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570 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
abandon
stop doing something because of problems
abstract
based on ideas
academic
connected with education
access
find and use information, especially on a computer
accommodation
a place to live or work
accompany
somebody goes with someone
accumulation
gradual increase in quantity
accurate
exactly correct
achieve
succeed in doing something good
acknowledged
accepted that something was true
acquire
get something
adaptation
a change in something so that it can be used in a different situation
adequate
enough for a particular purpose
adjacent
next to something
adjust
change or move something slightly
administration
the work of managing the affairs of a company
adult
fully grown
advocate
say you strongly support a way of doing things
affect
cause a change
aggregate
total
aid
help or support
albeit
although
allocate
decide to use something for a particular purpose
alter
change or make something change
alternative
something you can do instead of something else
ambiguous
having more than one possible meaning
amend
make small changes or improvements
analogy
similar to another situation or thing
analysis
careful examination
annual
happening once every year
anticipate
expect something to happen
apparent
easily seen or understood
appendix
a part at the end of a book or report that has additional information
appreciate
understand a difficult situation or problem
approach
a way of doing something or dealing with a problem
appropriate
suitable for a particular time or purpose
approximately
a little more or less than an exact number
arbitrary
not based on any practical or good reasons
area
a particular subject or type of activity
aspect
one of the parts of a situation or subject
assembly
a group of people who have come together for a particular purpose
assess
examine something and make a decision about it
assign
give somebody a job to do
assistance
help and support
assume
think that something is true
assure
tell somebody that something will definitely happen or is true
attach
fasten or join
attain
achieve something after trying for a long time
attitude
what you think and feel about something
attributed
said that something was caused or written by someone
author
someone who writes a book or article
authority
someone who is respected because of their knowledge
automate
without much human control
available
that you can get, buy or use etc
aware
knowing about or realising something
behalf
instead of someone
benefit
an advantage or improvement
bias
an opinion that unfairly influences how you do something
bond
a shared feeling or interest that unites people
brief
continuing for only a short time
bulk
in large quantities
capable
having the skill, power or other qualities that are needed to do something
capacity
the amount that a factory or machine can produce
categories
groups of people or things that have the same qualities or features
cease
stops doing something or stops happening
challenge
say you doubt whether something is right or true
channel
use something for a particular purpose
chapter
one of the parts that a book is divided into
chart
information that is shown in the form of a picture
chemical
related to substances used in chemistry
circumstances
a fact or condition that affects what happens in a situation
cite
use someone's words to support what you are saying
civil
relating to laws about private business, not crime
clarify
make clear what you speak, write or think
classical
based on a traditional set of ideas
clause
a part of a legal document
code
a set of rules or laws
coherent
clear and easy to understand
coincide
happen by chance at the same time or in the same place
collapse
fail suddenly and completely
colleague
people you work with
commence
begin
comment
give an opinion about something or someone
commission
ask for a piece of work to be done by someone
commitment
a promise to do something
commodity
a product that is being bought or sold
communication
process of exchanging information or ideas by speaking or writing
community
a small area or town and the people who live in it
compatible
too different to be able to exist or live together
compensation
something that makes a bad situation seem better
compile
make a book, list etc from different pieces of information
complement
something that makes another thing seem good
complex
consisting of many connected parts
component
one of the different parts of a machine or system
compound
a substance that consists of two or more elements
comprehensive
including everything that is needed
comprise
form part of a larger group
computer
an electronic machine that can store and arrange large quantities of information
conceive
think of a new idea or plan
concentration
a large amount of something in the same place
concept
a general idea
conclusion
something you decide after considering all the information you have
concurrent
existing or happening at the same time
conduct
carry out or organise something
conference
a large formal meeting in which people exchange ideas
confined
happened in only one place or time
confirmed
said or proved something is definitely true
conflict
a situation in which you have to choose between opposing things
conform
obey or follow an existing rule
consent
permission to do something
consequences
things that happen as a result of something else
considerable
large enough to be important or have an effect
consist
made of or contain a number of different things
constant
happening regularly or all the time
constitution
a set of laws that describe the power and purposes of a government or organisation
constraints
things that limit your freedom to do what you want
construction
the process of building something large such as a house, bridge or road
consultation
a discussion in which people who are affected by a decision can say what they think should be done
consumer
someone who buys or uses goods or services
contact
communicating with a person, organisation or country
contemporary
happening or existing in the same period of time
context
the situation within which something happens
contract
a formal written agreement between people or companies etc.
contradiction
a difference between two statements, facts etc. which means they cannot both be true
contrary
used to emphasise that the opposite of what someone has just said is actually true
contrast
a big difference between people, situations, ideas etc. that are being compared
contribution
something that you give or do to help make something successful
controversy
a lot of argument and disagreement about something
conventional
the normal and traditional way of thinking and behaving in a society
conversely
in a way that is opposite to something
converted
changed from one system or purpose to another
convinced
certain that something is true
cooperative
willing to help
coordination
when people and things are organised so they work together effectively
core
a central or most important part of something
corporate
shared by all people in a group
corresponding
having the same position, effect or importance as something else
couple
two things joined together
create
make something new exist or happen
credit
praise given to someone for doing something
criteria
facts or standards to help you decide something
crucial
extremely important
culture
relating to a particular society and its way of life
currency
the type of money that a country uses
cycle
a number of connected events that happen many times in the same order
data
information or facts
debate
discuss a subject formally
decade
a period of ten years
decline
become weaker, smaller or less important
deduce
decide that something is true using the information you have
definite
completely certain and not likely to be changed
definition
a phrase or sentence that says exactly what a word, phrase or idea means
demonstrate
show somebody something
denote
be used as sign for something
deny
say that something is not true
depression
a feeling of sadness and loss of hope
derived
have something as its origin
design
draw or plan something that will be made
despite
without being affected by the thing mentioned
detected
noticed something that was not easy to see
deviation
different from what is normal or acceptable
device
a machine or tool used for a particular purpose
devoted
deals with one main subject or activity
differentiate
notice or understand the difference between things or people
dimension
the size of something, including its length, width and height
diminished
became smaller or less important
discretion
the authority to decide what the right thing to do is in a particular situation
discrimination
when one group of people is unfairly treated differently from another
displace
take the place of someone or something
display
put things where people can see them easily
disposal
when you get rid of something
distinction
a clear difference between things
distort
change the shape or sound of something so it is strange or unclear
distribution
supplying goods to shops and companies in a particular area
diversity
great difference
document
a piece of paper that has official information written on it
domain
all the things that are included in a subject or activity
domestic
happening within one country
dominant
strongest, most important or most noticeable
draft
a piece of writing or a plan that is not yet finished
dramatic
sudden and surprising
duration
the length of time that something continues
dynamic
full of energy and ideas
economic
concerning trade, industry and the making of money
edition
the copies of a book that are all the same
element
a simple chemical substance that contains only one kind of atom
eliminate
completely get rid of something or someone
emerge
became known
emphasis
special importance that you give to something
empirical
based on scientific method or practical example
enable
make it possible for someone to do something
encounter
experience something that causes difficulty
energy
power from oil, coal etc. that produces heat and makes machines work
enforce
make people obey a rule or law
enhance
improve something
enormous
extremely big
ensure
make certain that something happens
entity
something that exists as a single and complete unit
environment
the land, water and air that people, plants and animals live in
equate
consider that one thing is the same as something else
equipment
things that are used for a particular activity
equivalent
equal in amount or value to something else
erode
gradually destroy something
error
mistake, especially one that causes problems
establish
start or decide something
estate
all of someone's property or money
estimate
decide what you think the value of something is
ethical
connected with principles of what is right and wrong
ethnic
relating to a particular race of people
evaluate
carefully consider something or someone to decide how good they are
eventually
after a long time
evidence
facts, statements or signs that make you believe something exists or is true
evolution
gradual change or development
exceed
more than a particular number or amount
exclude
deliberately not include something
exhibit
put something in a particular place so that people can see it
expansion
when something increases in size, number or amount
expert
someone with special skills or knowledge
explicit
very clear and easy to understand
exploit
use something effectively
export
the business of selling products to another country
expose
remove the cover from something that is usually covered
external
relating to the outside of something
extract
remove something
facilitate
make it easier for something to happen
factors
the things that influence a cause or situation
features
important, interesting or typical parts of something
federal
relating to the national government of a country which consists of several states
fee
money that you pay for professional services
file
a set of papers containing information about a particular person or thing
final
last in a series or happening at the end of something
financial
connected with money
finite
having an end or limit
flexible
able to change easily
fluctuations
small regular changes
focus
give all your attention to a particular thing
format
the way something is organised or designed
formula
a group of numbers or letters that show a mathematical or scientific rule
forthcoming
happening soon
found
start an organisation
foundation
basic belief or idea that something is based on
framework
set of rules, facts or beliefs that people us to make plans or decisions
function
the purpose that something is made for
fund
an amount of money that is kept for a particular purpose
fundamental
relating to the most basic and important parts of something
furthermore
in addition to what has already been said
gender
the fact of being masculine or feminine
generate
make something happen or start to exist
generation
all of the people who are about the same age
globe
the world
goal
something that you hope to achieve in the future
grade
level of quality or importance
grant
an amount of money given to someone by an organisation for a particular purpose
guarantee
promise that something will happen or will be done
guidelines
official advice about the way to do something
hence
for this reason
hierarchical
organisation in which people are arranged in ranks of importance
highlight
make something the main subject or problem that people pay attention to
hypothesis
an idea that someone suggests as an explanation of something, but that they have not proved to be true
identical
exactly the same
identify
recognise and name somebody or something
ideology
based on a particular set of words or ideas
ignored
did not pay any attention to someone or something
illustrated
explained or made something clear by giving examples
image
the way that people consider something or someone to be
immigration
when people come to a country in order to live there
impact
the effect someone or something has
implement
begin to make something happen
implications
possible results of a plan, action etc.
implicit
suggested or understood but not stated directly
imply
suggest that something is true without saying or showing it directly
impose
force someone to accept a rule, a tax, your beliefs etc
incentive
something that encourages you to work harder, or to start something new
incidence
how often something happens
inclination
the desire to do something
income
money that you earn
incorporate
to include something as part of a group, system etc.
index
an alphabetical list at the end of a book that contains all the names, subjects etc in the book and the pages where you can find them
indicate
show that something is likely to be true or exist
individual
considered separately from other people or things in the same group
induced
caused a particular physical condition
inevitable
will definitely happen and you cannot avoid it
infer
decide that particular facts must be true because of other information that you already have
infrastructure
the basic systems that a country or organisation needs in order to work properly
inherent
a quality that is naturally part of something
inhibit
prevent something from growing or developing
initial
happening at the beginning, first
initiate
arrange for something important to start
injury
physical harm that someone suffers in an accident or attack
innovate
a new idea, method, etc. that is used for the first time
input
ideas, advice, money or effort that you put into a job, meeting etc. in order to help it succeed
insert
put something inside or into something
insight
the ability to understand something clearly
inspection
an official visit to a building or organisation to check that everything is of a good enough standard
instance
an example of a particular kind of situation or behaviour
institute
an organisation that does educational or scientific work
instruct
information or advice that tells you how to do something
integral
forming a necessary part of something
integration
the combination of two or more things to make an effective system
integrity
the quality of being honest and having high moral standards
intelligent
good at learning and understanding things
intense
involving a lot of thought, work, effort, etc. in a short period of time
interaction
talking to people and making relationships with them
intermediate
between two stages
internal
inside something, such as your body or a country
interpretation
a way of explaining or understanding information, someone's actions etc.
interval
a period of time between two events or activities
intervene
do something to try to stop an argument, war, etc
intrinsic
forming part of the basic character of something
investigation
an official attempt to find out something
investment
the money you give to a company or bank in order to make a profit later
invoke
use a law, principle, etc. to support your opinions or actions
involve
include or affect someone or something
isolate
make or keep one person separate from others
issue
a subject or problem
item
a single thing in a set
job
work that you do regularly in order to earn money
journal
a magazine for people who are interested in a particular subject
justification
a good reason for doing something
label
a piece of paper or other material with information on it which is stuck or tied to an object
labour
work, especially hard physical work
layer
one of several levels of different substances or materials that are on top of each other
lecture
a talk to a group of people about a subject
legal
allowed or done according to the law
legislation
a law or set of laws
levy
officially make someone pay a tax etc.
liberal
willing to understand or respect other people's behaviour and ideas
licence
an official document that gives you permission to do something
likewise
in the same way
link
a relationship or connection between two or more events, people or ideas
location
in a particular place or position
logic
the science or study of thinking carefully about something using formal methods
maintain
make something continue in the same way or at the same standard as before
major
very large or important, especially when compared to other things or people of a similar kind
manipulate
skilfully control or move something
manual
working using your hands, especially hard physical work
margin
the empty space at the edge of a printed page
mature
fully grown or developed
maximise
increase something as much as possible
mechanism
that part of a machine that does a particular job
media
television radio and newspapers
mediate
try to help two groups, countries etc. stop arguing and make an agreement
medical
relating to medicine and the treatment of disease or injury
medium
way of communicating information or expressing ideas to people
mental
relating to the mind, or happening in the mind
method
a way of doing something
migrate
go to live in another place, usually to find work
military
relating to war
minimal
extremely small in amount or degree and therefore not worth worrying about
minimise
make the degree or amount of something as small as possible
minimum
the smallest number or amount that is possible or needed
ministry
government department
minor
small and not very important or serious
mode
a particular way of behaving, living or doing something
modify
make small changes in something in order to improve it
monitor
watch or measure something carefully for a period of time to see how it changes
motive
the reason why someone does something
mutual
shared by two or more people
negative
having a bad or harmful effect
network
a system of things or people that are connected with each other
neutral
not supporting any of the groups, people, countries in a war, argument, election etc,
nevertheless
in spite of what has just been mentioned
nonetheless
in spite of what has just been mentioned
normal
usual, typical or expected
norms
the usual and acceptable ways of behaving
notion
an idea, belief or opinion about something, especially one that is wrong
notwithstanding
in spite of something
nuclear
using the energy that is produced when at atom is split or joined to another atom
objective
not influenced by your own feelings or opinions
obtain
get something
obvious
easy to notice or understand
occupational
connected with your job
occur
happen, especially without being planned first
odd
how likely it is that something will or will not happen
offset
make a bad situation better by providing something good
ongoing
continuing to happen
option
something that you can choose to do
orientation
the kind of beliefs and ideas that a group or person has
outcome
the final results of a meeting, process etc.
output
the amount of work, goods, etc, that someone or something produces
overall
considering or including anything
overlap
when part of one thing covers part of another thing
overseas
to, in, or from another country that is across the sea
panel
a group of people who are chosen to discuss something or answer questions
paradigm
a typical example or pattern of something
paragraph
a group of sentences in a piece of writing that starts on a new line
parallel
lines that are the same distance apart along their whole length
parameters
limit on how much should be considered, discussed, included, etc,
participation
taking part in an activity or an event
partnership
a relationship between two people or organisations who work together to achieve something
passive
tending to accept situations or things that other people do, without trying to change or influence them
perceive
understand or think about something in a particular way
percent
one part in every hundred
period
a length of time
persist
continue to do something, even though it is difficult or other people do not like it
perspective
a way of thinking about something
phase
one part of a process in which something develops or grows
phenomenon
something that happens or exists, especially something that is unusual or difficult to understand
philosophy
the study of ideas about existence, thought and behaviour
physical
relating to someone's body, rather than mind
plus
used when one number or amount is added to another
policy
a way of doing or dealing with things, especially one that has been officially decided by a political party or organisation
portion
a part of something
pose
cause a problem or ask a question
positive
hopeful and confident
potential
the possibility that something will happen or develop in a particular way
practitioner
someone who works as a doctor or lawyer
precede
happen or exist before something else
precise
exact and correct in every detail
predict
say that something will happen
predominantly
mostly or mainly
preliminary
happening or done at the beginning of a process, especially in order to prepare for what will come late
presume
think that something is not true, although you are not certain
previous
happening or existing at an earlier time
primary
most important, main
prime
main or most important
principal
most important, main
principle
a moral rule or idea that has a strong influence on the way you behave
prior
before
priority
the thing that you think is most important and should be dealt with first
proceed
continue to do something that has already started
process
a series of events or changes that happen naturally
professional
a job that needs special education and training
prohibit
have a law that stops people doing things
project
important work that is planned and organised carefully over a period of time
promote
help something to develop and be successful
proportion
a part of a large amount or number
prospect
the chance that something you hope for will happen soon
protocol
system of rules about the correct way to behave on official occasions
psychology
the scientific study of the mind and how it works
publication
a book, magazine etc, that is printed and made available for people to buy
published
printed and made available for people to buy
purchase
when somebody buys something
pursue
continue to do something, or try to achieve something over a long period of time
qualitative
relating to the quality of something rather than its size
quote
words from a book etc, that are repeated by someone else
radical
big changes that have important effects
random
happening or chosen without any definite plan or system
range
a group of things that are different, but belong to the same general type
ratio
a relationship between two amounts, written as two numbers
rational
based on real facts or scientific knowledge, and not influenced by feelings
reaction
something that you feel or do because of what has happened to you or been said to you
recover
get better after an illness, injury, shock etc.
refine
use an industrial process to make a natural substance more pure
regime
a system of government or management, especially one you disapprove of,
region
a fairly large area within a state, country, etc., usually without exact limits
register
record names, facts, etc. on an official list
regulate
control an activity or process, especially by having rules
reinforce
support an opinion, feeling, system etc. and make it stronger
reject
refuse to accept, believe in or agree with something
relaxed
feeling clam and comfortable and not worried about anything
release
let someone go free after keeping them as a prisoner
relevant
directly related to the problem or subject being discussed
reluctant
unwilling and therefore slow to do something
rely
trust or depend on something or someone
remove
take something away
require
need something
research
study a subject in detail so you can discover new facts about it
reside
live somewhere
resolve
strong determination to succeed in doing something
resources
something that a country, organisation, person etc. has which they can use
respond
behave in a particular way after someone has done something or something has happened
restore
repair something so that it is in its original condition
restrain
prevent someone form doing something
restrict
limit something
retain
keep something and not lose it
reveal
make something known that was previously secret or not known
revenue
money that is earned by a company or money that the government receives from tax
reverse
change something, such as a decision or way of doing something, so that it is the opposite of what it was before
revise
change something to improve it or make it more suitable
revolution
a complete change in the way people do something, or in the ideas that people have about a subject
rigid
stiff and not moving or bending
role
the position that someone or something has in a situation or activity
route
the way from one place to another
scenario
a situation that could happen but has not happened yet
schedule
a plan of when work is to be done
scheme
an idea or plan that someone has, especially a slightly dishonest or stupid one
scope
the range of subjects that a book, discussion etc. deals with
section
one of the parts that an object, group, place etc. is divided into
sector
one of the parts that an area or large group of people is divided into
secure
not likely to change or become a risk
seek
try to find or get something
select
choose something or someone
sequence
a series of events or actions that have a particular order
series
several events or actions of the same kind that happen one after the other
sex
whether someone is male or female
shift
a change in the way most people think about something
significant
noticeable or important
similar
almost the same but not exactly
simulate
something you do in order to practise what you would do in a real situation
site
a place where something important or interesting happens
so-called
used to show that you think the word used to describe something is wrong
sole
the only one
somewhat
more than a little but not very
source
the thing, place or person that you get something from
specific
used to talk about a particular thing, person, or time
specify
state something in an exact and detailed way
sphere
the shape of a ball
stable
strong and not likely to move or change
statistics
a set of numbers that have been collected to show information about something
status
the position that someone or something has compared to other people or things
straightforward
simple to do or easy to understand
strategy
a set of plans used to achieve something or to help you be successful
stress
continuous feelings of worry about your work or personal life that prevent you from relaxing
structure
the way in which the parts of something are organised and are related to each other
style
a way of doing or making something that is typical of a particular person, group or period
submit
formally send something to someone in writing for them to consider
subordinate
someone who has a less important job than someone else in an organisation
subsequent
coming after something else
subsidy
money that a government or organisation pays to help with the cost of something
substitute
someone who does someone else's job for short time
successor
the person who has someone's job after they leave
sufficient
as much as you need for a particular purpose
sum
an amount of money
summary
a short statement that gives the main information about something
supplement
something that you add to something else to improve it
survey
a set of questions that you ask a lot of people in order to find out information
survive
continue to live after an accident, illness etc.
suspend
officially stop or delay something for a short period
sustain
make something continue to exist
symbol
a picture, object etc. that is the sign of a particular quality, idea or organisation
tape
thin narrow band of plastic material used for recording sounds
target
a result you are trying to achieve
task
a piece of work that someone has to do, especially one that is difficult or unpleasant
team
a group of people who work together to do a particular job
technical
relating to practical skills, knowledge and methods used in science or industry
technique
a special skill or way of doing something
technology
a combination of all the knowledge, equipment, methods etc. that are used in scientific or industrial work
temporary
existing or happening for a limited period of time
tense
nervous and anxious
terminate
end or make something end
text
the writing in a book, magazine, etc., rather than the pictures
theme
the main subject or idea in a book
theory
an explanation for something that has not been proved to be true
thereby
with the result that
thesis
a long piece of writing that you do for a university degree
topic
a subject that people talk or write about
trace
find the origins of something and find out how it developed
tradition
a custom, belief or way of doing something that has existed for a long time
transfer
move someone or something from one place, part of an organisation etc. to another
transform
change something or someone completely
transit
when people, goods, etc. are moved from one place to another
transmit
to send out radio signals for radio or television
transport
when people, goods, etc. are moved from one place to another
trend
the way a situation is generally developing or changing
trigger
make something start to happen
ultimate
the final and most important thing
undergo
have a difficult or unpleasant experience
underlying
important but hidden
undertake
start to do a piece of work, especially one that is long and difficult
uniform
all the same size, shape etc.
unify
join the parts of a country, organisation etc. together to make a single country, organisation etc.
unique
the only one of its kind; often very good or special
utilise
use something
valid
can be used legally; officially acceptable
variable
likely to change often
vehicle
a thing such as a car or bus that is used for carrying people or things
version
a form of something that is different from other forms
via
travelling through or stopping at a place when you are going to another place
violate
disobey a law, agreement etc.
virtual
almost completely
visible
something that can be seen or noticed
vision
the ability to see
visual
relating to seeing or your ability to see
volume
the total amount of something
voluntary
working without being paid
welfare
the general health and happiness of a person or group
whereas
used for showing a fact that is different
whereby
by which; because of which
widespread
happening in many places, among many people, or in many situations