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43 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate a biochemical used to produce energy
What three things is the cardiorespitory system responsible in energy production?
Get oxygen into blood or o2 carrying capacity
Oxygen delivery
Oxygen extraction
What two things are determine the ability for oxygen to get into blood?
Ability to ventilate avioli in lungs
Concentration of hemoglobin in blood
What is hemoglobin
It is what binds oxygen and carries it in blood to the cells.
What is cardiac output?
how much blood/min is pumped through the heart
What is the formula for cardiac output?
Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate
What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood pumped out of the left ventricle with each beat
What is heart rate?
The number of times your heart beats/contracts per minutes
How much does stroke volume increase during exercise?
40-50% before it plateaus
What does oxygen extraction depend on?
Muscle fiber type (slow twitch)
Availability of specialized oxidative enzymes.
Where does ATP energy production take place?
In the mitochondria which are considered the body's power plant.
How does the circulatory system increase cardiac output to the active muscles?
By decreasing the blood flow to the viscera and non active muscles
What are the simplest components of stored food in the body (fat. carbohydrates and protein)
fatty acids, glucose and amino acids
What happens to food components after they are digested and absorbed or delivered to cells?
They are either converted into energy ATP (fatty acids amino acids and glucose), used for repair and growth (protein) or stored as energy (adipose tissue and glycogen)
Which food type is the body's preferred source of energy?
Carbohydrates, especially in the early stages of exercise.
Where are carbohydrates stored if they are not used in energy production?
As glycogen in the the liver and to a lesser extent in the muscles.
What are the three primary energy producing systems?
Phosphogen (anaerobic)
What does the phosphogen system use?
creatine phosphate
stored ATP
What does the anaerobic system use?
glucose and glycogen
What doe the aerobic system use?
fatty acids, glucose and glycogen
When is the phosphagen system used?
At the beginning of exercise for very short brutes for no more than 10 seconds for a max effort
When is anaerobic system used?
After phosphagen, uses glucose and glycogen before aerobic can kick in and has lactic acid as a byproduct which can cause muscle fatigue and burn. Bursts of energy 1-3 minutes.
When is aerobic system used?
using oxygen to produce atp by breakdown of glycogen and fats. First use glycogen then fats.
What is the Respiratory Exchange Ratio?
the ratio of carbon dioxide produced relative to the amount of oxygen
What is the RER formula?
RER=Carbon dioxide/Oxygen consumed
What is RER a marker for?
the proportion of fat or carbs used for fuel at different intensities of steady state exercise
An RER of 0.70 indicates what type of fuel is predominantly being used?
A RER of 1.0 indicates what type of fuel is predominantly being used?
What is oxygen consumption?
The body's ability to take in oxygen and to use it to create energy. So the more you can take it utilize, the more exercise you can do.
What is VO2?
one's maximal oxygen consumption
What is relative vO2?
ml/kg/min takes in account weight so you can compare individuals
What is absolute o2?
takes out the weight so it shows calorie expenditure during specific activities
How many calories are burned per liter of oxygen consumed?
How long does it take for the body to meet the increased metabolic demand for oxygen?
2-4 minutes
What systems is being used during this first stage?
What is anaerobic threshold?
The point where your body can not supply enough oxygen so energy production switches to anaerobic
What happens when AT is crossed?
exercise can only be sustained for a few more minutes when hyperventilation starts to try and rid body of excess co2 which is the ventilatory threshold and lactate begins to accumulate
What is VT1
Ventilatory threshold 1 when the blood begins to accumulate lactate and body needs to rid itself of excess co2.
How can you tell when someone is in VT1?
they loose their ability to talk
What is VT2?
lactate increases and hyperventilation increases. very difficult to talk.
also known as lactate threshold
What are VT1 and VT2 used for?
To develop training programs
For beginners VT1 should be used as upper limit
For serious athletes 70-80% of training should be below VT1, 10-15% between VT1 and VT2 and 5-10% above VT2
How long can VT1 be sustained in well trained?
1-2 hours. VT1 is competitive pace for marathoner.
How long can VT2 be sustained in well trained?
30-60 minutes