Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/61

Click to flip

61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
COOPERATIVE GAMES
- activity should be safe
- promotes interaction
- meets the needs of all children
- improves self-esteem
- high on task time
ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION
- an individualized program involving physical and motor fitness, fundamental motor skills and patterns, skills in aquatics and dance, and individual and group games and sports designed to meet unique needs of individuals.
WHO RECEIVES ADAPTED PHYSICAL EDUCATION
- a child identified with a disability (mental, physical, social) between the ages of 3-21
- Need extra help
- at risk infant (birth-2 years)- teachers sent to the home to also teach parents how to work with them
RESPONSIBILITIES OF APE TEACHERS
- assess gross motor skills
- set goals and objectives (sport skills)
- co determine a chld's placement with parents, guidance counselors, physical and occupational therapists
- implement the program
REHABILITATION ACT OF 1973
- Section 504: you can't discriminate purely on disability
- equal opportunity
PUBLIC LAW 94-142 1975
- provide free education for children with diability
- many loose ends
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES EDUCATION ACT (IDEA) 1990
- expanded PL 94-142 and services provide:
- clear management plan and who is responsible
- education process is objective and measurable
- involves parent
- least restricted environment (move child to most normalized setting possible)
- PE a direct service and you can't deny a child physical education
SCREENING/IDENTIFYING APE STUDENTS
- Screening alone doesn't give info on child, doesn't diagnose but picks out people that may need help, and is a mass test.
- New students between kindergarten and 2nd grade on screened on their gross motor skills, third graders are screened on object control and locomotion, and 4th-5th graders are screened through the P.E. program.
- pay particular notice to:
- students suddle differences with disabilities
- all students (posture, obesity)
- referrals to doctors
- 30 day medical excuse and a program should be created for the child
INCLUSION
- a separate education is not equal
- individuals with disabilities be educated alongside youngsters without disabilities to the maximum extent appropriate
MAINSTREAMING/ LESS RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONEMENT
- A teacher has to teach at different levels
- The child is put in an environment that is age appropriate (not more than 3 years)
- Good models are necessary so a child can learn
- Negative things:
- less direct instruction, dumping, affects other students
- class size- too many kids doesn't allow the teacher to give proper instruction to diabled kids
- needs support, indivisualized instruction
GENERAL FACILITIES REQUIREMENT
- spacing is 36" door / 48" walkway
- ramp is 1:12
- lights flashing
- grab rails on bath
- ramps in playgrounds
TRANSFER EQUIPMENTS
- belt for yourself
- child belt
- harness to lift child
- a board
HOW TO TRANSFER
- lock wheels
- seat belt is last off when transferring out
- when lifting get close to child
- pivot transfer
- don't lift above 40 pounds
- when 2 people are involved the stronger person goes in the back.
DEVELOPMENT
- growth, maturation, and environment make up development
DIRECTION OF GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
- develop from head to toe so throwing is developed before kicking
- develop from midline outward (child catches by scissoring arms, than they cradle, then they catch normally)
- Growth plateaus between 5 and 10.
- Growth increases between 0-5 and 10 and up.
FAN SPREAD
- as skill develops the difference between people get greater
- It is easier to mainstream younger kids
- Having an enriched environment decreases the difference
READINESS PERIODS
- a time span where a skill is learned best and most efficiently
- different for different people
STAGE THEORY
- you might have to spiral (drop) back to get better, so support is important
- a continuum
- base
- in order to get better your going to get worst before you get better
STAGES OF WALKING (infants)
- readiness period is 9 to 18 months
- support with balance and strength (needed in order to walk)
- an infants high center of gravity works against him or her to walk because of his or her large head.
- This causes
- a wide base
- knees are flexed to stay closer to the ground
- small steps
- toes point out
- feet land flat and toes lok like they are grabbing the floor
- arms are up in the air for more balance
STAGES OF WALKING (later walking)
- base comes in
- knees flex and extend
- feet come in to walk in straight line
- steps become longer
- placement of feet are heel to toe
- arms come in
STAGES OF WALKING (elderly)
- begin walking like an infant because they have lost their balance
STAGES OF RUNNING
- child leans
- fast walk
- drag feet
- head bounces up and down because the center of gravity isn't forward; less frontal movement
- hook arms to midline causing them to swing rather than moving them up and down
STAGES OF THROWING
- only flex elbow, eventually adds the body, then brings arm back to fling
- Rotates body so they block themselves. They are stepping with the same foot as their arm.
STAGES FOR CATCHING
- close their eyes and lean away
- scissor arms and the ball goes through
- cradle, extend, catch and bring it in
STAGES FOR JUMPING
- 1st attempt is a step
- get in preparation position: arms swing out instead of bring back for momentum because they don't want to fall
- Eventually they flex and bring arms back
- Timing factor
- one leg usually precedes the other
IMPLICATIONS OF STAGES ON TEACHING
- Structure- have to give kids structure but allow for some unstructured time so kids can develop creativity
- vary activities
- do individual and group activities
- make child comfortable so they can learn the skill. Some kids are comfortable with yelling while others are not.
- Don't always correct- let child explore and learn some times
- too much info doesn' allow kids to retain the information. Do things in small chunks
- use all the senses for example: use swimming
TASK ANALYSIS
- break down skills by its components
ACTIVITY ANALYSIS
- looks at activities rather than a particular task
- Examples:
- defense in basketball
- receiving serve in volleyball
- pass/receiving in football
- goalie plays in soccer
INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY
- individuals present a diversity of abilities and potential, and educators must be prepared to accept this diversity
- presents a substantial disadvantage to an individual attempting to function in society.
- They are characterized by cognitive limitations as well as functional limitations in such areas as daily living skills, social skills, and communication.
- significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance
CRITERIA NEED IN ORDER TO BE DIAGNOSED AS MENTALLY RETARDED
- need to be two or more standard deviations below the mean on a standardized intelligence test that is normed in the general population.
- significant limitations in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social, and practical adaptive skills
- disability originates before the age of 18
IMPLICATIONS AS TEACHERS (COGNITIVE)
- use physical prompts. As child becomes more advanced than visual becomes important. Only some kids are able to learn well verbally only
- By being verbal action words are important. Action words need to be short, not lengthy sentences
- Transfer knowledge by seeing if they can apply what they learn in different situations.
IMPLICATIONS AS TEACHERS (SOCIAL)
- Need to understand expectations and consequences from others and themselves
IMPLICATIONS AS TEACHERS (PHYSICAL)
- degree of disability correlates with physical milestones
- hypotonic (poor muscle tone)/ overweight
- caused not only from disability but also from the environment.
DEFINITION OF DOWN SYNDROME
- extra chromosome 21 (amount of normal chromosomes are 46 and they have 47
- genetic condition associated with intellectual disabilities
CHARACTERISTICS OF DOWN SYNDROME
- poor muscle tone and balance
- flexibility and hyperflexion (joints move to much)
- poor posture/ atlantoaxial instability where the first 2 cervical vertebrae can be damaged severely if they twist it wrong.
- vision and hearing may be affected
- underdeveloped respiratory and cardiovascular system
- short life span
PROGRAM IMPLICATIONS FOR PEOPLE WITH DOWN SYNDROME
- medical clearance for activity participation
- aerobic activities and activities requiring maximal muscular contraction must be adapted and carefully monitored
- NO exercises that cause hyperflexion
- Do exercises that strengthen muscles around the joints, therby stabilizing them.
- Employ adapted equpiment and teaching strategies for those with sensory impairments
SPECIAL OLYMPICS
- not very competitive
- an international sports training and competition program open
PARALYMPICS
- are equivalent to the olympic games for the world's top athletes with disabilities
- very competitive
DEFINITION OF BEHAVIORAL DISABILITY
- hardest group to work with are kids with behavioral disorders and becomes criminals
0 inability to learn but not because of their intellignece or physical disabilities but because their behavior gets in the way
CHARACTERISTICS OF BEHAVIORAL DISABILITIES
- difficulty with interpersonaly relationships
- inappropriate behaviors like aggression
- depression and fears over time
- does not all of a sudden appear
IMPLICATIONS FOR BEHAVIORAL DISABILITIES
- IDP Program- encourages them to work together
- cooperative games
- rope course
- token system
- Premak Principle- less reinforcing activity prior to a higher reinforcing activity
AUTISM/ASPERGER/RETT's
- not just language
- Always echos you but are not comprehending
- eye contact doesn't matter
- Asperger's patients are higher function
- Rett's syndrome is mostly in females and they will rock and wiggle fingers. It gets worst while autism and aspergers does not.
IMPLICATIONS FOR AUTISM/ASPERGER/RETTS
- low interactive skills
- need a lot of structure especially in the classroom
- biggest problem is transition so they need a warning that the activity is ending
VISUAL DISABILITIES
- adversely affects education
- legally (20/200 or less in better eye acuity fields 20 degrees or less)
- Rocking, self stimulation (poke themselves in the eye
IMPLICATIONS FOR VISUAL DISABILITIES
- exploring, trust
- posture (forward hear, rounded shoulders)
- locomotor skills delay because of environment
- model skills and environment
- caution of a detached retina due to glaucoma (pressure). They will lose any vision they have if they get hit.
- goal ball, centiped kick ball
- center of gravity is forward because they lean back so they don't run into anything
- guide wire
- sighted guide
HEARING DISABILITIES
- unable to process language
- with or without amplification after education
IMPLICATIONS FOR HEARING DISABILITIES
- semicircular canal balance
- visual cues
- Be careful if the person has a cochlear implant. Contact sports can damage it as well as sweating
- position in front of sun
- likes music with high bass
- sports light/ drum/ auditory trainer
LEARNING DISABILITY
- a neurological disorder that results in problems in storing, process, and producing info in the CNS, thus causing a deficit in understanding spoken or written words
IMPLICATIONS FOR LEARNING DISABILITIES
- use multisensory prompts
- chain information together both forwards and backwards
- break down components and put them back together
- give enough time to respond
- In order to retain info they need repetition and to overlearn the subject
- relax
CEREBRAL PALSY
- like a brain injury and occurs near birth
- effects motor control and areas of brain
- effects voluntary muscles and reflex integration
- doesn't get worst
WAYS TO CLASSIFY CEREBRAL PALSY
- Location
- monoplegia- one limb
- doplegia- involvement in lower legs and kind of in upper
- hemiplegia- involvement in sides
- paraplegia
- quadriplegia- all four limbs
- Functional I-VII
- Medical
- spastic cerubrum/hyperflexion, inward rotation/ scissor (most common)
- athetosis/ basal ganglia/ overflow impulses/lordosis (curvature of back)
- ataxia cerebellum/ hypotonic/ balance
BRAIN INJURY
- leading cause of death under 45
- effects males more than females
- psychologically more draining than physically
- high incidents in football or soccer
- Open head (external)- gun wound
- Closed hear (internal)- shaking
STROKE
- heart attack of brain/ faulty circulation
- hemmorrahge or block
- 50% of people live after a stroke
- 10% are able to completely recover
- Catch it early for better chances of recovery
- Right side effects speech, slow disorganize
- left side effects motor (moving around, awareness)
SIGNS OF A STROKE
- weakeness in face and arms
- vision is blurred
- slurred speech
- headache
SPINAL CORD INJURY
- Cervical- neck, arms, and diaphragm
- Thoracic- chest and stomach
- lumbar- hip, knee, lower back
- Sacral- bladder, bowl, reproductive
- Spinal cord doesn't regenerate itself but sometimes when the swelling goes down, movement it regained
IMPLICATIONS FOR SPINAL CORD INJURIES
- develop sores
- allow arms to press in order to keep body moving
- bruising of skin
- urinary infection
- spastic contractions/passive movements/ stretching
- obesity
regulate heat
- go to bathroom before physical activity
POSTURE
- alignment of the body
- pay attention to see if there is a problem
- important for health (low back pain), fatigue, and social (makes a person appear friendlier)
CAUSES FOR POOR POSTURE
- environmental (gravity)
- congenital
- psychological (shyness)
- diet
GOOD POSTURE
- plumb line goes from ear lobe, shoulder, hip, posterior knee, and anterior to ankle
POSTURE DEVIATIONS
- rounded shoulders- scapulae is abducted
- kyphosis- increases the posterior convex thoracic curve because of weak erector muscles of the spine and tight pects
- Lordosis- increases the anterior posterior lumbar curve because of weak abs and or hamstrings
- Scoliosis- increase internal curvature of spine
ORTHOTIC DEVICES
- a variet of splints and braces designed to provide support, improve positioning, correct or prevent deformities, and reduce or alleviate pain