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115 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the bodys ability to acquire, convert, store, and utilize energy
bioenergetics
the immediate source of energy for all cellular activities is
ATP
ATP is broken down into _____
ADP
this energy pathway is composed of ATP and phosphocreatine stored in muscle fibers
phosphagen system
an enzyme active in the phosphogen system
creatine kinase
stored ATP and PCr can sustain activity no more than
30 seconds
this system is sometimes referred to as the anaerobic pathway because oxygen isnt required for it to produce ATP; in this system only carbs can produce ATP.
nonoxidative system
the breakdown of carbs yields _____ which can contribute to muscle fatigue
lactic acid
the main provider of energy to the working muscle in athletic events lasting from 30 seconds to 3 minutes
nonoxidative system
also called the aerobic system because oxygen is required for it to proceed; both carbs and fat can synthesize ATP here
oxidative system
the metabolic by-products that result from oxidative phosphorylation are ____ and _____
water and carbon dioxide
the main provider of energy in events lasting over 3 minutes
oxidative system
the energy intensity at the oxidative system is referred to as the
anaerobic threshold or the lactic threshold
has been shown to increase the capacity of the oxidative system to produce ATP and is contributed to mitochondrial density in muscle from this
endurance training
the most abundant muscle in the body which has been specialized to enable mobility or mvmt and accounts for 50% of the human bodys mass. it is composed of individual cells termed myocytes or myofibers
skeletal muscle
a layer of connective tissue wrapped around each myofiber
endomysium
150 myofibers bundled together form the _____ which is encased in a layer of tissue called the perimysium
fasciculus
the layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle
epimysium
an individual myofiber may posess _____ nuclei/mm of fiber length
200-300
richly developed in the myofiber as the calcium it stores is needed to stimulate muscle contraction
sarcoplasmic reticulum
the plasma membrane of the myofiber
sarcolemma
electrical stimulation of the myofiber is through the
action potentials
these filaments account for approx 60% of the protein content in myofiber
actin and myosin
the larger protein sometimes referred to as the "thick filament"
myosin
the smaller protein termed "thin filament"
actin
regulatory filaments that are essential in triggering the contractile event
troponin and tropomyosin
have slow twitch properties but high oxidative capacity
type 1 fibers
have fast twitch properties but low oxidative potential
type 2b
have intermediate properties both in twitch velocity and oxidative capacity
type 2a
exercise of high intensity and short duration is principally powered by
type 2 myofibers
exercise of low intensity and long duration is principally powered by
type 1 myofibers
are both essential to the generation of the myofiber twitch
regulatory and contractile filaments
explains how protein filaments interact to produce a twitch of the fiber
sliding filament theory
the nervous system excites the ____ and _____
myofibers sarcolemma and its t-tubules
when a shift in the shape of tropomyosin occurs ____ on the actin filament are exposed
active sites
bind to the exposed sites of actin
cross bridge heads
cleaves ATP which results in the power stroke that pulls actin toward the center of myosin molecule which results in the fiber shortening and force generation
ATPase
responsible for delivering cytosolic calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum thus returning the myofiber to a relaxed state
calcium pump
a single motor neuron and all the myofibers it innervates
motor unit
allows the body to breathe by exchanging gases with the environment
pulmonary system
air is taken into the lungs
inspiration
air leaves the lungs and reenters the environment
expiration
passageways through the nose and mouth join at the
pharynx
inhaled air passes through the ____ then the cartilage lined ____
larynx, trachea
two bronchi lead into each of the two
lungs
the bronchi divide to form numerous
bronchioles
at the end of each bronchiole is a cluster of
alveoli
the inspiratory muscles contract to expand the volume of the thoracic cavity and the diaphragm moves toward the abs while the external intercostal muscles pull the rib cage up and down
inspiration
involves the relaxion of the inspiratory muscles and return lungs to their original dimensions
expiration
the volume of air either inspired or expired over the course of 1 minute; at rest this is about 6L per minute
VE
also called minute ventilation
VE
during max intensity exercise minute ventilation may be
20 to 25 fold higher than typical 6L per minute
the amount of air entering of leaving the lungs in a single breath
tidal volume
in untrained individuals anaerobic threshold occurs at ____ of a persons maximal aerobic capacity
55%
in trained individuals anaerobic threshold occurs at ____ of their VO2 max
80 to 85%
the exercise intensity at which blood lactate levels rise and muscle fatigue sets in
anaerobic threshold
the anaerobic threshold is also referred to as the OBLA or
onset of blood lactate accumulation
composed of the heart and blood vessels
cardiovascular system
carry blood throughout the body
blood vessels
the hearts major muscle
myocardium
the four chambers of the heart
2 upper atria and 2 lower ventricles
receives blood from the lungs
left atrium
receives blood from all other parts of the body
right atrium
pump blood into ventricles and drive blood to the lungs and rest of the body
atria
the right and left sides of the heart are separated by the
septum
contract in unison
2 atria; 2 ventricles
when ___ is resting ventricles work, when ____ is resting atria work
atria, ventricles
the sequence of events during the hearts pumping action
cardiac cycle
the contractile phase of the myocardium
systole
the relaxation phase during contractions
diastole
the volume of blood ejected with each ventricular contraction
stroke volume (70 mL at rest)
the number of times the heart contracts per minute; about 72 bpm at rest
heart rate
the amount of blood pumped from the heart by each ventricle per minute
cardiac output (at rest 5L per min)
the amt of blood in each ventricle at the end of the resting phase or cardiac cycle; normal would be 125mL
end diastolic volume
end diastolic volume will significantly affect stroke volume because the greater volume of blood in the ventricle the greater the stretch on the myocardium
frank starling law
the volume of blood remaining in each ventricle following its contraction; normal would be 55mL
end systolic volume
the percentage of blood in the ventricle during diastole that is actually pumped during systole; sometimes defined as EF= SV/EDV; typically 60% but can range from 50 to 75%
ejection fraction
chronic aerobic training has no impact on max HR but ___ is significantly lowered
resting HR
stroke volume has greater intensity in a ____ position than a ____ position
supine (swimming), upright (running, cycling)
thick walled large diameter vessels that carry blood away from the heart
arteries
the largest artery, which directly receives blood from the left ventricle
aorta
blood pressure is highest in the
arteries
each artery branches off to form ___ which have lower blood pressure
arterioles
each arteriole has 3 to 5 ____ and each is barely smaller than a red blood cell; very thin walls allow for exchange of nutrients and gases
capillaries
several capillaries join to form a _____ and this begins the return of blood to the heart
venules
a number of venules form a larger ____ and these ultimately return blood to the heart
veins
ensure unidirectional blood flow through this network and allow for the circulation of blood within the entire body
one way valves
blood flow is greater with increased demand for blood in exercising muscle
vasodilation
blood flow is reduced to satisfy working muscle
vasoconstriction
because the heart pumps blood in a pulsatile blood pressure
oscillates
the resistance of vessels to blood flow
afterload
the amount of blood in the ventricle immediately before contraction
preload
healthy blood vessels demonstrate high ____ easing the burden of the heart
compliance
artherosclerosis decreases arterial _____ and increases blood pressure
compliance
the pressure exerted on the arterial walls during the contraction of the left ventricle; is about 120 mm Hg in resting individuals; above 140 leads to hypertension
systolic
the pressure exerted on arterial walls during resting between ventricular beats; in healthy adults the norm is 80mm Hg; above 90 leads to hypertension
diastolic
the difference between systolic and diastolic pressures
pulse pressure
the average pressure exerted through the entire cardiac cycle
mean arterial pressure
also called the double product and is a correlate of myocardial oxygen uptake and hence the workload of the left ventricle
rate pressure product
occurs via vasoconstriction and takes blood from the visceral organs to the active skeletal muscles; has a dramatic effect on the distribution of blood
shunting
a systolic pressure over ___ should lead to immediate cessation of exercise
260 mm
accounts for 8 percent of a persons body weight and is composed of plasma along with several types of cells
blood
comprises about 55% of blood volume in men and 58% in women; its main component is water and also has proteins, electrolytes, gases, nutrients, waste products, and various hormones
plasma
a protein that is found only in erythrocytes (red blood cells)
hemoglobin
the most abundant cell types in blood and account for 99% of the bloods cells
erthrocytes (red blood cells)
carries 30% of carbon dioxide transported by blood
hemoglobin
a measure of the percentage of the bloods volume that is composed of erthrocytes
hematocrit
the avg hematocrit in men
45%
the avg hematocrit in women
42%
also called white blood cellsand their primary function is to destroy potentially infectious agents that enter the body
leukocytes
fragments of much larger cells which accumulate and form a plug where damage has occured to the blood vessel wall and prevent loss of blood
platelets
an increase in the volume of blood delivered to the working muscles which allows a greater delivery of oxygen and nutrients and removal of carbon dioxide and waste by products
hyperemia
serves to prevent overheating of the body by having more water for sweating
cardiovascular drift
apparent in elevations in hematocrit and hemoglobin values
hemoconcentration
long term effects of training on blood
increases erythrocytes, plasma volume increases, oxygen carrying capacity, higher SV and lower HR