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96 Cards in this Set

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The process of obtaining attitudes and ideas from others (conflict resolution).
Intojection
Visualization of another person or object having greater value or worth (conflict resolution).
Idealization
Process of demeaning or putting another beneath the level of the criticizer (conflict resolution).
Criticism
In conflict resolution, this activity is used to avoid conflict or gain the pity of another.
Sympathy
Activity engaged in to avoid conflict (i.e., obsession, phobia or compulsion).
Neurosis
The state of one individual feeling superior to or better than others.
Egocentrism
Process of changing anxieties into physically-related symptoms or problems.
Conversion
Pavlov and Guthrie conditioned animal subjects to respond through cues and develop habits in connection with the response (also called "Classical Stimulus [S-R] Theory").
Conditioning Theory
Theory proposing that persons learn in response to their overall environment and surroundings.
Gestalt Organization
Process of one changing or adapting behavior to meet set goals or perceived needs.
Functionalism
Theory combining varying types of learning theories.
Eclectism
First examination is made of specific concepts, followed by more general concepts in this learning process.
Inductive Learning
Process of first reviewing general aspects involved-followed by specific concepts.
Deductive Learning
Occurs when one is attracted to two incompatible goals.
Approach-Approach Conflict
Occurs when one confronts two threatening situations and must decide between them.
Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
Occurs when one must decide upon a goal containing both positive and negative factors.
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
Occurs when one is faced with two simultaneous alternatives with both positive and negative factors.
Double-Approach Avoidance Conflict
The blaming of one's mistakes on another.
Scapegoating
Occurs when one takes his/her frustrations out on another person or object.
Displacement
Occurs when one "identifies" roles or actions with another.
Identification
Assignment of one's frustration to another person or thing.
Projection
Activity of disguising the true problem by making it appear to be something it is not.
Rationalization
Disguising of a true motive by appearing to feel the oppositve way about the subject.
Reaction Formation
Reversion to a less-mature period in life.
Regression
Satisfaction of unfulfilled needs by activity outside the area of need.
Sublimation
Activity wherein one tries to make up for weaknesses in an area of his/her life.
Compensation
Venting of frustration without actually committing the "desired" undesirable action.
Dissociation
Occurs when one goes without something to help motivate him/herself (this is one definition).
Deprivation
Process of knowing or perceiving.
Cognition
Style wherein the leader "leaves things alone".
Laissez-Faire Leadership
In this style, there is group involvement in decision making.
Democratic Leadership
In this style, the leader makes the decisions.
Autocratic Leadership
An authoritarian leadership style which occurs when one uses rules and regulations to exercise authority.
Bureaucratic Leadership
Concern for Production
Concern for Persons
Blake & Mouton Managerial Grid
Involves exploitive-authoritative (autocratic), benevolent-authoritative, and participative-group systems of leadership.
Likert's System of Management
Distortion of communication to cause something to appear overstated.
Exaggeration
Action of directives from upper management not being followed by lower-level management.
Playing Down
Interruption or "short-circuiting" of a given message.
Short Circuiting
Processing of information being detoured around the main or general channel of communication.
Bypassing
Informal form of communication.
Grapevine
A group formally organized to perform a certain task.
Task Group
Tendency to perceive someone in a very positive way, whether or not they have shown they are like they are perceived.
Halo Effect
Perceived degree of attractiveness of a reward or goal.
Valence
Needs are as follows: (in order of ranking):
5. Self-actualization
4. Esteem
3. Social
2. Security
1. Physiological

1 = Most important to secure and obtain first.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
"Hygiene factors" include wages, socio-interpersonal relationships, and work conditions; factors of motivation include achievement, responsibility, recognition, and potential for growth (concepts of this theory).
Herzberg's Theory
Deals with expansion on Maslow's "self-actualization" category of human needs.
McClelland's High Level Need Theory
Noted for his studies in the effects of positive and negative reinforcement.
B.F. Skinner
Deals with reinforcement of positive behavior through rewards.
Operant Conditioning
Essentially a negative view held by a leaders toward subordinates (McGregor).
Theory X
Essentially positive view held by a leader toward subordinates (McGregor).
Theory Y
Management style promulgated by Ouchi in which there is strong company philosophy, culture, development, and consensus decision making.
Theory Z
Planned process for change in an organization.
Organizational Development (OD)
An interview held as a measurement to help determine how an individual may behave in the future.
Predictive Interview
A communication activity, or interview, involving the asking of questions directed to each individual interviewed with questions given a specific sequence by the interviewer.
Structured Interview
Study or analysis of interaction between individuals in adult, parent, and child states.
Transactional Analysis
Forgetting of unpleasant experiences by forcing such experiences into the unconscious mind.
Repression
A group of persons brought together to learn how to operate toward the achievement of group goals and objectives.
T-Group (Training Group)
The choosing of those things seen as most important to an individual (occurs particularly in a communication process).
Selective Perception
Factors which relate to work itself, not merely to hygiene factors (good environment). Motivators may include the work itself, achievement, recognition, advancement and growth, and responsibility.
Motivators
Process of formulating a message and expression of a message by one individual to one or more other persons (sent verbally and non-verbally).
Encode
Individual firm owned by one owner.
Sole Propeietorship
Association of two or more persons to carry on, as co-owners, a business for profit.
Partnership
Legal entity with stockholders, a board of directors, and corporate officers; has a specified name.
Corporation
Unrelated companies grouped together.
Conglomerate
Endowed institution which grants funds for research, charity, and other causes.
Foundation
When two or more persons come together to accomplish one undertaking.
Joint Venture
Corporation established to provide economic cooperation among a group.
Cooperative
Planning
Organizing
Directing
Controlling
Functions of Management
Staff and specialists set up in an organizational flow based on authority and accountability.
Line-and-Staff Organization
Quantitive-related research to obtain the best results. (Simulation Method, Linear Programming, Queuing Theory, PERT, CPM, MOB, etc., are examples of OR approaches.
Operations Research (OR)
Mentally and graphically planned steps of action, chronological in format, to determine the best flow of work. (Critical Path Method--CPM--is used here.)
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique)
Quantitive tool where specific objectives are set with a plan to reach objectives and a tool to measure results with an immediate supervisor is established.
MBO (Management by Objectives)
Free-wheeling, free-flowing ideas are shared without criticism by group members
Brainstorming
Strikes
Picketing
Soldiering on the job
Boycotts
Union Tools for Bargaining
Lockouts
Blacklists (illegal)
Court injunctions
Yellow-dog contracts

(Outlawed by Norris-LaGuardia Act)
Management Methods in Bargaining
Employer agrees to hire only union members. (Outlawed by the Labor-Management Relations Act or Taft-Hartley Act)
Closed Shop
Employer may hire non-union workers, but they must join the union after a specified amount of time.
Union Shop
All employees are represented by the union and pay dues, but they do not all have to join the union (legal in some states/areas)
Agency Shop
The employer agrees to give preference to union members in cases of hiring and layoffs.
Preferential Shop
Product
Place
Price
Promotion

(The four "P's" of marketing)
Marketing Mix
Market for a product is divided into groups of consumers who share common needs or interests. It occurs geographically, demographically, and psychographically.
Market Segmentation
Show differences or distinctions in product.
Market Differentiation
Prospecting
Pre-approach
Approach
Presentation
Trial close
Answering of objections
"Close" the sale
Steps in the Sales Process
Holds member bank reserves
Collects and clears checks
Provides money for general circulation
Supervises its member banks
Acts as fiscal agent for the federal government.
Federal Reserve Board
Most popularly-provided form of insurance that companies provide associates. Lower-risk persons pay overall lower insurance rates for same dollar amount of coverage.
"Term" Life Insurance
1. Can make quick decisions
2. Disclosure privacy
3. Satisfaction and accomplishment in work
4. Business simplicity
5. Minor expense in many cases (especially in organization of firm)
6. Simple dissolution
7. Personal good credit
8. Retention of firm profits
Advantages of Individual Proprietorships
1. Personal interest in operation
2. Availability of greater capital
3. Retentino of good employees easier
4. Credit increased with more people involved
5. Considered a "legal" entity
Advantages of Partnerships
1. Expanded business size
2. Longer company life
3. Business expansion enhanced
4. Limited liability of owners
5. Management more specialized
6. Legal entity
7. Relative ease in buying in and out of the firm
8. Non-profit corporations have tax advantages (general corporations have some tax advantages, also.)
Corporate Advantages
In a hierarchy, each person employed in a firm will tend to rise to his or her level of incompetence.
Peter Principle
Independent opinions gathered and compiled through this research technique to improve judgments of the matter(s) of concern.
Delphi Technique
A government authorization to a business organization.
Charter
Bar chart showing work planned and work done, chronologically, in relation to each other.
Gantt Chart
Programming developed to help solve business problems by high-speed linear computing of various combinations of interdependent factors.
Linear Programming
Management research involving use of systematic and logical techniques to help solve business problems.
Scientific Method
Principle stating that every employee in an entity should be responsible to only one supervisor.
Unity of Command
Graphic analysis showing possible consequences of varying decisions on alternative courses of action.
Decison Tree