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31 Cards in this Set

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What are the parts of Aid-Base Balance?
HCO3= Base

CO2=Acid

Hydrogen= Acid
Normal Lab Values
pH: 3.5-4.5

CO2= 35-45

HCO3= 22-26
Metabolic Acidosis~ Explain Compensation
Kidneys Sick

Lungs Compensate

RR Increase to Blow off CO2

PCO2 Decreases
Metabolic Alkalosis~ Explain Compensation
Kidneys Sick

Lungs Compensate

RR Decrease to Save CO2

PCO2 Increases
Respiratory Acidosis~ Explain Compensation
Lungs Sick

Kidneys Compensate

Retain HCO3 (Base)

Excrete H (Acid)

HCO3 on ABG's Increased
Respiratory Alkalosis~ Explain Compensation
Lungs Sick

Kidneys Compensate

Excrete HCO3 (base)

Retain H (acid)

HCO3 on ABG's Decreased
Respiratory Acidosis

*What's happening in general?
Basically: Lungs are Sick too much CO2 is in the body
Respiratory Acidosis

*Cause
Cause: Hypoventilation the pt either is breathing too shallow, too slow, or not breathing at all
Respiratory Acidosis

*Pathophysiology (What's happening)
Pathophysiology: Increased CO2=Decreased LOC

Increased CO2 = Decreased O2 (early hypoxia= restelessness and late hypoxia= bradycardia, cyanosis)
Respiratory Acidosis

*Treatment
Treatment: Fix the breathing, help the pt blow off the CO2 so don't want to give pt meds that decrease RR

Remember: restless pt = early hypoxia
Respiratory Alkalosis

*Cause
Hyperventilating
Respiratory Alkalosis

*Pathophysiology (What's happening)
Lungs are sick, kidneys are going to try to compensate, classic pt is smeone who is hysterical or may have taken too many ASA (which stimulates the resp center and causes rr to increase) but we don't wait for the kidneys to kick in that will take 3 days
Respiratory Alkalosis

~Treatment
Have pt breathe into a brown paper bag to help them retain the CO2

May have to sedate pt to slow their breathing

Treat the problem
Metabolic Acidosis

~Cause
~DKA (Diabetic Ketoacidosis)

~Starvation
Metabolic Acidosis

~Pathophysiology
~Scenario: DKA and Starvation

*Kidneys sick and lungs try to compensate

*when you are starving you break down fat, produce ketones, and ketones are acid
Metabolic Acidosis

~Treatment
Drug to help Acidosis is Sodium Bicarbonate

Treat the problem - Know the cause
Metabolic Alkalosis

~Cause
Vomiting
Metabolic Acidosis

~patho
Vomit is an acid

too much acid is being released so the base is left in the body
Metabolic Acidosis

~Tx
treat the problem- know the cause
Metabolic Acidosis/ Alkalosis

*Hyperkalemia

*Hypokalemia
Metabolic Acidosis=Hyperkalemia

Metabolic Alkalosis= Hypokalemia
Pneumothorax
Resp Acidosis

*poor gas exchange
Alka Seltzer/Antacids
Metabolic Alkalosis
Panick Attack~ Would cause what type of Acid-Base Imbalance?
Resp Alkalosis
NG to Suction-Which Acid-Base Imbalance would occur?
Metabolic Alkalosis
Contusion to lung parenchyma
Resp Acidosis
pt getting lots of IVP bicarb
Metabolic Alkalosis
Diarrhea
Metabolic Acidosis
Renal Insufficiency
Metabolic Acidosis
PNA
Resp Acidosis

*poor gas exchange
Broken Ribs
Resp Acidosis

*poor gas exchange
Acute ASA overdose
resp alkalosis and then eventually will lead to resp acidosis