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31 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is a compound?
A substance formed by the combination of two or more elements in different proportions.
What is an isotope?
Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
What is an element?
A pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom.
What are the 2 main types of chemical bonds?
Covalent bonds and ionic bonds.
What is an ionic bond?
When one or more electrons are transferred between atoms.
What are ions?
Positively and negatively charged atoms.
What is a covalent bond?
Forms when electrons are shared between atoms.
What is a molecule?
The smallest unit of most componds.
What is a van der Waals force?
A weak chemical bond that occurs when molecules close together develop slight attractions between oppositely charged regions of nearby molecules.
Why is a water molecule polar?
Because there is an uneven distribution of electrons between the oxygen and hydrogen atoms.
What is cohesion?
An attraction between molecules of the same substance.
What is adhesion?
An attraction between molecules of different substances.
What is a mixture?
A material composed of two or more elements of compounds that are physically mixed together but not chemically combined.
What is a solution?
A mixture where all the components are evenly distributed throughout the solution.
What is a solute?
The substance that is dissolved.
What is a solvent?
The substance in which the solute dissolves (usually water).
What is the greatest solvent on Earth?
What are suspensions?
Mixtures of water and nondissolved material.
What is a colloid?
A mixture where the particles are larger than particles in a solution, but smaller than in a suspension (Ex: jello, cells, yogurt).
What is the difference between organic and inorganic compounds?
Organic compounds are made by living things, and Inorganic compounds are not made by living things.
What are the properties of water?
It is an excellent solvent, has a high heat capacity, high surface tension, and expands on freezing.
What is the "secret" of water?
Water's chemical structure provides the sectret to its effectiveness.
What is the chemical structure of water?
The hydrogen and oxygen atoms are on different sides of the molecule; oxygen side is more (-) and the hydrogen side is more (+).
What are acids?
Chemicals that release H+ ions in water and increase the concentration of H+ in a solution. (Ex: aspirin, orange and tomato juice)
What are bases?
Chemicals that produce hydroxide ions (OH-). (Ex: soap, egg white)
What is neutralization?
When an acid and base are mixed, and the hydroxide ion combines with the hydrogen ion to form water.
Describe the pH scale.
Acids (lower numbers) to the left, neutral substances in the middle (7), and bases (higher numbers) to the right.
What does pH stand for?
Potential hydrogen.
What does an element's atomic number represent?
The number of protons it has.
What does an element's atomic mass represent?
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.
What is a buffer?
A weak acid or base that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.