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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
dry, rattling sound caused by partial bronchus obstruction
rapid respiratory rate
presence of air in the pleural cavity that causes the lung on the affected side to collapse
temporary cessation of breathing
low oxygen level in body tissues
movement of air in and out of the lungs
rales; abnormal lung sounds heard on auscultation
difficulty breathing when lying down
accumulation of blood in the pleural space
low level of oxygen in the blood
tissue perfusion
blood flow though blood vessels of tissue
collapsed lung or part of a lung
excess co2 in the blood
cheyne stokes
respirations, apnea
breaths progressively deeper, than becoming more shallow, followed by period of apnea

causes: severe brain pathology
kussmaul's respirations
(with hyperventilation)
pattern: regular
depth: deep
rate: faster than 20 breaths/min

causes: metabolic acidosis
diabetic ketoacidosis, renal failure
3 characteristics of the right bronchus that explain why foreign bodies from the trachea enter the right bronchus
- shorter
- wider
- straighter up & down
3 age related changes that occur in the pharynx and the larynx
1. muscle atrophy
2. slackening of the vocal cords
3. loss of elasticity of the laryngeal muscles and cartilages
5 s/s of pulmonary embolus (PE)
- sudden chest pain
- tachypnea
- dyspnea
- diaphoretic w/ cough
- crackles may be heard in auscultation
CT scan
determine whether pt is allergic to iodine
fiberoptic bronchoscopy
determine whether pt is allergic to iodine
pulmonary function tests
advise pt not to smoke or eat for 4-6 hrs before test
tracheostomy tube
tube used w/ a surgically created opening though the neck into the trachea
oral airway
curved tube used to maintain an airway temporarily
nasal airway
soft rubber tube inserted through the nose and extended to the base of the tongue
endotracheal tube
long tube inserted through the mouth or nose into the trachea
function of the respiratory system
is to supply oxygen for te metabolic needs of the cells and to eliminate carbon dioxide, one of the waste materials of cell metabolism
chest tubes
drain fluid and air from the pleural space, permitting a collapsed lung to reexpand
drugs commonly used for tx of respiratory disorders include
decongestants, antitussives, antihistamines, expectorants, antimicrobials, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, mast cell stabilizers, & leukotriene inhibitors
is an acute viral respiratory infection that can lead to pneumonia, esp. in debilitated people
may be caused by pathogenic organisms or by noninfectious agents such as inhaled irritants, including aspirated gastric contents
pleurisy (pleuritis)
id inflammation of the pleura that is treated w/ analgesics, anti-inflammatory drugs, antitussives, antimicrobials, and local heat therapy
is the accumulation of air in the pleural space, which may cause the lung to collapse
with a tension pneumothorax
air accumulates in the affected side, collapsing the affected lung and causing the heart , trachea, esophagus, and great blood vessels to the shift toward the unaffected side (mediastinal shift, a life threatening condition)
flail chest
is the loss of thoracic integrity caused by fractures of two adjacent ribs into two or more segments on the same side of the chest
pulmonary embolus
is a foreign substance carried through the bloodstream into the lung, where it lodges and blocks blood flow
adult respiratory distress syndrome
a progressive pulmonary disorder that may lead to fibrosis of lung tissue and death, is treated with mechanical ventilation and treatment of the underlying cause
where is the respiratory center located?
several days after thoracic surgery, your patient's respiratory status is normal. when checking the chest tube drainage system, you observe that there is no bubbling in the waterseal chamber. this could mean that:
the patient's affected lung has reexpanded
suppress the cough reflex
dry up nasal secretions
relax smooth muscle in the bronchial airways and blood vessels
side effect of antihistamines
suppress the cough reflex

- not always desirable coz coughing removes secretions from the airways
dry up nasal secretions

- may worsen a cough by drying up bronchial secretions

- not usually recommended for people w/ asthma coz dry secretions contribute to difficulty clearing the airway
relax smooth muscle in the bronchial airways and blood vessels
leukotriene inhibitors
prevent acute asthma attacks (not used to stop them after they've started); inhibit allergic response
cause constriction of nasal blood vessels and reduce swelling of mucous membranes
thin respiratory secretions so that they are more readily mobilized
who is at risk for having aspiration pneumonia
patients with tube feedings
lung scan
a test to assess lung ventilation and lung perfusion
acid-fast test
a test done to determine the presence of the bacteria that cause tuberculsis
sputum cytology
a test done to determine the presence of malignant cells
chest physiotherapy should be performed
before meals
ventilators are commonly required for patients with
tidal volume
the present amount of oxygenated air delivered during each ventilator breath
codeine --> effective

dextromethorphan --> not opioid is more commonly used
treat airway obstruction from asthma & copd

- tendency to cause cardiac & central nervous system stimulation
parentally, orally, inhalation

- important drug in tx of asthma because reduce inflammation & edema in respiratory tract
- less commonly used to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- systemic effects of steroids: fluid&electrolyte imbalances, hyperglycemia, htn, osteoporosis, reduced resistance to inf.,& muscle wasting
parental use --> short term, acute situations
oral use --> limited to 2 weeks
- don't d/c steroid therapy abruptly coz may lead to acute adrenal insufficiency
mast cell stabilizers
cromolyn sodium (intal) & nedocromil (tilade) reduce the production of chemicals by mast cells that cause bronchoconstriction, edema, & inflammation

- used to prevent acute asthma attacks
- not useful in stopping an attack after it starts
leukotriene inhibitors
mediate allergic responses including bronchospasm

- useful in tx of asthma coz inhibit allergic response, helping prevent acute asthmatic attacks.
- zafirlukast(accolate) & ziluetin (zyflo)
streptokinase (streptase), urokinase (abbokinase), & alteplase or tissue plasminogen activator (activase) --> used to dissolve blood clots in the lungs called pulmonary emboli