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361 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Movement of a body part away from the midline of the body; opposite of adduction
A scraping away of a portion of the skin or mucous membrane
The process whereby the body physiologically adapts to an unfamiliar environment, and achieves a new steady state. For example, the body can adjust to a high altitude or a hot climate and gain an increased capacity to work in those conditions
Contractile protein in a myofibril
Active (dynamic) stretching
A stretching of muscle and tissue that requires muscle contraction through a range of motion. No outside force is involved.
Active recovery
Performing stretching exercises or working other body parts to facilitate recovery after intense exercise to allow for more productive use of exercise time
Descriptive of a condition that usually has a rapid onset and a relatively short and severe course; opposite of chronic
Movement of a body part toward the midline of the body; opposite of abduction.
Adenosine trihosphate (ATP)
A high energy phosphate molecule required to provide energy for cellular function. Produced both aerobically and anaerobically, and stored in the body.
The amount of programmed exercise a client engagaes in during a specifid time period compared to the amount of exercise recommmended for that time period
Adipose tissue
Fatty tissue, connective tissue made up of fat cells.
With, or in the presence of, oxygen.
Aerobic Composite Training
An individualized combination of numerous training methods characterized by a variety of intensities and modes, primarily for those in the maintenance phase of conditioning. Example: job 15 minutes to a pool, swim for 20 minutes and jog home (see also cross training).
Aerobic system
The metabolic pathway that, in the presence of oxygen, uses glucose for energy production; also known as aerobic glycolysis.
Agonist muscle
A muscle that is directly engaged in contraction; opposes the action of an antagonist muscle
All-or-none Principle
The pinciple of muscle contraction that states that when a motor unit is activated, all of the muscle fibers will maximally contract
The absence of menstruation
Amino acids
Nitrogen-containing compounds that are the building blocks of proteins
Anabolic androgenic steroids
Synthetic derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone. Used for their muscle-building characteristics.
Without the presence of oxygen; not requiring oxygen
Anaerobic glycolysis
The metabolic pathway that uses glucose for energy roduction without requireing oxygen. Sometimes referred to as the lactic acid system or the anaerobic glucose system, it produces lactic acid as a by-product
Anaerobic threshold
The point during high-intensisty activity when the body can no longer meet its demand for oxygen and anaerobic metabolism predominates. Also called lactate threshold.
Anatomical position
Standing erect with the feet and palms facing forward
Characterized by a reduction below normal of the number of red blood cells or hemoglobin in the heart
Pain originated from the heart that is characterized by a substantial pressure sensation in the chest, commonly radiating down the arm, up into the jaw, or to another site. Generally caused by decreased blood flow through the coronary arteries supplying oxygen to the myocardium (heart muscle) due to the partial occlusion from plaque or clot formation or spasm or the artery itself. Also called angina pectoris
Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of becoming obese, a distorted body image, extreme weight loss and self-starvation. Metabolic abnormalities are commonly associated with this disorder and can sometimes be fatal
Antagonist Muscle
The muscle that acts in oppostition to the action produced by an agonist muscle.
Antecubital space
The space just in front of the cubitus (elbow)
Anthropometric assessments
Measurement and analyssis of parts of the human body. Examples include skinfold, girth and body weight
Anti-atherogenic diet
A diet designed to minimize atherosclerosis, usually one that is low in cholesterol and satruarated fat
Substances that boost the body's defense against excessive numbers of unstable oxygen molecules (free radicals) to prevent them from causing damage. Five nutrients have been identified as having antioxidant properties: beta carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E, sulfur and selenium.
A white, flattened, tendinous expansion that mainly serves to connect a muscle to the parts that it moves.
Abnormal heart rhythm or beat.
Vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the tissues.
Smaller divisions of the arteries.
Inflammatory condition involving a joint. See Osteoarthritis and Rheumatoid arthritis
Place of union or junction between tow or more bones.
Assumption of risk
A legal defense used to show that a person understood the possible occurrence of known dangeres of a specific activity and chose to participate anyway
A disease of the pulmonary system characterized by epoisodes of dyspnea (difficult breathing) due to narrowing of the airways from constriction of bronchial smooth muscle and overproduction of mucous. See Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
A specific form of arteriosclerosis characterized by the accumulation of fatty material on the inner wallls of the arteries, causing them to harden, thicken and lose elasticity.
See Adenosine triphosphate
ATP-CP system
See Creatine phosphate system
One of the two (left and right)upper chambers of the heart (pl.:aria).
A decrease in the cross-sectional size of a muscle resulting from inactivity or immobilization following injury.
Attending (behavior)
Nonverbal acknowledgements during conversation to encourage the speaker to continue
The act of listening to sounds (througha stethoscope) arising within bodily organs (e.g., the heartbeat).
Autogenic inhibition
An automatic reflex relaxation caused by excessive stimulation of Golgi tendon organs (GTOs).
Not vascular; without blood supply
A wound involving forcible separation or tearing of tissue from the body.
Axis of rotation
The imaginary line or point about which an object, such as a body or a lever, rotates.
High-impact, rapid, jerking movements.
Ballistic stretch
A high-force, short-duration stretch using rapid bouncing movements.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
The energy expended by the body while at rest to maintain normal body functions.
Beta-blockers (beta-adrenergic blocking agents)
Medications that block or limit symaptheic nervous system stimulation. They act to slow the heart rate and decrease maximum heart rate, and are used for cardiovascular and other medical conditions.
Bioelectrical impedance (BIA)
A method of determining body composition by measuring the body's resistance to electrical flow.
Blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries; measured in millimeters of mercury with a sphygmomanometer.
Body Composition
The makeup of the body in terms of the relative percentage of fat-free mass and body-fat
Body mass index (BMI)
A relative measure of body height to body weight for deterring degree of obesity.
Slowness of the heartbeat, as evidenced by a pulse rate of less than 60 bpm.
The smallest tubes that supply air to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs.
Acute or chronic inflammation of the bronchial tubes. See Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Medications inhaled to dilate (enlarge) and relax the constricted bronchial smooth muscle. Example: Proventil.
Painful inflammation of a bursa, occurring most often in the knees, hips shoulders and elbows.
Bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder characterized by self-induced vomiting or the use of diuretics or laxatives.
The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water one degree Celsius. Also called kilocalorie
The smallest blood vessels that supply blood to the tissues, and the site of all gas and nutrient exchange in the cardiovascular system. They connect the arterial and venous systems.
Carbohydrate (CHO)
An essential nutrient that provides energy to the body. Dietary sources include sugars (simple) and grains, rice and beans (complex). 1 gm CHO = 4 kcals.
Carbohydrate loading
Sequence of up to a week-long regimen of manipulating intensity of training and carbohydrate intake to achieve maximum glycogen storage for an endurance event
Cardiac cycle
The period from the beginning of one heart beat to the beginning of the next; the systolic and diastolic movement, and the interval in between.
Cardiac output
The amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute; usually expressed sin liters of blood per minute
Cardio respiratory endurance
The ability to perform large muscle movement over a sustained period; the capacity of the heart-lung system to deliver oxygen for sustained energy production. Also called cardiovascular endurance.
A smooth, semi-opaque material providing a "frictionless" surface of a joint.
Cell membrane
The enveloping capsule of a cell composed of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates.
Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
Damage to the brain, often resulting in a loss of function, from impaired blood supply to part of the brain. More commonly known as a stroke.
The act of attesting that an individual or organization ahs met a specific set of standards.
A fat-like substance found in the blood and body tissues and in animal products. Essential for body production of hormones, steroids and so on. Its accumulation in the arteries leads to narrowing of the arteries (atherosclerosis).
Descriptive of a condition that persists over a long period of time; opposite of acute.
Chronic disease
Any disease state that persists over a long period of time.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
A condition, such as asthma, bronchitis or emphysema, in which there is chronic obstruction of air flow. See Asthma, Bronchitis and Emphysema.
Circuit training
A form of training that takes the participant through a series of exercise stations, sometimes with brief rest intervals in between. Can emphasize muscular endurance, aerobic conditioning, muscular strength or a combination of all three.
The active or passive circular movement of a joint. A combination of flexion, abduction, extension and adduction movements.
Closed chain exercise (CCE)
Exercises that use the body muscles in a weight-bearing position. Co-contractors, postural stabilizers and the neuromuscular system are all trained at the same time. Examples: squats and lunges
The mutual coordination of antagonist muscles (such as flexors and extensors) to maintain a position
Code of ethics
Code, supplementary to other professional standards of practice or legal requirements, developed by professional organizations to govern professional conduct. Adherence to these codes is necessary to maintain professional standing or certification
The main constituent of connective tissue, such as ligaments, tendons and muscles.
Specific skills or knowledge that one must possess in order to have the capacity to function in a particular way (provide appropriate standard of care) for a specific job.
Complete proteins
Foods that contain all 10 essential amino acids. Most meats and dairy products are considered complete protein foods.
Concentric contraction (action)
A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, shortens and overcomes a resistance.
Connective tissue
The tissue that binds together and supports various structures of the body. Examples: ligaments and tendons.
Continuous training
Conditioning exercise, such as walking, jogging, cycling or aerobic dancing, in which the prescribed intensity is maintained continuously between 50 percent and 85 percent of maximal oxygen consumption (functional capacity).
A written agreement sighed by the participant and the trainer (and additional third parties as appropriate) that clearly states the exercise goals to be achieved over a given time period. Also, a legally binding agreement stating services, fees, and other pertinent information regarding the trainer/client relationship
Systematically providing rewards for positive behavior; stems from the behavioral theory of reinforcement.
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
The major form of cardiovascular disease; almost always the result of atherosclerosis. Also called coronary heart disease (CHD).
Coronary heart disease (CHD)
See Coronary artery disease (CAD).
A legal entity, independent of its owners and regulated by state laws. Any number of people may own a corporation through shares issued by the business.
Creatine phosphate (CP)
A high-emery phosphate molecule that is stored in cells and can be used to immediately resynthesize ATP. One of the phosphagens.
Creatine phosphate system
System of transfer of chemical energy for resynthesis of ATP supplied rapidly and without oxygen from the breakdown of Creatine phosphate (CP). Also called ATP-CP system.
Cross training
A method of physical training in which a variety of exercises and changes in body positions or modes of exercise are utilized to positively affect compliance and motivation, and also stimulate additional strength gains or reduce injury risk.
A bluish discoloration, especially of the skin and mucous membranes, due to reduced hemoglobin in the blood.
Anatomical term meaning internal; that is, located further beneath the body surface than the superficial structures.
Termination of atrial or ventricular fibrillation (rapid, randomized contractions of the myocardium), usually by electroshock.
A condition of having a less than optimal level of body water.
Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS)
Muscle soreness that occurs 24 to 48 hours after intense exercise. Typically associated with eccentric muscle contractions, and thought to be the result of microscopic tears in muscle or connective tissue.
Diabetes mellitus
A disease of carbohydrate metabolism in which an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin results in an inability to metabolize carbohydrates normally.
The relaxation phase of the cardiac cycle during which blood fills the ventricles.
Diastolic blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls when the heart relaxes between contractions.
Anatomical term meaning away from the attached end of the limb, origin of the structure or midline of the body; opposite of proximal.
Medication that produces an increase in the volume of urine and sodium that is excreted.
Movement of the dorsum (top) of the foot up toward the shin (proximally); opposite of plantar flexion.
Dynamic flexibility
The range of motion about a joint when speed is involved during physical performance. Strength, power, neuromuscular coordination and tissue resistance are all factors.
Dynamic (isotonic) constant-resistance
Strength-training exercises and / or equipment that provide a constant resistance throughout the movement range.
Dynamic (isotonic) variable-resistance
Strength-training exercises and / or equipment that automatically vary the resistance throughout the movement range.
Shortness of breath, resulting in difficult or labored breathing
Eccentric contraction (action)
A contraction in which a muscle exerts force, lengthens and is overcome by a resistance.
Ejection fraction
The percentage of the total volume of blood that is pumped out of the left ventricle during the systolic contraction of the heart
Temporary or recoverable elongation of connective tissue.
The minerals sodium, potassium and chlorine, which are present in the body as electrically charged particles called ions.
Emergency medical services (EMS) system
A local system for obtaining emergency assistance from the police, fire department or ambulance from the police, fire department or ambulance. In the United States, most cities have a 911 telephone number that will automatically set the EMS system in motion.
The ability to experience another person's world as if it were one's own. Understanding another's point of view.
A chronic lung disease characterized by loss of air sacs resulting in a decreased ability to exchange gases. Carbon dioxide levels are increased and oxygen levels are decreased, causing rapid breathing and dyspnea.
Energy Balance
The principle that body weight will stay the same when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure, and that a positive or negative energy balance will cause weight gain or weight loss, respectively.
Energy Balance Theory
The principle that body weight will stay the same when caloric intake equals caloric expenditure, and that a positive or negative energy balance will cause weight gain or weight loss, respectively.
Proteins necessary to bring about biochemical reactions.
Ergogenic aids
Substances thought to enhance energy availability or utilization to improve endurance or strength.
Essential amino acids
Eight to 10 of the 20 different amino acids needed to make proteins. Called essential because they must be obtained from the diet, since they cannot be manufactured by the body.
Essential fat
Fat that cannot be produced by the body and must be supplied by the diet. Linoleic acid is the only essential fat.
Essential fatty acids
See Essential fat
Essential nutrient
A nutrient that must be supplied by the diet because it cannot be produced by the body.
Having normal menstruation
Movement of the sole of the foot outward; opposite of inversion.
Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)
Increased oxygen requirement about RMR following a bout of exercise. Historically referred to as oxygen debt.
Exercise-induced asthma
intermittent labored breathing precipitated by exertion during exercise. See Asthma.
Movement at a joint that brings two parts into or toward a straight line, thereby increasing the angle of the joint, such as straightening the elbow; opposite of flexion.
Fartlek training
A form of training similar to interval training, except the work-rest intervals are not systematically measured, but instead are determined by how the participant feels
A sheet or band of fibrous tissue that lies deep to the skin or forms an attachment for muscles and organs.
Fast-twitch (Type II) fiber
Large muscle fiber characterized by its fast speed of contraction and a high capacity for anaerobic glycolysis.
An essential nutrient that provides energy, energy storage, and insulation and contour to the body. 1 gram fat = 9 kcals.
Fat-free mass
That part of the body composition that represents everything but fat - blood, bones, connective tissue, organs and muscle; is the same as lean body mass.
Fat-free weight
See fat free mass
Fat soluble
Able to be dissolved in fat. Relating to vitamins, those that are stored in the body fat, principally in the liver.
Fatty acid
The building block of fats. An important nutrient for the production of energy during prolonged, low-intensity exercise
Verbal or nonverbal information about current behavior that can be used to improve future performance.
The range of motion possible about a joint
Movement about a joint in which the bones on either side of the joint are brought closer to each other; opposite of extension.
Food Guide Pyramid
A guide to assist the public with daily food choices that will accomplish dietary goals. Published in 1992 by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture and the U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services.
Frontal plane
An imaginary longitudinal section that divides the body into anterior and posterior halves; lies at a right angle to the sagittal plane.
The support on which a lever rotates when moving or lifting something.
Functional capacity
The maximum physical performance represented by maximal oxygen consumption.
The manner or style of walking.
General liability insurance
Insurance for bodily injury or property damage resulting from general negligence.
A simple sugar; the form in which all carbohydrates are used as the body's principal energy source.
The storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscles.
Golgi tendon organ (GTO)
A sensory organ within a tendon that, when stimulated, causes an inhibition of the entire muscle group to protect against too much force.
Graded exercise test (GXT)
A treadmill or cycle-ergometer test that measures or estimates maximum aerobic capacity by gradually increasing the intensity until a person has reached a maximal level or voluntary exhaustion.
Grand mal seizure
A major motor seizure characterized by violent and uncontrollable muscle contractions
High-density lipoprotein; a lipoprotein that contains more protein than cholesterol. Labeled "good" cholesterol because it removes excess cholesterol from the body
Heart rate (maximum) reserve
The result of subtracting the resting heart rate from the maximal heart rate; represent the working heart-rate range between rest and maximal heart rate within which all activity occurs
Heat cramps
A mild from of heat-related illness that generally occurs during or after strenuous physical activity and is characterized by painful muscle spasms.
Heat exhaustion
The most common heat related illness; usually the result of intense exercise in a hot, humid environment wand characterized by profuse sweating, which results in fluid and electrolyte loss, a drop in blood pressure, light-headedness, nausea, vomiting, decreased coordination and often syncope (fainting).
Heat stroke
A medical emergency that is the most serious form of heat illness due to heat overload and /or impairment of the body's ability to dissipate heat. Characterized by high body temperature (> 105 degrees F), dry, red skin, altered level of consciousness, seizures, coma and possibly death.
A protrusion of the abdominal contents into the groin (inguinal hernia) or through the abdominal wall (abdominal hernia).
Herniated disc
A condition in which the disc between two vertebrae of the spine bulges backward, often compressing a nerve root and compromising its function.
High density lipoproteins (HDLs)
A plasma complex of lipids and proteins that contain relatively more protein and less cholesterol and triglycerides. High HDL levels are associated with a low risk of coronary heart disease
The tendency toward stability and balance in normal body states.
Hydrostatic weighing
An underwater test used to measure body fat and lean body mass percentages, based on the relative density of fat and lean tissue.
Hypercalciuric effect
The tendency to excrete excessive calcium in the urine. Usually caused by leaching of calcium from the bones.
An excess of cholesterol in the blood.
Extreme or excessive extension of a joint
An abnormally high content of glucose in the blood
An excess of lipids in the blood
High blood pressure, or the elevation of blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg.
Abnormally high body temperature
An increase in the cross-sectional size of a muscle in response to progressive resistance (strength) training.
A greater-than-normal rate of breathing that results in an abnormal loss of carbon dioxide from the blood; dizziness may occur.
A deficiency of sugar in the blood commonly caused by too much insulin, too little glucose, or too much exercise in the insulin-dependent diabetic.
A deficiency of potassium in the blood.
lack of activity or energy
Abnormally low body temperature.
A solution having less tonicity (effective osmotic pressure equivalent) than bodily fluids.
Impingement syndrome
Reduction of space for the supraspinatus muscle, and/or the long head of the biceps tendon, to pass under the anterior edge of the acromion and coracoacromial ligament. Attributed to muscle hypertrophy and inflammation caused by microtraumas.
A cut in the skin, frequently from a sharp object.
Incomplete proteins
Foods that contain less than nine to 10 essential amino acids.
Independent contractors
People who conduct business independently on a contract basis and are not employees of an organization or business.
Anatomical term meaning situated below or nearer the soles of the feet in relation to a specific reference point; opposite of superior.
Informed consent
Voluntary acknowledgement of the purpose, procedures and specific risks of an activity in which one intends to engage.
Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)
For of diabetes caused by the destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, which leads to little or no insulin secretion. Generally develops in childhood and requires regular insulin injections
The physiological stress on the body during exercise; indicates how hard the body should be working to achieve a training effect
Interval training
Short, high-intensity exercise periods alternated with periods of rest. Example: 100-yard run, one-minute rest, repeated eight times.
Moving the sole of the foot inward; opposite of eversion.
A local deficiency of blood supply caused by the constriction or obstruction of the arteries, which results in a decreased supply of oxygen to the tissues.
Exercises or equipment that provide a fixed speed of movement and vary the resistive force according to the muscle force.
Isometric contraction
A contraction in which a muscle exerts force but does not change in length.
Isometric equipment
Equipment that does not permit joint movement, resulting in static (isometric) muscle contractions.
See Dynamic constant-resistance; Dynamic variable-resistance.
Karvonen formula
The mathematical formula that uses maximum heart-rate reserve to determine target heart rate
An organic compound (e.g., acetone) with a acarbonyl group attached to two carbon atoms. See Ketosis.
An abnormal increase of ketone bodies in the body; usually the result of a low-carb diet, fasting or starvation
The study of the principles of mechanics and anatomy in relation to human movement.
Kinesthetic awareness
One's sense of one's position and movement in space during various activities
Korotokoff sounds
Five different sounds created by the pulsing of the blood through the brachial artery. Proper distinction of the sounds is necessary to determine blood pressure.
Exaggerated sagittal curvature of the thoracic spine; often accompanied by a forward-head position.
An increase in the normal inward curve of the low back, and increased outward curve of the thoracic spine
Lactic acid (Lactate)
A waste product of anaerobic energy production known to cause localized muscle fatigue.
lactic acid system
See anaerobic glycolysis
lacto-ovo vegetarian
A person who consumes milk and eggs; but not meat, poultry or fish.
The expected slips or mistakes that are usually discreet events and are a normal part of the behavior change process.
Anatomical term meaning away from the midline of the body. Pertaining to the side; opposite of medial.
Law of acceleration
The force (F) acting on a body in a given direction is equal to the body's mass (m) multiplied by the body's acceleration (a) in that direction: F = ma, or a = F/m.
Law of impact and reaction forces
The earth exerts a forces against the body that is equal to the force applied to the earth as one moves
Law of inertia
The tendency of all objects and matter to remain at rest, or, if moving, to continue moving in the same straight line unless acted on by an outside force. Proportional to body mass
Low-density lipoprotein; a lipoprotein that contains more cholesterol than protein. Labeled "bad" cholesterol because it deposits cholesterol on the artery walls.
A rigid bar that rotates around a fixed support (fulcrum) in response to an applied force.
Legal responsibility.
A connective tissue that functions to connect two bones
The vehicle that transports fat throughout the body; made up of protein, fat and cholesterol.
An exaggerated forward curvature of the lumbar spine, often resulting in a protruding abdomen and buttocks. Sometimes referred to as a swayback
Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs)
A plasma complex of lipids and proteins that contains relatively more cholesterol and triglycerides and less protein. High LDL levels are associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease.
Maximal graded exercise test
See Graded exercise test (GXT)
maximal heart rate (MHR)
The highest heart rate a person can attain.
Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max).
The highest volume of oxygen a person can consume during exercise; maximum aerobic capacity.
Maximal oxygen uptake
See Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max)
Anatomical term meaning toward the midline of the body. Pertaining to the center; opposite of lateral.
A dose of substance that is extremely high compared to the needs of the body.
Cessation of menstruation in the human female, usually occurring between the ages of 48 and 50.
Metabolic equivalents (METs)
A simplified system for classifying physical activities where one MET is equal to the resting oxygen consumption, which is approximately 3.5 millilieters of oxygen per kilogram of body weight per minute
See Metabolic equivalents (METs)
Organic substances needed in the diet in small amounts to help regulate bodily functions
Imitating another's behavior or attitudes
Specialized subcellular structures located within body cells that contain oxidative enzymes needed by the cell to metabolize foodstuffs into energy sources.
The process of learning by observing and imitating others' behavior.
Monounsaturated fats
A type of unsaturated fat (liquid at room temp) that has one spot available on the fatty acid for e the addition of a hydrogen atom. Moderate intake is associated with a lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Example: oleic acid in olive oil. Generally considered to be a "healthy" fat.
The disease rate; the ratio of sick to well persons in a community.
The death rate; or ration of deaths that take place to expected deaths.
Motive force
The force that starts or causes a movement.
Motor learning effect
Improvement in performance during the initial weeks of strength training due to more efficient motor unit utilization.
Motor Unit
A motor nerve and all the muscles fibers it stimulates
Muscle fiber
A muscle cell
Muscle spindle
The sensory organ within a muscle that is sensitive to stretch and thus protects the muscle from being stretched too far.
Muscular endurance
The capacity of a muscle to exert force repeatedly against a resistance, or to hold a fixed or static contraction over time
Muscular strength
The maximum force that a muscle can produce against resistance in a single, maximal effort.
Myocardial infarction (MI)
Death of a portion of the heart muscle from an interruption of the blood supply. Commonly called a heart attack.
Contractile protein in a muscle fiber
Contractile protein in a myofibril.
Myotatic stretch reflex
Muscular reflex created by excessively muscle spindle stimulation to prevent potential tissue damage
Failure of a person to perform as a reasonable and prudent professional would perform under similar circumstances.
Net caloric cost
Exercise energy expenditure minus resting energy expenditure during the same period of time.
Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)
Most common form of diabetes; typically develops in adulthood, is characterized by a reduced sensitivity of the insulin target cells to available insulin and is usually associated with obesity.
Nutrient density
Quantitative analysis of the amount of nutrients versus the amount of calories in a a given food. Nutrient-dense foods provide more nutrients than calories.
An excessive accumulation of body fat. Usually defined as more than 20% above ideal weight, or over 25% body fat for men and over 30% body fat for women.
One repetition maximum (1RM)
The amount of resistance that can be moved through the range of motion one time before the muscle is temporarily fatigued.
Open chain exercise (OCE)
Exercises in which a muscle or muscle group is isolated to function alone. Example: seated leg extension.
Opposing muscle group
See Antagonist muscle.
Orthostatic hypotension
A drop in blood pressure associated with rising to an erect position.
Degenerative joint disease occurring chiefly in older persons; characterized by degeneration of the articular cartilage hypertrophy of the bones and changes in the synovial membrane.
A disorder, primarily affecting women past menopause, in which bone density decreases and susceptivity to fracture increases.
Overload principle
One of the principles of human performance that states that beneficial adaptations occur in response to demands applied to the body at levels beyond a certain threshold (overload), but within the limits of tolerance and safety.
Overuse injury
An injury caused by activity that places too much stress on one area of the body over an extended period.
Oxygen debt
See Excess post-exercise oxygen n consumption (EPOC)
Oxygen extraction
The amount of oxygen taken from the hemoglobin and used in exercising muscle ells. Often referred to as the arteriole-venous oxygen difference or the A-VO2 difference.
The use of hands and/or fingers to detect anatomical structures or an arterial pulse (e.g., carotid pulse).
A relationship where two or more people agree to operate a business and share in the profits and losses.
Passive stretch
A stretch in which the elastic components of the muscle are related and the portion of muscle most likely to be loaded is the connective tissue. Example: a static stretch.
Peripheral vascular resistance
Impedance of blood flow in the peripheral (farthest from the center ) blood vessels.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and Creatine phosphate (CP), tow high-energy phosphate molecules that can be broken down for immediate use by the cells
Physical working capacity
The maximal amount of physical work (cardio respiratory activity) that can be attained by an individual. Also referred to as aerobic capacity or functional capacity. See Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max).
Plantar flexion
Distal movement of the planter surface of the foot; opposite of dorsiflexion.
Plastic or viscous property
Permanent or nonrecoverable elongation of connective tissue.
Exercises that maximize the mytatic or stretch reflex to teach muscles to produce maximum force faster. Plyometrics are usually sport-specific and utilize exercises such as hops, bounds and depth jumps; may cause overuse tendon injuries in some athletes.
Polyunsaturated fats
A type of unsaturated fat (liquid at room temp) that has tow or more spots on the fatty acid available for hydrogen. Examples: corn, safflower, soybean oils.
See propiroceptive neuromuscular facilitation
Anatomical term meaning toward the back; opposite of anterior.
The period of time after menopause.
Pertaining to the time before menopause.
Primary assessment
A rapid examination to identify life-or limb-threatening injuries or illnesses that need immediate attention.
Prime-mover muscle
The muscle that contracts concentrically to accomplish the movement in a any given joint action
Principle of specificity training
One of the principles of human performance that states that a specific demand (e.g., exercise) made on the body will result in a specific response by the body.
Professional liability insurance
Insurance to protect against professional negligence or the failure ago a trainer to perform as a competent and prudent professional would under similar circumstances.
A triplanar motion at the subtalar joint consisting of abduction, dorsiflexion and eversion; closely resembles eversion. Position of the forearm with the palm facing backward or down.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
A method of promoting the response of neuromuscular mechanisms through the stimulation of proprioceptions in an attempt to gain more stretch in a muscle. Often referred to as a contract/relax method of stretching
Specialized nerve endings in muscles, tendons and joints that are sensitive to changes in tension during activity; gives a body part a sense of where it is in space.
An essential nutrient made up of 22 amino acids that builds and repairs body tissues. 1 gm= 4 kcals.
Scapular abduction
Anatomical term meaning toward the attached end of the limb. Origin of the structure, or midline of the body; opposite of distal.
Range of motion (ROM)
The number of degrees that an articulation (joint) will allow one of its segments to move.
A relationship of mutual trust, harmony or emotional affinity.
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
Developed by Borg, this scale provides a standard means for evaluating a participant's perception of their physical exertion. This original scale was 6-20; the revised scale is 0-10.
Reciprocal innervation (inhibition)
Reflex coaxing with stretch reflex to inhibit activity of an opposing muscle group.
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
Recommended vitamin and mineral intake for most people to obtain optimum health.
Residual volume
Usually refers to the volume of air left in the lungs after complete expiration
Resistive force
A force that resists the motion of another external force.
The act of dissolving and assimilating
Resting heart rate (RHR)
The number of heart beats per minute when the body is completely at rest; usually counted first thing in the morning before any activity.
Resting metabolic rate (RMR)
The number of calories expended per unit time at rest. It is measured early I nthe morning after an overnight fast and at least 8 hours of sleep.
Scapular adduction.
Rheumatoid arthirtis
An autoimmune disease that causes inflammation of connective tissues and joints.
Risk factor
A condition, behavior (such as smoking), inherited trait or a disease that increases onus's risk for a given disease.
Risk management
Minimizing the risks of potential legal liability
See range of motion.
Rating of Perceived exertion.
Sagittal plane
Anatomical term referring to the imaginary longitudinal line that divides the body or any of its parts into right and left sections.
Repeating unit of a muscle fiber.
Saturated fats
Fatty acids carrying the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. These fats are solid at room temperature and are usually of animal origin.
A lateral curvature of the vertebral column, usually in the thoracic area.
Scope of practice
The range and limit of responsibilities normally associated with a a specific job or profession
Secondary assessment
After immediate life or limb-threatening injuries / illnesses have been identified, this more thorough evaluation is performed to identify more subtle yet important, injuries.
Doing or requiring much sitting; not active.
A disorder originating from the brain in which there is a disturbance of movement, behavior, sensation or consciousness.
Set-point theory
The weight control theory that states that each person has an established normal body weight. Any deviation from this set point will lead to changes in body metabolism to return to the normal weight.
Sliding filament theory
A generally accepted theory explaining the interaction between actin and myosin proteins and ATP to cause muscle contraction.
Slow-twitch (Type 1) fiber
A muscle fiber characterized by its slow speed of contraction and a high capacity for aerobic glycolysis
Sole proprietorship
A business owned and operated by one person.
An instrument for measuring blood pressure in the arteries.
Forward displacement of one vertebra; usually occurs at the 4th or 5th lumbar vertebrae.
Dissolution (dissolving into another) of a vertebra; usually begins with a stress fracture.
A traumatic joint twist that results in stretching or tearing of the stabilizing connective tissues. Mainly involves ligaments or joint capsule, and causes discoloration, swelling and pain.
Stabilizer muscles
Muscles that stabilize one joint so a desired movement can be performed in another joint.
Standards of care
Appropriateness of an exercise professional's actions in light of current professional standards and based on the age, condition and knowledge of the participant.
Static flexibility
Range of motion (ROM) about a joint with little emphasis on speed of movement
Static (passive) stretch
A low-force, long duration stretch that holds the desired muscles at their greatest possible length for 15 to 30 seconds.
See Anabolic androgenic steroids.
A stretch, tear or rip in the muscle or adjacent tissue such as the fascia or tendon.
Stretch weakness
the weakening effect on muscles remaining in the elongated position for an extended period of time.
A sudden and often severe attack due to blockage of an artery into the brain.
Stroke volume
The amount of blood pumped from the left ventricle during one heartbeat
A partial dislocation of a joint that usually reduces itself
Submaximal aerobic exercise test
A cardio respiratory fitness test designed so that the intensity does not exceed 85% of heart-rate reserve or maximal oxygen uptake without the risks associated with maximal exercise testing.
External; located close to or on the body surface
Anatomical term meaning higher or toward the head; opposite of inferior.
A triplanar motion at the subtalar joint consisting of dorsiflexion, adduction and inversion. Looks like inversion. Position of the forearm with the palm facing forward or upward.
The position of the body when lying face upward
Sympathetic nervous system
A division of the autonomic nervous system that activates the body to cope with some stressor (i.e., fight or flight response).
A transient state of unconsciousness during which a person collapses to the floor as a result of lack of oxygen to the brain. Commonly known as fainting.
A muscle that assists another muscle in its function.
Working together in a coordinated fashion.
Synovial fluid
Transparent, viscous lubricating fluid found in joint cavities, bursae and tendon sheaths.
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle during which blood leaves the ventricles.
Systolic blood pressure
The pressure exerted by the blood on the blood vessel walls during ventricular contractions.
Talk test
A subjective method for measuring exercise intensity using observation of respiration effort and the ability to talk while exercising.
Target heart rate (THR)
The number of heart-beats per minute that indicate appropriate exercise intensity levels for an individual. Also called training heart rate.
Inflammation of a tendon.
Strong, fibrous connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone.
The formation, development or presence of a blood clot (thrombus).
A force causing rotation about a fixed axis of rotation; the act or process of turning around on an axis.
Training heart rate range
Target heart rate represented as a range of numbers. See Target heart rate (THR)
Transient ischemic attack (TIA)
Momentary dizziness, loss of consciousness or forgetfulness caused by a short-lived lack of oxygen (blood) to the brain. Usually due to a partial blockage of an artery, it is a warning sign for stroke.
Transverse plane
Anatomical term for the imaginary line that divides the body, or any of its parts, into superior and interior parts. Also known as the horizontal plane.
The storage form of fat consisting of three free fatty acids and glycerol.
Valsalva maneuver
Increased pressure in the thoracic cavity caused by forced exhalation with the breath held.
Narrowing of the opening of blood vessels caused by contraction of the smooth muscle cells in the walls of the vessel.
Increase in diameter of the blood vessels, especially dilation of arterioles leading to increased blood flow to a part of the body.
An agent (motor nerve or drug) that acts to relax (dilate) a blood vessel.
A pure vegetarian who excludes all animal-derived foods from the diet.
Blood vessels that carry blood, usually deoxygenated, to the heart.
Venous return
Return to the heart of the circulatory fluids by way of the veins.
One of the two (left and right) lower chambers of the heart. The muscular left ventricle pumps blood to the body; the smaller right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs.
A combination of elastic and plastic properties found in all connective tissue.
Organic compounds that function as metabolic regulators in the body. Classified as water soluble or fat soluble
VO2 max
See Maximal oxygen consumption.
Waist-to-hip circumference ratio (WTH)
A measure for determining health risk due to the site of fat storage; taken by dividing the abdominal girth (waist measurement) by the hip measurement to form a ratio.
Voluntary abandonment of a right to file suit; not always legally binding.
Water soluble
Dissolvable in water. Relating to vitamins, those that require adequate daily intake since the body excretes excesses in the urine.