavior
4. Serial monogamy
annie freud
detachment
stanley hall
storm and stress
individuation
healthy emotional gradual autonomy

authoritative and enabling parents
suicide prevention- primary prevention
education
suicide prevention- secondary prevention
intervention
emotional manifestations
crying, isolation
cognitive manifestation
low self-esteem, self punishment, self mutilation, indecisiveness, disorted body image
motivational manifestation
unmotivated, increased dependency, sucidal
physical manifestation
loss of appetite, sleep, energy