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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the indications for performing Joint Mobilization?
Pain, Muscle Guarding, spasm. Reversible joint hypomobility, positional faults/subluxations, progressive limitation, functional immobility
What are the therapeutic effects of JM?
Brings nutrients to articular cartilage, Maintains extensibility and tensile strength of the articular and periarticular tissues, provide awareness of position and motion
What are the contraindications of JM?
Hypermobility, inflammation, joint effusion
True or False: if pain is experienced before tissue limitation, then pain inhibiting techniques should be used.
True or False: if pain is experienced concurrently with tissue limitation, then aggressive stretching techniques can be used.
FALSE, gentle stretching
True or False: a grade II Oscillatory technique involves small-amplitude rhythmic oscillations.
FALSE, large
True or False: a grade II sustained translatory technique tightens the tissues around the joint.
True or False: the first treatment of JM is performed in the closed packed position.
False, resting position
True or False: proper patient stabilization is important when performing JM.
True or False: gliding techniques used in JM are applied perpendicular to the treatment plane.
False, parallel
True or False: when using sustained translatory techniques for the first time on a patient, you should begin with a Grade I technique.
False, you should begin with a Grade II
True or False: Grade II and III oscillatory techniques should be performed at a rate of 2-3 per second.
True or False: when performing sustained JM techniques on restricted joints, the technique should be held a minimum of 30 seconds.
False, 6 seconds
What direction should the talus be mobilized to gain dorsiflexion in an open kinectic chain (OKC)?
What direction should the proximal row of carpal bones be mobilized to gain extension in an OKC?
Anteriorly, remember to place the joint in the anatomical position
What are the three types of ROM exercises used in PT?
Passive, Active and Active-Assistive
What are the indications for performing PROM?
Injuries that are in the acute phase, and when a patient is not able or not supposed to actively move a segment
Which of the following patients is NOT a good candidate for PROM: a comatose patient, a paralyzed patient, a S/P Total knee replacement, a patient with a unhealed fracture
Unhealed fracture
What are the indications for performing A/AAROM?
When a patient is allowed to contract the muscles, atrophy, aerobic conditioning, after immobilization.
What are the goals of AROM?
Maintain physiological elasticity and contractility in the muscles, provide sensory feedback from contracting muscles, provide a stimulus for bone and joint tissue integrity, increase circulation and prevent thrombus formation, develop coordination and motor skills.
PROM will not:
Prevent muscle atrophy, increase strength or endurance, assist circulation
What is the difference between stretching and PROM?
PROM does not result in an increase of ROM, stretching's goal to achieve plastic deformation
True or False: Active and passive ROM techniques should be performed smoothly and rhythmically.
True or False: when stretching a muscle, the joint should be move in the opposite direction that occurs when the muscle that is being stretched contracts.
Name 4 potential benefits or outocmes of stretching?
Increased flexibility and ROM, general fitness, injury prevention and enhanced performance.
What are some detrimental effects of immobilization?
Decay in contractile protein, decrease in the number of myofibrils resulting in atrophy and weakness, decrease in sacromeres which leads to a decrease in muscle length
What is the neurophysiological response of muscle to stretch?
If the stretch is applied in a sudden manner, the primary afferent fibers stimulate alpha motorneurons in the spinal cord and facilitate a contraction that is being stretched.
What determinants need to be considered during stretching?
Alignment and stabilization of the body during stretching, intensity, speed , duration, frequency and mode.
What is the minimum time that a static stretch should be held?
30 seconds
What is the optimal intensity that should be used in when stretching tissue?
Low load, long duration (Creep)
True or False: Ballistic stretching should not be used on elderly patients with musculoskeletal pathology or chronic contratures.
True or False: when stretching shortened tissue, the force should be applied gradually.
True or False: the optimal frequency that should be used to stretch tissue is 3-5 times per week.
False, it is up to the descretion of the therapist.
Describe a Hold-relax stretching technique.
The range limiting muscle is first lengthened to the point of limitation, the performs a end-range isometric contraction for 10 seconds, followed by voluntary relaxation of the tight muscle. The limb is then is then passively moved into the new range as range-limiting muscle is elongated.
Describe Agonist Contraction.
Same as Hold-relax except the antagonist is asked to contract.
Name the factors that contribute to restricted motion.
Prolonged immobilization, Sedentary lifestyle and habitual faulty or asymmetric postures, paralysis, tone abnormalities and muscle imbalances, postural malalignment
How are contractures named?
By identifying the action of the shortened muscle. If a patient has shortened elbow flexors and cannot fully extend the elbow, he or she is said to have an elbow flexion contracture.
What is the safest form of stretching technique?
Static stretching
Define Cyclic (intermittent) stretching.
A relatively short-duration force that is repeatedly but gradually applied, released, and then reapplied.
Name 6 factors that can affect the frequency of stretching.
Underlying cause of impaired mobility, level of healing tissue, chroncity of a contracture, patient's age, use of corticosteroids, and previous response to stretching
What is the recommended number of repititions when performing A and PROM?
5-10 reps
How far should you move a joint when performing A and PROM?
Through its complete pain-free range to the point of tissue resistance.
Provide 2 examples of "selective stretching."
Not stretching the longer finger flexors and back extensors in spinal cord patients
What type of stimulus do Muscle spindles respond to? What response do they produce when stimulated?
Quick and sustained stretch.
It causes a contraction of the muscle
What type of stimulus do Gogi tendon organs respond to? What response do they produce when stimulated?
Tension or force in a muscle
It inhibits the muscle from contracting
Define Plasticity
the tendency of soft tissue to assume a new and greater length after the stretch force has been removed
Define the term sarcomere absorption
the reduction in length of a muscle and its fibers and in the number of sarcomeres that occurs with immobilization