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65 Cards in this Set

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is prescribed to treat alcohol dependence.
Campral
is thought to stabilize the chemical balance in the brain that would otherwise be disrupted by alcoholism, possibly by blocking glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, while gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptors are activated.
Acamprosate
How does Campral (acamprosate) work
Reports indicate that acamprosate only works with a combination of attending support groups and abstinence from alcohol.
Certain serious side effects of Campral
include allergic reactions, irregular heartbeats, and low or high blood pressure, while less serious side effects include headaches, insomnia, and impotence.

Acamprosate should not be taken by people with kidney problems or allergies to the drug.
Helps families and friends of alcoholics recover from the effects of living with the problem drinking of a relative or friend.
Al-ANON
A natural substance formed by the reaction of fermenting sugar with yeast spores.
alcohol (ETOH)
List three class
1. isopropyl rubbing
2. methanol wood
3. ethanol drinking
What can be classified as a food because it contains calories with no nutritional value?
ETOH
Malted Barley makes

grapes and berries makes

malted grains makes (ferminated)

molasses makes (ferminated)

distilling wine

fermented potatoes
beer

grapes /berries

whiskey

rum

brandy

schnapps
What forms the concentration of ETOH ?
DISTILLATION
What is created during the fermentation of sugar contained in fruits and grains?
ethyl alcohol
What is the alcohol content of fermented beverages such as wine and beer?
low alcohol content between 10 and 15 percent
How can concentration of alcohol can be increased by ?
distillation
The result of distillation results in?
hard liquor
alcohol content of hard liquor is ?
40 to 50 %
The type of beverage you get from fermentation is determined by what?
the source of sugar
most common vegetable material containing sugar to make wine?
grape juice
grains fermented to make?
beers
is used to separate liquids from nonvolatile solids, as in the separation of alcoholic liquors from fermented materials
Distillation
the first two popular spirits
brandy and whiskey
another name for hard liquor
distilled spirits also known as liqueurs
made from a mixture of water and flavoring and pure alcohol distilled from any source
gin and vodka
difference between fermentation and distillation?
fermented drinks rely on yeast to metabolize sugars producing alcohol as a waste product whereas distillation only increases the alcohol content by concentration
ETOH CONTENT CAN BE GIVEN AS A ?
% BY WEIGHT OR VOLUME because the specific gravity of alcohol in a percent by weight than the same percent by volume
specific gravity of etoh
.79
alcohol content varies
by the type of beverage
beer

wine

distilled beverages
3 to 6 percent alcohol

10 to 20 percent ETOH

40 to 50 %
The average size drink , regardless of beverage contains what

12 OUNCES OF BEER
3 TO 5 OUNCES OF WINE
I OUNCE OF WHISKEY
same amount of ETOH (0.5OUNCE)
ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF ETOH?
PART OF HUMAN DIET FOR MILLIONS OF YEARS BECAUSE THEY WERE FRUGIVORES BUT ONLY MADE DELIBERATELY FOR ABOUT THE PAST 10,000 YEARS
LIST THE DIFFERENT CIVILIZATION THAT USED ETOH?
ASSYRIA, ANCIENT EGYPTIANS, HERODOTUS, GREEK HISTORIAN,
BABYLONIANS, ROMANS,
WHAT IS TO BE THE CAUSE OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE?
CONSUMPTION OF WINE
What happens to etoh consumption during the years?
IT CYCLES THROUGH OUT THE YEARS AT THE PRESENT USAGE IS DECLINING IN THE US
IN THE LATE 1700'S WHAT DOCTOR WROTE ABOUT THE DANGEROUS PHYSICAL, SOCIAL, AND MORAL EFFECTS OF ETOH?
DR. BENJAMIN RUSH

(WROTE A TEMPERANCE DOCUMENTS CALLED AN INQUIRY INTO THE EFFECTS OF ARDENT SPIRITS)
WHAT INSPIRED THE AMERICAN TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT?
DR. BENJAMIN RUSH, ARTICLE CALLED AN INQUIRY INTO THE EFFECTS OF ARDENT SPIRITS
WHAT AMENDMENT OUTLAW ETOH?

WHAT VOIDED THIS AMMENDMENT?
18TH


21 ST AMENDMENT
how LONG DID PROHIBITION LAST?
14 Years
IN THE US HOW OFTEN DOES ETOH CONSUMPTION PEAK?
60 TO 70 YEARS THEN IT DECLINES
WHY DOES IT ETOH CONSUMPTION DECLINE?
PERIODS OF DECLINE WERE ACCOMPANIED BY PREOCCUPATION WITH HEALTH AND MORALITY AND BY PUBLIC CONCERN OVER THE HARM THAT ETOH WAS DOING.
ETOH LEVELS ARE MEASURES IN TERMS OF WHAT?
THE CONCENTRATION OF ETOH IN WHOLE BLOOD
WHAT DOES BAL MEAN
BLOOD ETOH LEVEL
TWO WAYS TO GET BAL?
BLOOD SERUM
BREATHALYZER
WHAT EXERTS A DEPRESSANT EFFECT ON THE CNS RESULTING IN BEHAVIORAL AND MOOD CHANGES
ETOH
LEGAL LIMIT
0.08 G/DL
HOW IS ABL REPORTED?
IN TERMS OF % OR MILLIGRAMS OF ETOH IN 100 MLS OF BLOOD OR IN SI UNITS
NAME THE 3 PHASES OF ETOH CONSUMPTION?
ABSORPTION - TAKES PLACE RAPIDLY

PLATEAU - TAPERS OFF AND
EXCRETION LOWERS ETOH LEVELS (THIS IS THE PHASE THAT BLOOD LEVELS PEAK)
HOW IS ABL REPORTED?
IN TERMS OF % OR MILLIGRAMS OF ETOH IN 100 MLS OF BLOOD OR IN SI UNITS
NAME THE 3 PHASES OF ETOH CONSUMPTION?
ABSORPTION - TAKES PLACE RAPIDLY

PLATEAU - TAPERS OFF AND
EXCRETION LOWERS ETOH LEVELS (THIS IS THE PHASE THAT BLOOD LEVELS PEAK)
HOW ETOH IS ADMINISTERED
ORALLY
WHERE DOES ABSORPTION TAKES PLACE?
IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT. SMALL AMTS ARE ABSORBED IN STOMACH BUT MOST TRAVELS TO THE SMALL INTESTINE WHERE ITS EASILY ABSORBED INTO THE BLOODSTREAM
WHAT DOES ETOH DISSOLVE IN
WATER AND PASSES IN THE BLOOD FROM THE STOMACH, INTESTINES AND COLON
WHERE IS THE MOST ETOH ABSORBED RAPIDLY ?
FROM THE SMALL INTESTINE
WHAT DISTRIBUTES THE ETOH IN THE BODY TO THE MAJOR ORGANS?
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
THE MAIN ENZYME IN THE STOMACH THAT KILLS ETOH?
ETOH DEHYDROGENASE
WHAT HAPPENS TO THE ETOH IF IT STAYS IN THE STOMACH?
THE LONGER IT STAYS IN THE STOMACH LEADS TO SLOWER ABSORPTION INTO THE BLOOD WHICH LEADS TO FIRST PASS METABOLISM WHICH CAUSES THE LESS OF IT TO BE ABSORBED
HOW DOES THE ETOH ABSORB FASTER ?
IF THE STOMACH IS EMPTY THEN IT WILL BE DISTRIBUTE FASTER
LIST TWO MEDICINES ( WHICH REDUCE ACIDITY) THAT CAN INCREASE THE BAL'S DEPENDING ON THE GIVEN AMOUNT OF ETOH?
TAGAMET
ZANTAC
WHAT DOES TAGAMET AND ZANTAC DOE TO INCREASE THE BALS?
IT KILLS THE ENZYME ETOH DEHYDROGENASE
WHEN ARE PEAK BLOOD LEVELS HIGHER
WHEN THERE IS NO FOOD IN THE STOMACH
WHY ARE WOMEN MORE VULNERABLE TO ACUTE AND CHRONIC COMPLICATIONS OF ALCOHOLISM TO INCLUDE ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE
BECAUSE THEY HAVE A LOWER LEVELS OF ETOH DEHYDROGENASE IN THERE STOMACHS WHICH LEADS MORE ETOH A WOMEN DRINKS GETS IN THE BLOOD WHICH RESULTS IN A HIGHER BAL
HOW IS ETOH ABSORBED QUICKLY AND DISTRIBUTED EVENLY IN
BODY WATER, IT CROSSES THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER
Factors Influencing Alcohol Absorption
GENDER

FOOD presence of food and the type of food in the gastrointestinal tract when alcohol is consumed
WHY Women absorb and metabolize alcohol differently from men.
1. They have higher BAC's after consuming the same amount of alcohol as men and are more susceptible to alcoholic liver disease, heart muscle damage (8), and brain damage

2.Women's smaller amount of body water

3.women have lower activity of the alcohol metabolizing enzyme ADH in the stomach, causing a larger proportion of the ingested alcohol to reach the blood.

4.The combination of these factors may render women more vulnerable than men to alcohol-induced liver and heart damage
HOW DO ABSTAINERS AND MODERATE DRINKERS DIFFER?
LOWER PEAK BAL'S
WHERE IS Most of the alcohol consumed
is metabolized in the liver, but the small quantity that remains unmetabolized permits alcohol concentration to be measured in breath and urine.
The rate of alcohol metabolism depends,
on the amount of metabolizing enzymes in the liver, which varies among individuals and appears to have genetic determinants