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144 Cards in this Set

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What is an enzyme found in pineapple?
Bromelain.
What are some functions of molybdenum?
Utilised in enzymes.
Iron storage. Detox abilities (detoxifies aldehydes - yeast overgrowth).
Blocking agent (Cu).
What is lipoic Acid?
An antioxidant, which is soluable in both fat and water, and can be used to treat glaucoma, cataracts and diabetic neuropathy (insulin related nerve damage).
What is B6 called?


What are some of the functions in the body?
Pyridoxine.


Regulates sex hormone ratio. Mood elevation (GABA, Serotonin, tryptophan).
What governs the body's use of Calcium?
Vitamin D
Parathyroid Hormone
Sex Hormones
Calcitonin & Mg
What is the RDA for a MALE of Zinc?

What is the therapeutic dose?
RDA - Male - 15mg

SR (therapurtic dose) - 30mg
What are some signs of deficiency of Potassium?
Depression.
Increased Blood Pressure.
Nervous Disorders.
"tired eyelids"
Constipation (remember rat study).
Insomnia.
What blocks the absorption or utilisation of Zinc?
Copper. Calcium. Iron.
Phytates.
Alcohol.
Stress.
Sources of Ca
fish with soft bones
almonds
dairy
GLV's
Egg yolk
Soy
Name a source of Quercetin
Onion.
Citrus.
Tea.
Red wine.
What is a tocopherol?
Vitamin E
Virus sufferers can often have a deficiency in 2 (major) nutrients-
Selenium. Zinc.
What are some signs of Zinc Deficiency?
White spots on nails.
Skin problems.
Lowered immunity.
What would you prescribe Glucosamine for?

What dosage?

And how long may it take to get an effect?
For joint problems and arthritic conditions. It also plays a part in stomach lining, artery health and formation of GABA (the big chill out).

MINIMUM 1500mg day.

It may take 4 weeks to achieve loading dose.
glucosamine... big word... big dose.
Which 3 nutrients work synergistically

a)Zn, Cu, B6
b)Ca, Zn, Fe
c)Mg, Zn, Fe
d)Mg, B6, Zn
D) Mg B6 Zn
What are some signs and symptoms of hypothyroidism?
Fatigue, Weight gain, dry skin and hair.
Vitamin C over 500mg can affect absorption of...
B12
What is super oxide dismutase?
A powerful antioxidant.

It is made up of Copper, zinc and Manganese and requires selenium for activation.
Which B vitamin should accompany magnesium?
B6
Lack of mg can lead to menstural problems and odema. the B vitamin is also linked to menstural problems.
Vitamin A and lipoic acid can be used to treat....
Cataracts, Glaucoma and Diabetic neuropathy.
What is cobalamin?
B12
Levels of WHAT ENZYME have been shown to be decreased in up to 80% of cases of Cardiovascular disease?
Co-Enzyme Q 10
Which 3 nutrients work synergistically

a)Zn, Cu, B6
b)Ca, Zn, Fe
c)Mg, B6, Zn
d)Mg, Zn, Fe
C) Mg, B6, Zn
What is the RDA of Chromium?
50-200ug
Which mineral, combined with B3, plays a major part in GTF (glucose tollerance factor)?
Chromium
Boron can be useful in the treatment of what ailment?

In what dose would you prescribe it?
Arthritis!


9mg day.
i'm denying there's ants in here...
Which type of person has a greater need for Iron?
Women (during childbearing years)
Pregnant
Athletes
Elderly
what is the rec. dose of Phosphatidal serine?
300mg day.
phos-phat-idal serving! Big bust and 2 stomachs.
Sources of iodine...
Salt water fish and Seaweed
Iodine should always be taken with __nutrient_____ when treating hypothyroidism
Iodine should always be taken with tyrosine when treating hypothyroidism.
what are the major functions of Zinc?
Immunity
Fertility
Stomach Acid Production
Insulin Metabolism
Bone mineralisation
What element does Molybdenum block the absorption of?
copper.
Sources of CoQ10 are..
Meat, and it is synthesised in the body.
What vitamin increases the absorption of Iron?
Vitamin C!
Which heavy metal blocks Iodine?
Mercury
ADEK are all
Fat soluable
What can anticholesterol products interfere with in the body?
Absorbtion of fat soluable nutrients such as Vitamin A, D, E, K, CoQ10...
What decreases the absorption of Iron?
Low stomach acid.
Tannins. Phytates.
What are some properties of Co-Enzyme Q 10?
Antioxidant.
Mitochondrial energy pathways.
Spoon-shapes nails and fatigue are deficiency symptoms of:
Iron.
Deficiency symptoms for magnesium can include:
Fluid retention (odema) esp. in menstural situaations.
Cramping muscles during rest.
What is a function of chromium?
Part of Glucose tollerance factor - activates insulin receptors.
Beta-carotenes conversion into Vitamin A can be blocked by what illness?

The same illness can also affect Nucleic acids turning into proitens...
Hypothyroidism- as the conversion is driven by the thyroid.
For Hypothyroidism, what is the therepeutic dosage (SR) of Iodine?
SR = 1mg a day.

*with tyrosine*
*away from mercury - which blocks it!*
HYPO = SLOW. S-low
low dose
What is a good food source of chromium?
Meat. WHOLE grains, cheese, mushrooms, asparagus, tea, beer (and brewers yeast) and wine.
What role does copper play in the blood?
it forms part of haemoglobin.
Deficiency of this will cause anaemia, disturbed cognition, poor immunity...
Iron.
Which nutrient assists in Glucosamine repairing cartilage?

It is also important in liver clearance and detoxification....
Sulphur.
What trace mineral activates thyroxine?
Selenium.
(Iodine - forms. Selenium - activates)
What are some functions of Iron?
Oxygen transport. Sleep. Mood elevation. Energy production.
SOME iron?
What is PHOSPHATIDAL SERINE?


What is it useful for?
Phosphatidal serine is closely related to memory neurotransmitters.

Use of this may help decrease age related memory loss and dementias. It may help spare the destruction of dendrites.
6 brazil nuts a day will provide adequate intake of which nutrient?
Selenium.
What are some uses for sulphur?
it is required for maintainence of joints (with glucosamine), Liver clearance and detoxification.
Cramping during rest is a deficiency sign for...
Magnesium
OPTIMAL dose of Vitamin E is...
400-1200IU
Is Lipoic acid fat or water soluable?
Both fat and water soluable!
A great Bioflavonoid to prescribe to an injured athlete could be:
Hesperidin.
Which 3 nutrients work synergistically

a)Zn, Cu, B6
b)Mg, B6, Zn
c)Ca, Zn, Fe
d)Mg, Zn, Fe
B!

Zinc is blocked by Cu, Ca and Fe.
Potassium controls...
Water balance
Electrical stimulation of muscles and nerves
Iodine is used for production of which hormone?
Thyroxine!
Biotin is depleted by
Excessive Eggs!
Which mineral is a major energy payer, *sedating agent*, and helps deal with stress?

Deficiency can be associated with muscle cramps.
Magnesium
What inhibits Ca absorption?
Phosphates
Phytic Acid
Oxalic Acid
What are some functions of Vitamin C?
Collagen formation.
Adrenalin synthesis.
What blocks Cu metabolism??
Vit C
Molybdenum
Ca
P
Zn
Fe
Which antioxidant is especially useful in the treatment of Diabetic neuropathy, Cataracts and Glaucoma?


What dosage should be taken?
Lipoic acid.

10-50mg a day.
related to diabetes, diabetes strikes...
Fatigue, Weight gain, dry skin and hair are symptoms of....
Hypothyroidism.
Where is BROMELAIN found?

and

What are some of it's properties?
Bromelain is found in Pineapples.

It is anti-inflammatory, fibrolitic (note: useful in varicose veins) and mucolytic.
Functions of Calcium...
Bones
Muscle contraction
nerve function
enzyme activity
blood clotting
Flavones, Flavonols, Flavanones, Catechins and Anthrocyanidins are all...
Bioflavinoids
This may help decrease the destruction of dendrites...
Phosphatidal serine.
High doses of Vitamin C can block which 2 nutrients?
Cu.
B12.
Chromium.
The Glucose tolerance factor is made up of which 2 notable nutrients?
B3 and Chromium
What are the functions of vit E in the body?
Maintain all mEmbranEs in the body.
Free radical scavenger - can become free radical though if oxidised!
what are some symptoms of dehydration AND water intoxication?
Headaches.
Abdominal Cramps.
Dizziness.
Nausea.
Lethargy.
Stupor.
Sugar, starch cellulose and glycogen are all....
Carbohydrates
Phospholipids are essential for what bodily functions?
Cell membrane formation, brain and nerve formation and absorption of fat soluable vitamins.
What are potential dangers of vitamin E and certain pharmaceutical medications?
It enhances the anticoagulant action of some medications--- may cause haemorrhage!
A well known phospholipid is
Lecithin
For a vegetarian to correctly combine proteins they need to eat 2 servings from WHICH 3 food groups?
1. Nuts & seeds
2. Legumes
3. grains
Who needs most Ca?
pregnancy
Lactation
Children
Generally, how many grams of protein to we require a day?
0.9g of protein per kg weight.
How many amino acids make a protein?
30
Essential or non essential?

Leucine.

What are its main functs?
Essential.

Growth. muscles. blood sugar. wound healing. Part of Krebs cycle.
Essential or non essential?

isoleucine.

Name a function.
Essential.

muscle. - may assist in muscle twitching and tremors.
Essential or non essential?

Valine.


Name a function.
Essential


Krebs cycle. not much known.
Vitamin K is essential for what bodily process...
Coagulation.
Essential of non essential?

Phenylalanine?

Funct?
Essential.

Can cross blood-brain barrier. affect brain chem. precursor to tyrosine.
When is a mineral essential?
When a disease state occurs if the nutrient is removed fro the diet, but will disappear if reintroduced.
Essential of non essential?

tryptophan?


Funct?
Essential.

S4.

Synthesis of serotonin. Precursor to B3.
Bleeding gums and easy bruising can be a deficiency sign for...
Vitamin C and Bioflavinoids.
Essential of non essential?

Methionine?


Funct?
Essential.


Contains sulfur. Good for skin probs. Antihistamine.
Essential of non essential?

Lysine?

funct?
Essential.


Muscle tissue. Increase absorption of Ca. bone growth and collagen formation.
Name the electrolytes
K
Na
Cl
Which non essential amino acid has been linked to neural tube defects, atherosclerosis and clot formation, when in high serum concentration?
Homocysteine
What dosage of CoQ10 would you reccomend for a patient with Cardiovascular disease?
100mg day.
CoQ10<br />
C0Q10<br />
10Q
Which vitamins are water soluable?
B and C!
High intake of simple carbohydrates will deplete what vitamin?
B group.
What will deplete B vitamins?
Refined carbs and the OCP.
Which vitamin recycles Vitamin E?
Vitamin C
What is the name for B1?
Thiamine
What deficiency causes Beri Beri?
B1 - Thiamine
What are the main functions of B vitamins?
Energy production.
Support the nervous system and cognitive skills.
What is Choline:
Where is it from?
how is it formed?
A component of Lecithin.
Formed from methylation of Serine.
What is B2 called?
Riboflavin.
Deficiency of B2 (Riboflavin) may result in what symptoms?
Gritty, red eyes. Sensitivity to light.
Scaly, greasy dermatitis.
Cracks in corners of mouth.
Red, swollen tongue.
R-EYE-boflavin
A major action of bioflavinoids:
Antioxidant.
What is the name for B3?
Niacin.
What is Niacin a precursor for?
Tryptophan
What Deficiency causes Pellagra?
B3 - Niacin
What is pantothenic Acid?



What is a deficiency symptom of it?
B5

Burning feet. Fatigue.
What foods contain potassium?
nuts
Seeds
legumes
some veg
what is vitamin A required for?
Vision.
brain Development.
Bone development.
reproduction.
Immune function
Where is Ca absorbed?
Small intestine
What is a function of Folic acid?
helps prevent neural tube defects during pregnancy.
Folic acid can mask WHAT deficiency?
B12
Deficiency of K can result in...
Constipation
Acne
Depression
What deficiency is responsible for pernicious anaemia?
B12
Cobalt is an important part of which mineral?
B12
Diadzein and Genestein are found in...
Soy products
What two B vitamins help decrease build up of homocystiene?
B12 and B3
Which 3 nutrients work synergistically

a)Mg, B6, Zn
b)Ca, Zn, Fe
c)Mg, Zn, Fe
d)Zn, Cu, B6
A) Mg, B6, Zn
Name the powerful antioxidant made up of Cu, Zn and Mn
Super oxide dismutase.
What 3 elements make up super oxide dismutase?
Cu
Zn
Mn
*Cu* *Z*oom off after a mutant *SUPER* *Man*!
Where are carotenoids found?
orange, yellow and dark green leafy veg's. Egg yolk.
Supplement Vitamin A by using...
Cod liver oil
Who may be deficient in Vitamin A?
Elderly.
Malabsorption: coeliac, cirrosis, surgery...
Cramps experienced during movement are most likely caused by lack of...
Ca
What's a quick test for vitamin A deficiency?
night blindness!
What is the RDA of Vitamin E?

When is toxicity experienced?
10mg

3200mg
What is the RDA of Vitamin A?

What is a toxicity affect?
RDA 2500 IU


Birth Defects. Stored in fat deposits.
Deficiency of Vitamin A may be associated with what illness?
Immune Disease.
Problems with membranes and skin.
What 4 areas is vitamin A mainly concerned with?
Skin.
Mucous Membranes.
Immunity.
Antioxidant.
Choliecalciferol is...
Vitamin D
Sources of Vitamin D are...
Sunlight on skin.
Egg yolk.
Fish Oils.
Yeast.
What do we need to form bone?
Ca.
P
Boron
Vit D
Mg
What is a site of action in the body for vitamin D?
T cells in the immune system.
Excessive intake of WHAT may decrease production of vitamin D?
Calcium.
What dose of Potassium can be toxic, and what will the effects be?
Over 12g.

Arrythmia, diarrhoea, tingling, weakness, paralysis
What binds to Vitamin D?
Mineral oil
What do Na and Cl do?
Regulate extracellular fluid eg. blood plasma.
Muscle and nerve activity.
What can cause Mg deficiency?
Diarrhoea
Loop Diuretics
Malabsorption
Alcoholism
3 causes of cramps
low Ca
low Mg
low Na
Cramps experienced during rest are most likely caused by lack of...
Mg