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55 Cards in this Set

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Name four ways passive immunity is acquired
Natural Maternal antibody, immune globulin*, humanized monoclonal antibody, and antitoxin
Name two ways active immunity is acquired.
Natural infection and vaccines

Remember active immunity involves your body producing antibody or T cell
Describe natural maternal antibody.
Mother passed on to infant during gestation. IgG is passed through central barrier, IgM doesn't cross. Mother built Ab response so infant is protected;

B and T is nascent until 8-10 months
Also mother's milk has antibodies (Macrophages)(igG)
Describe Immune globin (Passive immunity)
It is derived from extrinsic source. It is purified and polymorphic.

Similar to traveler's shots
Gamma globulin
Limited in amount of time as there is turn over (need for boosters)!!
Describe Humanized monoclonal antibody.
Produced in mice.
One molecule
Clone one B cell to generate copies of one Antibody

Example of Perceptin for breast tumors.

Not generating an immune response to particular cancer cell.

TNF-alpha takes in antibody
Describe Antitoxin
Used to immunize against tetanus toxin.

Shoots you up with antibodies to NEUTRALIZE TOXIN

Antitoxin are used to survive INSULT (rusty nail).
Describe Natural infection as part of active immunity
You are infected with pathogen and the players are :

Macrophage
Dendritic Cells Present Antigen
T cells (help)
B cells
Vaccines
Take foreign antigen and inject
So that your body can generate a response to it
Describe the graph of adult serum of immunoglobulins vs. time
At the beginning there is not much going on.
Then there is passive transfer of maternal igG until around 6 months.
Period where there is transient low igG levels.
Then igM (red) is greater igG and igA.
What does an active vaccine do? How does it do it?
Active vaccine induces the individuals immunological response that results in long-lived protection from the disease.

Immunogen must mimic
Active vaccine and mimicking
Immunogen must mimic pathogen to trigger that protective response without causing pathogen's disease.
The graph of active vaccination
You are ARTIFICIALLY inducing active immunity.

1) Induce vaccine A
2) lag phase
3) Response to vaccine A
4) vaccines A+ B
5) Rapid immune response that prevents you from getting sick (vaccine A) vs. first response for B

Demonstrates that memory is SPECIFIC for particular pathogen.
Describe difference in first infection and inapparent re-infection
You have intial immune response during first response.
Then you have protective memory after inapparent re-infection (

Immunological memory occurs in years, which is your GOAL!
What are the different immune responses to different pathogens
th1 is for viruses and intracellular bacteria and tumors

th2 response is for extracellular pathogens (i.e. Worm)
questionable for tumors

What does the th1 response use?
cytotoxic T cells
How is adaptive immunity directed?
Cytokine environment that is around during antigen presentation
Describe the three types of vaccines (active immunity)
1) Whole organism: inactivated/killed and attenuated
2) Subunit vaccines (adjuvant is required): purified protein, peptide, INACTIVATED toxins

3) Recombinant Vector Vaccines
Type of response from Inactivated/killed (whole organism vaccines)
th2 response, which makes sense!

Generally extracellular organism

Inactivated, can't infect cell which would normally bolster a th1 response
Type of response from attenuated (whole organism vaccine)
Can infect and can help generate innate immune response.

They are not DEAD.
However, they may not be able to survive that long in thebody

There is slow replication cycle
Not efficient (one round and these attenuated organisms can die)
Whole Organism vaccine examples
Polio vaccine requires boosters, not a robust response.

Sugar cube vaccine which is attenuated- robust, fast-acting that require CD8 cells because th1 response is being made
Sugar cubes are RAPID
What are the three types of adjuvant + subunit vaccines
purified protein
Peptide
inactivated toxins
Peptides
are more specific and more stable kind of vaccine
Innactivated toxins
Important to target, not bacteria.

Example of tetanus toxin vaccine: so you generate an anti-tetanus toxin

The gamma globulin that is generated after the INSULT of the rusty nail is short term
Describe two Recombinant Vector Vaccines
DNA and Multivalent Subunit are two examples of Recombo Vector
What is an adjuvant
compilation of substance that allows you to induce immune response that you coinject


Gives DANGER signal to immune response.

It triggers innate immune response during the processing of foreign peptides/proteins.
Freund's incomplete adjuvant
oil in water emulsion

Delays the release of antigen and enhances the uptake of macrophages
MDP is
muramyl dipeptide, a constituent of mycobacteria
Freund's adjuvant with MDP
Oil in water emulsion with MDP

Delayed antigen release
enhance m-phage uptake
Induce costimulators in macrophages
MDP and PAMPs
MDP is potent PAMP (pathogen associated molecular pattern)
Uses a toll receptor ligand

MDP is also inflammatory so it is not used in humans
Because MDP is inflammatory humans use aluminum hydroxide (Alum)
Which is Al Oh gel

delays antigen release
enhances macrophage release
However, it is not as effective as MDP
All of Freunds and Alum generate what kind of response
th1-
Keyword in action mechanism is macrophage

"delayed uptake by macrophage"
What does ISCOMs stand for?
Immune stimulatory Complexes
ISCOMs characteristics
matrix of lipid micelles containing viral proteins

Delivers antigen to cytosol
Induces CTLs
ISCOMES can be used to deliver what????
peptides to MHC class I processing pathway.
Steps in the figure for ISCOMS
1) ISCOMs enclose peptide (similar to how virus would be delivered)
2) ISCOM- APC fusion into the cytosol

3) Peptide is transproted to Endoplasmic reticulum (endogenous pathway)

4) MHC class I peptide complex on the cell surface can be recognized by CD8 T CElls
Look there are B7 (dC) and Cd28 (T cell) costimulatory molecules.

MHC class I peptide complex on cell surface can be recognized by CD8 T cells.
MHC Class 1 of ISCOMS enhance what???
jacking up of Cd8 memory
What are the two types of recombinant vector vaccines?
DNA and multivalent subunit
DNA vaccination
injects DNA that encodes antigen
Antigen leads to protective response.
Describe the steps of igure that describes DNA vaccination
1) clone gene for influenza hemagglutinin in PLASMID
2) Injected this plasmid into muscle tissue of mouse which causes (enhanced CD8 population)
3) infect mice with the actual influenza virus
4) Measure virus Titer

see results
Uninjected mice (control) high virus, die, or eventually controlled
Mice injected with plasmid DNA horizontal red line.
Describe the immunotherapy for tumors.
Feed tumor cells to patient DC

Inject DC's that present tumor antigen back into the patient to stimulate patient T cells
Immunotherapy and the boutique
Purify out of the cancer patients (dc)

Boutique (their dendritic cells)
Inculture, feed their tumor cells to the DCs
these Dc's ingest the tumors and present antigen

After ingestion, shoot Back.
What is transcfection?
transfer of exogenous DNA into the cell
What costimulatory molecules enhance tumor immunogenicity?
Transfect of tumors with teh gene for B7 or GM-CSF
GM-CSF functions as what
Potent activator of dendritic and macrophages

As a result of GM-CSF being present, dc/mphages are more efficient at presenting androgens that they have phagocytosed
Describe mechanism of B7 figure
Transfect tumor cell with B7 (because normally didn't express it)
Tumor cells expressing B7 can activate TRA-specific CD8 T cells which signal to kill and eliminate tumor
Transfect tumor cell with GM-CSF
activates dc's
recruit to area of tumor
pick up tumor cells from androgens
Dc's can then interact with T cells to generate IR
GM-CSF recruits what
Dendritic cells which can present tumor antigens to T cells
Because of transfection the mouse rejects what???
Parental B7 negative or GM-CSF negative tumor.
What is an obstacle to developing HIV vaccine
type of IR to eliminate HIV virus is not known (Ab/CTL/both?)
High HIV CD8+ activity comparison
do better than those who don't have high CD8+ activity.

However, sometimes virus does come outside body sometimes
Why does HIV change?
escape recognition by the vaccine-induced immune response
What are two characteristics of humoral response induced by active IMMUNIZATION?
isotype switching and affinity maturation to allow for better, higher affinity antibody
Active immunization affects antibody amounts...
stimulating cells to undergo clonal expansion
isotype switching
With ever immunization (booster) igG increases to get through all tissues
Describe affinity maturation of active immunization
somatic type mutation in CDR areas

Selective clonal expansion because the cells that bind antigen are expanding

Therefore the affinity of the igG is going to increase
Preventative vaccine
PROPHYLACTIC: functions to protect against INITIAL INFECTION
Therapeutic(immunotherapy) vaccine
protects against and
delayed disease development

Possibly prevent transmision.