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17 Cards in this Set

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Primary Extracellular Cation
Sodium
Primary Intracellular Cation
Potassium
Serum Levels of Hyponatremia
<135 mEq/L
Serum Levels of Hypernatremia
>145 mEq/L
Serum Levels of Hypokalemia
<3.5 mEq/L
Serum Levels of Hyperkalemia
>5.0 mEq/L
Anti-Diuretic Hormone
Increase/Decrease
Increase ADH: Water/Sodium resorption in Kidneys (by decreasing GFR)
-Excretion of concentrated urine
-May decrease serum Na due to increased extracellular water

Decreased ADH:
Decreased water resorption/increased urinary excretion of water
SIADH
(Syndrome of Inappropriate Anti-Diuretic Hormone - Hypersection)
Inappropriate hypersection of ADH/Vasopressin
-leads to increased water resorption of kidney
-Hyponatremia related to fluid overload
-pneumonia, brain tumors, head trauma, strokes, meningitis, encephalitis, or small-cell carcinoma of the lung.
Types of Hyponatremia
Hypervolemic Hyponatremia
Euvolemic Hyponatremia
Hypovolemic Hyponatremia
Hypervolemic Hyponatremia
-Dilutional
-Increase of Fluids with increase in sodium (Hypervolemic)
-edemous

Primary Causes:
-Liver Failure
-Congestive Heart Failure
-Renal Failure
Euvolemic Hyponatremia
-Dilutional
-Increase in fluid with Normal sodium level (euvolemic)
-Non Edemous

Primary Causes
Secondary to increased ADH
-SIADH
-Drugs
-Cancer
Hypovolemic Hyponatremia
ADH Secretion stimulated by low volume
-Low Fluid Volume (Hypovolemic) AND Hyponatremia
-Exercising with fluid repletion (loss of fluid/electrolytes)
Causes of Hyponatremia
Overhydration
Disease:
-Hepatic Failure
-Renal Failure
-CHF
GI Losses;Vomiting/Diarrhea;Fistula
Urinary Losses
-SIADH
-DKA
-Addison Disease
Causes of Hypernatremia
Dehydration
Diabetes Insipidus
Hyperglycemia induced Polyuria
Hypertonic Enteral Feed without Water Flush
Causes of Hypokalemia
GI Losses
-Diarrhea/Vomiting/Nasogastric Secretion
Urinary Losses
-Potassium Sparing Diuretics
-Mineralcorticoids
-Sweat
Intracellular Shift (anabolism)
-Alkalosis
-Refeeding Syndrome
One Major symtpom of Hypokalemia...
Ileus
Causes of Hyperkalemia
Renal Insufficiency
Dehydration
DKA
Rapid Catabolism
Acidosis