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61 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is the most consistent factor which contributes to fatigue?
Inadequate intake of Magnesium
What are four signs of magnesium toxicity?
1. Nausea
2. Flushing
3. Double vision
4. Slurred speech
Name four minerals that impair vitamin B2 absorption
1. Zinc
2. Manganese
3. Copper
4. Iron
Name three conditions that may cause vitamin B5 deficiency
1. Alcoholism
2. Diarrhoea
3. Diabetes mellitus
Name the nutrients involved in the liver phase I pathway
1. B2
2. B3
3. B6
4. Folate
5. B12
6. Glutathione
Name four nutrients needed for liver phase II pathway
1. Taurine
2. Arginine
3. Glycine
4. Glutamine
Name three nutrients (not herbs) that protect against liver damage.
1. Vit A
2. Vit C
3. Vit E
List three ways in which alcohol abuse can cause long-term health damage
1. Stimulates cholesterol inside cells reverting it to less fluid state, which can then be ejected into bloodstream to liver increasing cholesterol levels.
2. Impairs delivery of bile to intestines
3. Irritates and inflames the gastric mucosa
What are four nutrients that regenerate Vit C
1. B3 (Niacin)
2. Lipoic acid
3. Glutathione
4. Thioredoxin
What are four nutrients which exhibit an anti-oxidant action
1. Vit C
2. Vit E
3. Glutathione
4. Lipoic acid
Briefly explain what a free radical is
It is an atom with one or more unpaired electrons. They are agressive and extract electrons from cells to replace their missing electrons and cause the cells permanent damage.
What are four factors that increase free radical invasion into the body?
1. Exposure to substances
2. Exposure to X-rays
3. The body is already fighting microbes
4. Radicals breed radicals
What are two proteins that are involved in lipogenesis?
1. ACP (acyl carrier protein)
2. CE (Condensing protein)
Name four body functions that cholesterol is a precursor to.
1. Steroids in the body
2. Bile salts
3. Steroid sex hormones
4. Vitamin D synthesis
What are the three hormones that have an effect on lipolysis?
1. Epinephrine (adrenalin)
2. Glucagon
3. Insulin
In glycogen formation, glucose-6-phosphate modulates two different enzymes which do a similar function in the liver and muscles. Name the enzymes and where they are located.
Hexokinase - in muscle cells
Glucokinase - in liver cells
What are three roles that the liver plays in lipid metabolism?
1. Cholesterol synthesis
2. Production of triglycerides
3. Production of bile
Name the four patterns of dysbiosis
1. Putrefaction
2. Deficiency
3. Fermentation
4. Sensitization
What is the cause of fermentation?
An overgrowth of endogenous bacteria resulting in CHO intolerance.
What are 3 signs of fermentation?
1. Bloating
2. Flatulence
3. Diahorroea
Name four factors that influence energy usage during exercise.
1. Presence of blood glucose
2. Fitness levels
3. Type of exercise
4. Length of exercise
What is the dominant biochemical pathway involved in fasting?
What is the main biochemical pathway used in starvation?
What are the only two amino acids that do not contribute to gluconeogenesis?
Leucine and Lysine
Name a food that acts as a diuretic.
Name a food that binds bile, therefore enhancing clearance.
Name an agonist of Vitamin C
Name three antagonists of Vit C
1. Pectin
2. Zinc
3. High iron
How do fat soluble vitamins move across the basolateral border?
Via active transport with chylomicron
What method is used for Vitamins A & D to cross the brush border?
Active transport via micelle
What method is used for Vitamins E & K to cross the brush border?
Active transport via micelle and Passive diffusion
What is an antagonist of Vit K?
Name two agonists of Vit A.
Vit E (large doses)
Which water soluble vitamins cross the brush border by pH dependent passive diffusion?
B3, B5, B7, B9
Name an agonist of Vit B6
Vit B2
Avidin is an antagonist of which vitamin?
Vit B7
How does Vit C cross the basolateral border?
Carrier mediated transport
How do Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B9 & B12 cross the basolateral border?
Na+ dependent active transport
How does Vit B7 cross the basolateral border?
1. Carrier mediated transport
2. Active transport
How does Vit B5 cross the basolateral border?
Passive diffusion
Name an agonist for Vit B3.
Name four main food sources of Vit C.
1. Asparagus
2. Broccoli
3. Citrus
4. Parsley
What destroys vitamin C?
Copper & aluminium
What metabolic problems can cause Vit C deficiency?
Iron deficiency and raised cholesterol
What destroys Vit B1?
Copper and aluminium
What are four main food sources of Vit B1 (Thiamin)?
What is the main function in the body of Vit B5?
Aid digestion
What is required to activate Vit B6 (Pyridoxine)?
Vit B2
What are the four main food sources of magnesium?
Whole grain cereals
Leafy green vegetables
Vitamin D needs ________ to activate it.
What are the four main sources of Vitamin D?
Fish liver oils
Egg yolk
How is magnesium transported around the body?
In plasma, bound to proteins
Where is magnesium digested?
Small intestine
Where is iron absorbed?
Mucosal cells of small intestine
Name two agonists of magnesium.
Vitamin D
What are the antagonists of magnesium?
Unabsorbed fatty acids
What are the microminerals that cross the basolateral border only by passive diffusion?
How does iron cross both the brush border and the basolateral border?
Carrier mediated transport
Boron crosses the brush border and the basolateral border by __________________.
Passive diffusion
What is an agonist of boron?
Retinoic acid and __________ complex travels to the liver.