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185 Cards in this Set

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What is the name of the enzyme which acts on carbohydrates, produced by the salivary glands?

What action does it have?
Salivary amylase .

Begins to break starch (amylose) into oligosaccharides and maltose.
What does Lingual Lipase act on?
It breaks down triglycerides into glycerol and Free Fatty Acids
Name 2 Enzymes found in the stomach?
Gastric lipase

HCl is also produced in the stomach, but it is not an *enzyme*
What is the inactive form of Pepsin?
What action does PEPSIN have on PROTEINS?
It hydrolyses proteins and forms oligopeptides.
How is Pepsinogen activated to form pepsin?
The production of HCl activates ppepsinogen.
Name 3 functions that HCl carries out in relation to digestion?
denatures proteins,
hydrolyses bonds,
activates pepsinogen to pepsin
What is the function of gastric lipase?

Why is GASTRIC LIPASE found in greater concentration in children, than adults?
It breaks down lipids and triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids.

children who need a far higher amount of fats than adults.
Is PULMONARY OEDEMA (blood backing up into the lungs) more likely to occur as a result of congestive heart failure on the:
Left side of the heart?
Right side of the heart?

Left side of the heart.

The heart will be less effective at pumping, more blood will remain in the ventricle, the heart becomes overstretched, and the extra blood will back up into the lungs.
Congestive Heart failure of the RIGHT side of the heart is likely to result in what symptom?
Peripheral Oedema
What structure is the dividing point between the UPPER respiratory tract, and the LOWER respiratory tract?
The vocal chords.
I am constructed of skin, bone and cartilage lined with mucous membrane. My openings are called external nares.

What am i?
the NOSE!
What is MITOSIS?
A cell division in which the two daughter sells produced are identical to the parent cell. It occurs in somatic (body) cells.
Which 3 parts of the brain make up the area known as the brain stem?
Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata.
What part of vision are:

RODS responsible for?
CONES responsible for?
Rods - these photoreceptors are responsible for black and white vision in dim light.

Cones - These photoreceptors are responsible for colour vision and the sharpness of vision (acuity). They require bright light.
The amount of blood leaving the heart every minute.
The number of times the heart beats per minute.
The amount of blood pushed out of the heart with each contraction.
What is the equation that shows the relationship between HEART RATE, STROKE VOLUME and CARDIAC OUTPUT?
Stroke Volume (litres per min)
Heart Rate (Beats per minute)
Cardiac Output

SV x HR = CO
What factors can cause an increase in cardiac output?
Hormones - Adrenaline
Chemicals - Caffiene, Medications
Temperature (high temp speeds rate)
Emotional state
Age (slower with age)
Gender (males slower than females)
Which organ(s) excrete:

Kidneys, lungs, skin
Which organ(s) excrete:

Kidneys, Skin
Which organ(s) excrete:

Kidneys, Skin
Which organ(s) excrete:

This organ regulates the composition and volume of the blood. it removes wastes.
The kidneys
What are the functions of the kidney?
Regulation of composition of blood.
Removal of wastes such as water, nitrogenous substances (from protein catabolism), hydrogen ions and electrolytes (Na, Cl, K).
What passage does the blood follow flowing from the renal artery to the renal vein?
1. afferent arteriole
2. glomerulus
3. efferent arteriole
4. peritubular cavity
and finally to the RENAL VEIN
Where does the renal artery carry blood to and from?
From the aorta. To the kidney.
Where does the RENAL VEIN carry blood to and from?
From the Kidney, into the Vena Cava.
What is the difference between a URETER and URETHRA?
A ureter connects the kidney to the bladder, it carries urine to the bladder.
A urethra connects the bladder to the outside world. It carries urine out of the body.
Which part of the kidney is the CORTEX, and which part is the MEDELLA?
The cortex is the outer part.
The medella refers to the inner structure.
List the order the structures that materials filtered from the blood will flow through in the nephron:
Bowman's capsule, Proximal convoluted tubule, loop of henly, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct.

*It's a good idea to know how to label these too!*
Name 3 reasons why the filtration from the glomerulus to the bowmans capsule occurs:
1. the glomerular capillaries are very long providing a large surface area.
2. the membranes through which the substances pass are very thin and porous.
3. The blood pressure in the glomerulus is high as the afferent arteriole has a larger diameter than the efferent arteriole.
Where in the kidney does reabsorbtion take place (name all 4):
Proximal convoluted tubule.
Loop of henle.
Distal convoluted tubule.
Collecting duct.
Which hormones regulates the reabsorbtion of



Antidiuretic hormone
What is active secretion?

What effect does this have?
Active secretion refers to the movement of substances from the blood into the filtrate in the nephron.

It removes unwanted substances from the blood and helps to control blood PH.

What is OSMOSIS?
Diffusion: Movement of a *substance* from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.

Osmosis: Movement of *water* from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration through a *semipermeable membrane*.
Caffeine is a diuretic because it inhibits the reabsorption of
_______ _____.
Alcohol inhibits the secretion of __________ __________.
Caffeine is a diuretic because it inhibits the reabsorption of SODIUM IONS.
Alcohol inhibits the secretion of ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE.
What would cause the concentration of water to increase in the blood (ie osmotic pressure decreases)?
Drinking lots of liquid.
The absence of Antidiuretic hormone.
What would cause the concentration of water to decrease in the blood (ie. osmotic pressure increases)?
Increased sweating, loss of fluids due to bleeding, burns, diarrhoea.
An increased amount of Antidiuretic Hormone is released into the blood. What affect does this have on the cells in the nephron in regard to permeability?
Cells in the nephron become MORE permeable to water. More water is REABSORBED from the nephron.
A decreased amount of Antidiuretic Hormone is released into the blood. What affect does this have on the cells in the nephron in regard to permeability?
Cells in the nephron become LESS permeable to water. Less water is reabsorbed, more water is EXCRETED.
What are the functions of the Nasal structures:
*Olifactory epithelium?
*Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells in nasal cavity?
*Paranasal sinuses opening into nasal cavity?
-Olfactory epithelium: for sense of smell.
-Pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells: filters, warms and moistens air. Cilia moves trapped dust and mucous towards pharynx.
-Paranasal sinuses: Lighten skull. Resonate voice.
What are the 2 divisions of the Pharynx?
Nasopharynx, Orapharynx.
Where does the Nasopharynx extend to and from, and what is it's primary function?
The nasopharynx extends from the choanae (nostrils!) to the soft palate.

it's a passageway for air only.
Voice production:
Describe briefly how sound is made when we speak:
The vocal cord contains skeletal muscle and an elastic ligament. There are 10 intrinsic muscles of the larynx. When the muscles contract they move cartilages and stretch the vocal cord tight. When air is pushed past the ligament, it results in sound.
How many incomplete rings of hyaline cartilage are there in the trachea?

isn't that trivial...
Describe the structures in order in the Branching of the bronchial tree:
Trachea > Primary bronchi > Secondary bronchi > Tertiary bronchi > Bronchioles > Terminal bronchioles.
What are the epithelial cells of the lungs?
Epithelium changes from pseudostratified ciliated columnar to non ciliated cuboidal as passes deeper into the lungs.
What part of the lungs will an asthma attack or allergic reaction constrict?
The distal bronciole smooth muscle.
What is the visceral pleura?

What is the parietal pleura?
the visceral pleura covers the lungs.

The Parietal pleura lines the ribcage and covers the upper surface of the diaphragm.
Where is the plueral cavity?
The potential space between the ribs and the lungs.
How many lobes on the right lung? the left lung?
Right lung - 3
Left lung - 2
What are 2 cell types of the Alveoli?
Type I - Alveolar cells (simple squamous. Gas exchange)
Type II - Septal Cells
What is BOYLE'S LAW?
As the size of a closed container decreases, pressure inside is increased.
Alveolar pressure increases, air rushes ___.
Alveolar pressure decreases, air rushes ___.
Alveolar pressure increases, air rushes OUT.
Alveolar pressure decreases, air rushes IN.
Basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by...
The Medullary rhythmicity area

What veins form it?
It's a subdivision of systemic circulation. Blood suply is detoured from GI tract to liver on it's way to the heart.

it is formed by the union of the SPLENIC, SUPERIOR MESENTERIC and HEPATIC veins.
Deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle is carried to the lungs and returns to the left atria.
What circulatory route am i?

I go from the right ventricle, to the lungs, to the left atria.
Pulmonary circulation.
What circulatory route am i?

I travel from the Left side of the heart, to the body and back to the heart.
Systemic circulation.
What circulatory route am i?

I travel from the capillaries of the Gastrointestinal tract to the capillaries in the liver.
Hepatic portal circulation.
What circulatory route am i?

I supply the heart muscle.
Coronary circulation.
What are some signs and symptoms of hypovolemic shock?
Rapid resting heart rate.
Weak, rapid pulse.
Clammy, cool skin.
Altered mental state.
Reduced urine formation.
What does a sphygmomanometer measure?
Blood pressure
What is shock a failure of?

What are the 4 types of shock?
Shock is a failure of the cardivascular system to deliver enough O2 and nutrients.

HYPOVOLEMIC - loss of blood or body fluids
CARDIOGENIC - damage to pumping action of heart
VASCULAR - Drop innapropriate vasodilation (eg anaphalaxis)
OBSTRUCTIVE - Blockage of circulation
How may the body attempt to normalise itself following 'shock'?
Activate renin-angiotensin-aldosterone.
Secrete ADH.
Activate Sympathetic Nervous sys.
Release local vasodilators.

All attempt to increase blood pressure.
Which 2 'bodies' detect hypoxia, hypercapnia and acidosis, causing stimulation of the cardivascular centre?
Carotid bodies and Aortic bodies. They are baroreceptors.
What is ANP and what effect does it have on the kidneys?
ANP is Atrial Natriureic peptide.
It lowers blood pressure, causing vasodilation and loss of salt and water in the urine.
Oedema is an abnormal increase in interstitial fluid. What two factors may contribute to this?
* Excess filtration
* Inadequate reabsorption
What is filtration?

What is it promoted by?
Movement of material into interstitial fluid.

Promoted by blood hydrostatic pressure and interstitial fluid osmotic pressure.
What is reabsorption?

What is it promoted by?
Rebasoption is the movement from interstitial fluid into capillaries.

It is promoted by blood colloid osmotic pressure.
the union of 2 or more artries supplying the same body region.

Eg. circle of willis underneath brain, coronary circulation of heart.
Starling's Law of the capillaries is...
The volume of fluid and solutes reabsorbed, is almost as large as the volume filtered.
What are 3 ways materials move in and out of a capillary?
1. Diffusion. most important.
2. Transcytosis (eg exocytosis, endocytosis)
3. Bulk flow
What is bulk flow?
Movement of a large amount of dissolved or suspended material in the same direction.
Important in regulation of relative volumes of blood and interstitial fluid.
What are venules?

What is their structure?
Small veins collecting blood from capillaries.

They're made of a tunica media with a few scattered muscle cells & fibroblasts.
Describe the basic structure of an elastic artery.
What are their properties?
Elastic arteries are the largest in diameter, containing a lot of elastic fibres in the tunica media.

They help propel blood onwards -
Stretch & recoil = pressure resevoir
What are muscular arteries?

What are their functional properties?
Muscular arteries are medium sized arteries with thick walls and more muscle than elastic fibres in their tunica media.

They are capable of greater vasoconstriction and vasodilation to adjust rate of flow.
What are the 4 layers of the Gastrointestinal tract?
1. Mucosal layer
2. Submucolal layer (that makes sense)
3. Muscularis layer
4. Serosa layer
What are the 3 layers of the mucosa of the GI Tract?
1. Epithelium: stratified squamous (mouth, oesophagus& anus), Simple columnar in the rest.
2. Lamina propria (loose connective tissue, Blood vessels and lymphatiic tissue)
3. Muscularis Mucosae (thin layer of smooth muscle.
What are the sublayers of the submucosa of the GI tract?
1. Loose connective tissue (Blood vessels, glands, lymphatic tissue)
2. Meissners plexus (parasympathetic, innervation)
What are the components of the muscularis of the GI tract?
Skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle
Auerbach's plexus
In order from superficial to deep, the wall of the GI tract is composed of…
Mucosal layer, The submucosa, the muscularis and the serosa layer.
What am I?
I cover all organs and walls of cavities NOT open to the outside of the body. I'm covered in a slippery fluid..ahem.
I consist of connective tissue covered with simple squamous epitelium...
I am the outside layer to the Gastro Intestinal tract.... I AM:
Serous membrane (Serosa)
The visceral layer covers...
Name the 4 major sections of the peritoneum:
Lesser omentum
Greater omentum
What is inflammation of the peritoneum called?
What can cause it?
Can be caused by:
trauma, rupture of GI tract, appendicitis, perforated ulcer...
What's the name of the muscle that keeps food between our upper and lower teeth?
The buccinator.
What are the 3 salivary glands called, and where are they found?
PAROTID - below the ear
SUBMANDIBULAR - Under mandible
SUBLINGUAL - Deep to the tongue in the floor of the mouth
What is the function of saliva?
wet food for easier swallowing.
Dissolves food for tasting.
Bicarbonate - buffer acidic foods.
Antibacterial enzymes.
Start to chemical digestion.
Rinsing action on mouth.
What chemicals/enzymes are found in saliva? What do they do?
*Salivary amylase - begins to digest starch.
*Bicarbonate Ions - Buffer acidic food.
*Lysozyme - antibacterial
*Lingual lipase - begins breakdown of triglycerides
Lower respiratory tract includes all except:
A trachea
B oropharynx
C bronchial tree
D lungs
E larynx
B - Oropharynx
On what Papillae of the tongue are taste buds found?
Circumvallate Papillae &
Fungiform Papillae
Which of the following contain the LEAST amount of taste buds?

a)Filiform Papillae
b)Fungiform Papillae
c)Circumvallate Papillae
a)Filiform Papillae
What gland does Myxovirus (mumps) attack?
The parotid salivary gland.
Flap of tissue suspended from the midpoint of the posterior border of the soft palate is
A) fauces
B) frenulum
C) uvula
D) gingiva
E) epiglottis
C) uvula
What factors can increase or decrease salivation?
Sight, smell, sounds, memory of food or tongue stimulation can increase salivation. The cerebral cortex signals the salivary nuclei in brainstem.

Fear will stop salivation due to sympathetic innervation.
What are the 4 parts of a tooth?
Pulp Cavity
Describe the 3 layers of a tooth:
ENAMEL - hardest substance in the body, Calcium Phosphate or calcium carbonate.
DENTIN - Calcified connective tissue
CEMENTUM - Bone like. Penetrated by the peridontal ligament.
Briefly outline digestion in the mouth:
Mechanical digestion: chewing. Breaks and mixes.
Chemical digestion: amylase and lingual lipase.
Which of the following is a true statement
A oesophageal stage of swallowing is involuntary
B pharyngeal stage of deglution is involuntary
C oral stage is involuntary and under control of the cerebral cortex
D oesophageal stage is voluntary
E both B and C are correct
B pharyngeal stage of deglution is involuntary
Which side is the stomach on?
How big is the empty stomach?
How does it stretch?
It is on the Left.
the size of a large sausage, and strtches due to rugae.
What are the 4 parts of the stomach?
What are the 6 substances secreted by the stomach lining, what is the function of the substance, and which cells secrete them?
*MUCOUS - secreted by mucous surface cell - protects stomach against acidity.
*HCl - secreted by the PARIETAL CELLS - converts persinogen to pepsin & Hydrolyses the bonds of protein.
*INTRINSIC FACTOR - protein secreted by PARIETAL CELLS - needed for absorption of vitamin B12.
*PEPSINOGEN - Secreted by CHIEF (zymogenic) cell - breaks down protein.
GASTRIC LIPASE- Secreted by CHIEF (zymogenic) cell - Breaks down lipids.
*GASTRIN (HORMONE)- Secreted by G-CELLS (enteroendicrine cell) -Increases release of gastric juice, increase gastric motility, relax pyloric sphincter.
Protein digestion involves:
HCl denatures protein molecules. HCl transforms pepsinogen into pepsin.
Pepsin breaks peptid bonds between certain amino acids.
What are the 3 stages of Gastric secretion and motility?
Cephalic Phase
Gastric Phase
Intestinal Phase
What does the CEPHALIC phase involve?
Cerebral cortex - sight, smell, taste and thought.
Parasympathetic nervous stimulation.

VAGUS nerve increases stomach muscle and glandular activity.
What does the GASTRIC phase involve?
Nervous control keeps the stomach active: Information is provided by stretch and chemoreceptors. Peristalsis and glandular secretions continue. Chyme is released into duodenum.
Endocrine influences: distention and presence of caffein or protein cause G cells to secrete gastrin into the bloodstream. This increases stomach glandular secretion, stomach churning and sphincter relaxation.
What does the INTESTINAL phase involve?
Stretch receptors in the duodenum slow stomach activity and increase intestinal activity.
Distention, fatty acid or sugar signals medulla (symp nerves slow stomach activity).
Secretin decreases stomach secretions.
Cholecystokinin (CKK) decreases stomach emptying.
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases stomach secretions, molility and emptying.
What are the 3 hormones secreted during the Intestinal phase?
Cholecystokinin (CKK)
Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)
What enzyme changes alcohol to acetaldehyde? Where is the enzyme produced?
Alcohol dehydrogenase.

Gastric mucosal cells.
Oddi's Sphincter/ Glisson's sphincter is part of what organ?
what is the name of the structure in the pancreas which produces hormones?
Islets of Langerhans
What part of the pancreas produces Pancreatic 'Juice'?
What does the Pancreatic juice contain?
Sodium Bicarbonate.
Digestive Enzymes (Pancreatic amylase, pancreatic lipase, ribonuclease, deoxyribonuclease, proteases [trypsin, chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidase, proelastase, tripsin inhibitor])
What hormones regulate pancreatic secretions?
*Secretin - increases sodium bicarb
*Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)- increased insulin release
*Cholecystokinin (CCK)- increased digestive enzyme release.
Which stage of swallowing is voluntary?
The first (buccal) phase is voluntary, food being forced into the pharynx by the tongue. After this the process is reflex.
Where is bile made?
Where is it stored?
Bile is a watery greenish fluid, produced by the liver and secreted via the hepatic duct and cystic duct to the gall bladder for storage.
Through which duct does Bile leave the gall bladder?

What is bile made of, and what is it's function?
The Common Bile Duct.
Bile contains: bile salts, bile pigments (mainly bilerubin, essentially the non-iron part of haemoglobin) cholesterol and phospholipids.
Bile salts and phospholipds emulsify fats.
What is secretin?
Where is it produced?
Secretin is a gastrointestinal peptide hormone.
It is produced by S-cells in the small intestine. Production is stimulated by acidic food from the stomach moving into the intestine.
What does Secretin

Secretion of bicarbonate by the pancreas (to neutralise acidity)& release of digestive enzymes.
Production of gastrin & acid in the stomach. Secretin helps to neutralize the gastric acid in the stomach.
What is Pepsinogen?

Where is it secreted from?

What is it's function?
Persinogen an enzyme secreted by Chief cells in the stomach.

In it's inactive form Pepsinogen does not perform a function. However it is activated by HCl to break down the structure of proteins.
What cells secrete HCl?
Parietal cells in the stomach secrete HCl.
What are Villi?
villi: microscopic hair-like projections--increase amount of surface area for absorption
What are 5 functions of the Liver?
1. Manufacture of Bile
2. Alcohol breakdown
3. Makes Proteins
4. Energy supply
5. Stores vitamins and minerals
6. Regulates blood clotting
7. regulates cholesterol production
8. Detoxifies poisions
What two types of substance does the Pancreas secrete?
1. Digestive enzymes
2. Base - Bicarbonate
Acid entering the small intestine must be neutralised by Bicarbonate.

What hormone stimulates secretion of bicarbonate?
What is the function of Cholecystokinin (CCK)?
It causes the gallbladder to contract (bile will flow), the pancreas to produce enzymes (lipase, amylase, trypsin, chymotrypsin) and increases the contractions of the stomach and intestines.
Where is Cholecystokinin (CCK) produced?
CCK is secreted by the duodenum, the first segment of the small intestine.
What is the purpose of GASTRIN?

Where is it secreted from?
Gastrin is a linear perpide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach.

It secreted into the blood by G cells that are located mainly in the pylorus of the stomach.
What stimulates the production of Gastrin?

What actions does Gastin perform?
Stimuli such as: stomach distension, amino acid stimulation, vagal stimulation, the presence of partially digested proteins, and hypercalcemia.

Gastrin stimulates parietal cells (stomach) to secrete HCl& chief cells to secrete pepsinogen.
What is the major activity of Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP)?

What stimulates it's secretion?
Inhibits gastric secretion & motility. Potentiates release of insulin in response to elevated blood glucose.

Presence of fat and glucose in the small intestine will stimulate it's production.
What is aldosterone?
Aldosterone is a steroid synthesized in the adrenal gland.
It helps regulate the body's electrolyte balance.
What is Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
A peptide hormone produced by the hypothalamus (stored in the posterior pituitary gland). It acts on the kidneys, promoting the reabsorption of water and salt into the cortical collecting duct. It results in concentrated urine.
What 2 substances block the release of ADH?
Ethanol (alcohol) and Caffeine.
The liver is made up of a right and left lobe, Which is larger?
Right lobe.
Regulation of the heart rate is controlled by what node?
Sino Atrial Node
What promotes the retenion on Na and Cl, and indirectly Water?
What does AngiotensinII stimulate?

How is angiotensinII formed?
Angiotensin II stimulates vasoconstriction and the secretion of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex.

Renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I converted to angiotensin II in lung by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).
What are liver cells called?
The liver is caontained in the __________ capsule
The liver is caontained in the GLISSONS capsule
How does blood flow through the liver?
The portal vein enters liver hilum and branches smaller and smaller until become conducting venules. The venules distribute blood into the hepatic sinusoids to percolate through lobule to central vein.
What are KUPFFER cells?
They are phagocytic cells involved in the removel of microbes, foreign matter, and dead/dying RBC's.
What are the 2 blood supplies travelling directly to the liver?

Where do they go after reaching the liver?
1. Oxygenated blood from the hepatic artery.
2. DeOxygenated, nutrient rich blood from the hepatic portal vein.

Liver sinusoids > Central vein > Hepatic vein > Inferior vena cava > Right atrium of heart.
How many layers of muscle does the gall bladder have?
Why would it need that many?
3 layers.

Because it is contractile.
the common bile duct is a union of which 2 ducts?
Cystic duct (gallbladder) & Common hepatic duct.
What molecule does the bile pigment bilirubin come from?
What happens apon chyme entering the duodenum?
1. Parasympathetic impulses along vagus nerve stimulates bile production by liver.
2. Fatty acids & amino acids in chyme entering the duodenum stimulate CCK secretion (from inside sm. intestine).
The acidity stimulates secretion of secretin.
3. CCK causes gallbladder to contract.
4. Secretin enhances flow of bile from liver.
How is the liver involved in carbohydrate metabolism?
Turns proteins & triglycerides into glucose.
Turns excess glucose into glycogen to store in the liver. Turns glycogen back into glucose.
How is the liver involved in Lipid metabolism?
Synthesis of cholesterol and lipoproteins.
Stores some fat.
Breaks fown some fatty acids.
How is the liver involved in protein metabolism?
Deamination (removes NH2).
Coverts ammonia to urea.
Synthesises plasma proteins for clotting.
Convert one amino acid to another.
What are the 3 parts of the small intestine?
What 3 structures of the small intestine increase surface area?
plica circularis
Where are "Brush boarder enzymes" found?
Microvilli of small intestine.
What cell in the small intestine secretes secretin, cholecystokinin & GIP?
What is a paneth cell?
A cell of the small intestine which secretes lysozymes.
Briefly outline the digestion of carbs from the mouth to absorption:
*Mouth- Chew. Salivary amylase
*Esophagus&Stomach- N/a
*Duodenum - pancreatic amylase, brush border enzymes (maltase, sucrase, lactase)
Briefly outline the digestion of proteins from the mouth to absorption:
*stomach - Hcl denatures, pepsin turns proteins into peptides.
*Pancreas - digestive enzymes (split peptide bonds), brush boarder enz's (aminopeptidase, dipeptidase).
Briefly outline the digestion of lipids from the mouth to absorption:
*mouth- lingual lipase
*Small intestine - emulsification by bile, pancreatic lipase (splits into fatty acids and monoglyceride).
Lactose intollerance is a result a lack of what??
Mucosal cells of the small intestine fail to produce lactase.
Pancreatic juice contains 2 nucleases to digest DNA and RNA.

What digests:
RNA - ribonuclease
DNA - Deoxyribonuclease
How do glucose and galactose cross into the basal membrane? (what method of transport)
Secondary active transport with Na.
How are fatty acids trasported across the basal membrane?
simple diffusion, packaged in a cholymicron, to the lacteal of a villus...
Where do Amino acids, short chain fatty acids and monosaccharides go after absorption?
Into the blood. to hepatic portal vein. to the liver.
Where do absorbed fats travel to?
The lymphatics. to the left subclavian vein.
What may be some causes of appendicitis?
Blockage of the lumen by chyme.
Foreign body.
What is the main factor to digestion in the large intestine?
Bacterial fermentation:
undigested carbs-CO2 and methane
Proteins- indoles (odor)
Bilirubin - colour
Produce vit K and B12
What reflex moves faeces into the rectum?
What does the urinary system consist of?
Kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra.
the kidneys release a hormone which stimulates the production of red blood cells, it is called...
Name 3 blood qualities that the kidney regulates.
1. ionic composition
2. PH
3. osmolarity
4. glucose
5. Pressure
Where do blood vessels and the ureter enter the kidney?
At the hilus.
What does the renal medella of the kidney consist of?
8-18 cone shaped renal pyramids, separated by renal columns.
What are glomeruli?
Knots of capillaries where filtration takes place.
What occurs in:

Glomerular capillaries?
Peritubular capillaries?
Vasa recta?
Glomerular capillaries - filtration of blood occurs.
Peritubular capillaries -carry away reabsorbed substances from filtrate.
Vasa recta - supplies nutrients to medella.
What are the 3 major functions of the kidney?
1. Filter
2. Secrete
3. Reabsorb.
Glomerular capillaries are formed between:
afferent and efferent arterioles
Which arteriole enters the glomerulus? Which leaves it?
Afferent enters, efferent leaves.
What 2 structures are each nephron divided into?
Corpuscle & tubule.
Filtration occurs in:
The glomerulus, in the renal corpuscle of the nephron, in the kidney.
Urine is drained into the renal pelvis and ureter via what structure?
Collecting ducts and papillary ducts.
Dysfunction of the kidney is evident once ___% of function has declined
What is the macula densa?
A special part of the ascending loop of henle. it provides feedback about osmolarity.
The rate of excretion of any substance is its rate of ________ + its rate of ________ - its rate of _________.
The rate of excretion of any substance is its rate of FILTRATION + its rate of SECRETION - its rate of REABSORPTION.