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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
raises eyebrows (as in surprise); wrinkles forehead skin horizontally
Frontalis
pulls scalp posteriorly
Occipitalis
draws eyebrows together and inferiorly;wrinkles skin of forehead vertically (as in frowning)
Corrugator supercilii
protects eyes from intense light and injury; blinking, squinting & draws eyebrows inferiorly
Obicularis oculi
raises lateral corners of mouth upward (smiling muscle)
Zygomaticus: major & minor
draws corner of lips laterally, tenses lips (synergist of zygomaticus)
Risorius
opens lips; raises and furrows upper lip
Levator labii superioris
draws lower lip inferiorly (as in a pout)
Depressor labii inferioris
draws corners of mouth downward and laterally (as in "tragedy mask" grimace)**antagonist of zygomaticus**
Depressor anguli oris
closes lips; purses and protrudes lips; kissing and whistling muscle
Obicularis oris
protrudes lower lip; wrinkles chin
Mentalis
helps depress mandible; pulls lower lip back and down, tenses skin of neck
Platysma
Prime mover of jaw closure; elevates mandible
Masseter
closes jaw; elevates and retracts mandible; side-to-side movements(synergist of pterygoids); maintains position of mandible at rest
Temporalis
synergist of temporalis and masseter muscles in elevation of mandible; side-to-side (grinding movements)
Medial pterygoid
protrudes mandible (pulls it anteriorly); provides forward sliding and side-to-side grinding movements of lower teeth
Lateral pterygoid
elevate hyoid bone and steady it during swallowing and speech; from behind, they open mouth and depress mandible
Digastric
elevates and retracts hyoid, elongating floor of mouth during swallowing
Stylohyoid
elevates hyoid bone and floor of mouth; enables ongue to exert backward & upward pressure that forces food bolus into pharynx
Mylohyoid
depresses larynx and hyoid bone (may also flex skull)
Sternohyoid
pulls thyroid cartilage (plus larynx and hyoid bone inferiorly)
Sternothyroid
depresses hyoid bone and elevates larynx if hyoid is fixed
Thyrohyoid
constrict pharynx during swallowing, which propels a food bolus to esophagus(peristalsis)
Pharyngeal constrictor muscles:superior, middle, inferior
Prime mover of head flexion; rotates head toward shoulder and tilts or laterally flexes head to its own side(knodding head to say yes)
Sternocleidomastoid
elevate first two ribs (aid in inspiration); flex and rotate neck
Scalenes: anterior,middle posterior
act as a group to extend of hyperextend head; head is rotated and bent laterally toward same side ***also involves trapezius***
Splenius: capitis and cervicis
bending forward at the waist
Erector spinae aka sacrospinalis
extend vertebral column, maintain erect posture, bend vertebral column to same side
Iliocostalis
extend vertebral column, bend it laterally, extends head and turns the face toward the same side
Longissimus
Extends vertebral column
Spinalis
flexes vertebral column laterally, maintains upright posture, assist in forced inspiration (allows you to elevate hip)
Quadratus lumborum
elevate rib cage during inspiration; relax during quiet expiration; synergist to diaphragm
External intercostals:toward outside
draw ribs together and depress rib cage; forced expiration antagonists to external intercostals
Internal intercostals: toward inside
Prime mover of inspiration; flattens on contraction: moves down during inspiration: relax: moves up during expiration
Diaphragm
(see diaphram)
**D.Socci ws** also aid in breathing
forced deep inspiration; lift ribs
sternocleidomastoid & scalenes
forced expiration; pulls ribs inferiorly
Quadratus lumborum
forced inspiration
Pectoralis major:
push diaphragm superiorly
abdominal wall muscles
Flex and rotate lumbar region of vertebral column; fix and depress ribs, stabilize pelvis during walking, increase intra-abdominal pressure
Rectus abdominis "six pack"
aid rectus abdominis in flexing vertebral column and in compressing abdominal walls and increasing intra-abdominal pressure; aid muscles of back in trunk rotation and lateral flexion
External Oblique:toward outside
see external oblique
Internal oblique: toward inside
compresses abdominal contents
Transversus abdominis
supports and maintains position of pelvic viscera;resists downward thrusts that accompany rises in intrapelvic pressure during coughing,vomiting
Levator ani
supports pelvic viscera;supports coccyx and pulls it forward after it has been reflected posteriorly by defecation and childbirth
Coccygeus
with ribs fixed, draws scapula forward and downward; with scapula fixed, draws rib cage superiorly
Pectoralis minor
Prime mover to protect and hold scapula against chest wall; rotates scapula so that its inferior angle moves laterally and upward;important role in abduction and raising of arm and in horizontal arm movements (pushing,punching)"boxer's muscle
Serratus anterior
stabilizes,raises,retracts, and rotates scapula; middle fibers retract (adduct) scapula; superior fibers elevate scapula or can help extend head with scapula fixed; inferior fibers depress scapula and shoulder
Trapezius
elevates/adducts scapula in concert w/superior fibers of trapezius;tilts glenoid cavity downward when scapula is fixed,flexes neck to same side
Levator scapulae
acts w/trapezius fibers to retract scapula,"squaring shoulders";rotate glenoid cavity of scapula downward as when arm is lowered;paddling a canoe…stabilize scapula
Rhomboids:major and minor
Prime mover of arm flexion; rotates arm medially; aducts arm against resistance;pulls rib cage upward, helps in climbing,throwing,pushing and in forced inspiration
Pectoralis major
Prime mover of arm extension;powerful arm adductor;medially rotates arm at shoulder;depresses scapula;important role in power stroke(striking a blow,hammering,swimming,rowing) if arms fixed overhead,pulls rest of body upward and forward
Latissimus dorsi
Prime mover of arm abduction;antagonist of pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi;active during rhythmic arm movements during walking
Deltoid
chief medial rotator of humerus;helps to hold head of humerus in glenoid cavity;stabilizes shoulder joint
Subscapularis
stabilizes shoulder joint;helps to prevent dislocation of humerus;assists in abduction
Supraspinatus
helps to holdhead of humerus in glenoid cavity,stabilizing shoulder joint;rotates humerus laterally
Infraspinatus
same action as infraspinatus muscle;adducts arm
Teres minor
posteromedially extends,medially rotates, and adducts humerus,synergist of latissimus dorsi
Teres major
Powerful forearm extensor (prime mover, particularly medial head)antagonist of forearm flexors;may help stabilize shoulder joint and assist in arm adduction
Triceps brachii: three heads
flexes elbow joint and supinates forearm(open a bottle of wine, it turns corkscrew and pulls the cork)
Biceps Brachii
A major forearm flexor (lifts ulna as biceps lift the radius)
Brachialis
Synergist in forearm flexion; during rapid flexion and extension, stabilizes the elbow
Brachioradialis
Pronates forearm; weak flexor of elbow
Pronator Teres
Iliopsoas is the prime mover for flexing thigh or for flexing trunk on thigh during bow
Iliacus
same as iliacus;also effects lateral flexion of vertebral column; important postural muscle
Psoas major
Flexes, abducts, and laterally rotates thigh;flexes knee (weak);"tailors muscle"
Sartorius
used in all movements that press thighs together,also important in pelvic tilting movements that occur during walking and in fixing the hip when the knee is flexed and the foot is off the ground
Adductors: Medial Compartment
anterior part adducts and medially rotates and flexes thigh; posterior part is a synergist of hamstrings in thigh extension
Adductor magnus
adducts, flexes, and medially rotates thigh
Adductor longus
adducts, flexes and medially rotates thigh
Adductor brevis
adducts, flexed and medially rotates thigh
Pectineus
adducts thigh, flexes and medially rotates thigh, especially during walking; flexes knee
Gracilis
powerful knee extensor used in climbing, jumping, running and rising from seated position, tone of quads plays important role in strenghthening knee joint
Quadriceps femoris
extends knee and flexes thigh at hip
Rectus femoris
extends and stabilizes knee
Vastus lateralis
extends knee; inferiro fibers stabilize patella
Vastus medialis
extends knee
Vastus intermedius
flexes and abducts thigh;rotates thigh medially;steadies the knee on trunk,synergist of iliopsoas and gluteus medius and minimus
Tensor fasciae latae
Major extensor of thigh; complex,powerful and most effective when thigh is flexed..climbing stairs,running, inactive during standing, and walking;laterally rotates and abducts thigh
Gluteus maximus
abducts and medially rotates thigh;steadies pelvis;important in walking
Gluteus medius
abducts and medially rotates thigh;steadies pelvis;important in walking
Gluteus minimus
prime movers of thigh extension and knee flexion***sites for common sports injuries….
Hamstrings
extends thigh and flexes knee; laterally rotates leg, especially when knee is flexed
Biceps femoris
extends thigh at hip;flexes knee; with semimembranosus, medially rotates leg
Semitendinosus
extends thigh and flexes knee; medially rotates leg
Semimembranosus
Prime mover of dorsiflexion; inverts foot; assists in supporting medial longitudinal arch of foot
Tibialis anterior
Plantar flexes and everts foot; may help keep foot flat on ground
Fibularis (peroneus)longus
Plantar flexes and everts foot
Fibularis (peroneus) brevis
Plantar flexes foot when knee is extended; since it also crosses knee joint, it can flex knee when foot is dorsiflexed
Gastrocnemius
Plantar flexes foot; important locomotor and postural muscle during walking, running, and dancing
Soleus