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### 51 Cards in this Set

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 The case in which arriving customers refuse to join the waiting line Balking The population of items from which arrivals at the queing system come. Calling Population A queue discipline (meaning first-in, first-out) in which the customers are served in the strict order of arrival FIFO A method of classifying queuing systems based on the distribution of arrivals, the distribution of service times, and the number of service channels. Kendall Notation A case in which the number of customers in the system is a significant proportion of the calling population Limited or Finite Population A waiting line that cannot increase beyond a specific size. Limited Queue Length A set of relationships that exist for any queuing system in a steady state. Little's Equations Kendall notation for the constant service time model. M/D/1 Kendall notation for the multichannel queuing model (with m servers) and Poisson arrivals and exponential service times M/M/m Kendall notation for the single-channel model with Poisson arrivals and exponential service times. M/M/1 A system that has more than one service facility, all fed by the same single queue. Multichannel Queuing System A system in which service is received from more than one station, one after the other Multiphase System A probability distribution that is often used to describe random service times in a service system Negative Exponential Probability Distribution Descriptive characteristics of a queuing system, including the average number of customers in a line and in the system, the average waiting times in a line and in the system, and percent idle time Operating Characteristics A probability distribution that is often used to describe random arrivals in a queue. Poisson Distribution The rule by which customers in a line receive service Queue Discipline The mathematical study of waiting lines or queues Queuing Theory The case in which customers enter a queue but then leave before being serviced Reneging The cost of providing a particular level of service Service cost A system with one service facility fed by one queue Single-channel Queuing System A queuing system in which service is received at only one station Single-phase system The normal, stabilized operation condition of a queuing system Steady state The initial condition of a queuing system before a steady state is reached Transient state A calling population that is very large relative to the number of customers currently in the system Unlimited or Infinite Population A queue that can increase to an infinite size Unlimited Queue Length The proportion of the time that service facilities are in use Utilization Factor The cost to the firm of having customers or objects waiting to be serviced Waiting Cost One or more customers or objects waiting to be served Waiting Line(Queue) A simulation model in which the system status is updated at specific intervals of time Fixed time Increment Model A graphical means of presenting the logic of a simulation model. It is a tool that helps in writing a simulation computer program Flow Diagram or flowchart Computer programming languages, such as Visual Basic, C++, or java, that are used to simulate a problem General-Purpose languages Simulations that experiment with probabilistic elements of a system by generating random numbers to create values for those elements Monte Carlo Simulation A simulation model in which the system status is updated whenever the next event occurs Next Event Time Increment Model The use of simulation in competitive situations such as military games and business or management games Operational Gaming These graphical programs are prestructured to handle a variety of situations Prewritten Simulation Programs A number whose digits are selected completely at random Random Number A range of random numbers assigned to represent a possible simulation outcome. Random Number Interval A quantitative analysis technique that involves building a mathematical model that represents a real-world situation. The model is then experimented with to estimate the effects of various actions and decisions Simulation Programming languages especially designed to be efficient in handling simulation problems. The category includes GPSS/H, SIMSCRIPT II.5, and SLAM II Special-Purpose Simulation Languages Simulation models dealing with the dynamics of large organizational or governmental systems. Systems Simulation The process of comparing a model to the real system that it represents to make surethat it is accurate Validation The process of determining that the computer model is internally consistent and following the logic of the conceptual model Verification A state that, when entered, cannot be left. The probability of going from an absorbing state to any other state is 0. Absorbing State A condition that exists whent he state probabilities for a future period are the same as the state probabilities for a future period are the same as the state probabilities for a previous period Equilibrium Condition A matrix that is the inverse of the I minus B matrix. It is needed to compute the equilibrium conditions when absorbing states are involved. Fundamental Matrix The fraction of the population that shops at a particular store or market. When expressed as a fraction, market shares can be used in a place of state probabilities Market Share A type of analysis that allows us to predict the future by using the state probabilities and the matrix of transition probabilities Markov Analysis A matrix containing all transition probabilities for a certain process or system Matrix of Transition Probabilities The probability of an event occuring at a point in time. Examples include the probability that a person will be shopping at a given grocery store during a given month. State Probability The conditional probability that we will be in a future state given a current or existing state. Transition Probability A collection or vector of all state probabilities for a given system or process. The vector of state probabilities could be the initial state or future state. Vector of State Probabilities