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137 Cards in this Set

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a cappella
a manner of choral performance wherein the voices sing w/o instrumental accompaniment
anthem
a genre of English service music based on English texts
full anthem
written in contrapuntal stlye, performed a cappella
verse anthem
accompanied, included choir & vocal soloists
bar form
a form found in many German Lieder characterized by twwo verses (stollen) followed by a closing refrain (abgesang); diagrammed as AAB
Jacob Burckhardt
(1818-1897)_
one of the earliest historians to use the term "Renaissance" in reference to a historical period
canonic mass
type of polyphionic masss structured according to a predetermined "cannon" (rule); cannon can be anything composer wishes
Cantus Firmus Mass
type of polyphonic Mass wherein one voice is based ona preexisting tune; many 15th c cantus firmus masses used sacred&secular tunes until Council of Trent
Chanson
Fr for "song"; often based on one of the 14 c formes fixes )fixed forms, e.g., ballade, rondeau, and virelai), the chanson originated in france, but popular all over europe
chorale
principal voval genre of the Protestant Reformation; written in a simple monoponic style for the prupose of congregational singing, and often based on a preexisting tune; variations include polyphonic chorales and chorale motets
chromaticism
practice of using pitches outside the modal scale inwhich a work is written, often for added tone color or effect
conjunct motion
melodic motion characterized by stepwise movememt as opposed to leaps
consonance
a sonority that is considered harmonically stable and pleasing to the ear; suitable as a departure or arrival w/in a work
Contenance Angloise
means "the English guise" refers to the use of 3rds & 6ths as consonant intervals as found in English works (ex, John Dunstable)
Council of Trent
series of meetings held by the bishops of the Catholic Church on and off from 1545-1563 in Trento, Italy; passed a series of reforms aimed at correcting the liturgy &refining doctrine
disjunct motion
melodic motion characterized by leaps as opposed to steps
dissonance
a sonority that is considered harmonically unstable and displeasing to the ear; unsuitable as a point of departure or arrival w/in a work
fantasia
16th c instrumental genre characterized by a free0form approach where in the composer explores the extremes to which a musical idea can be taken
feudal system
the hierarchical division of power in medieval andRenaissance Europe; king presides over series of lesser nobility
frottola
Italian polyphonic secular song written in a chordal, homorhythmic style featuring dance-like rhythms
genre
particular kind of musical composition characterized by a distinct style, form, or type of content; usualy includes performing medium and often place of performance
homorhythmic
musical texture wherein all voices move together at the same speed nd in more or less the same rhythm
Hundred Years' War
occurred on and off b/w England & France from 1336-1453, during which time the English occupied a significant portion of France
Lied (pl. Lieder)
Gr for "song"; in the Renaissance it referred to either a polyphonic or monophonic composition based on German poetry
Lute Song
vocal work accompanied by the lute; often has teh main melody in the uppermost voice
Martin Luther
)1483-1546)
atholic priest who disputed the Church's selling of indulgences via "95 Theses" Protestant Reformation
Madrigal
Italian secular vocal composition characterized by elaborate polyphhonic csettings and esxpressive poetry of a high literary caliber; popular in england during the late 16 c
Maestro di cappella
Italian for "chapel master"; refers to one of the highest musical positions one could have; the maestro di cappella was in charge of all music activities in a church, including training the choirk, supplying music for services and composing new music when needed
mannerism
in reference to painting; describes a style wherein the proportions of figures are distorted &exaggerated; in mlusic, deliberae distortion of accentuation of a musical element for effect
mass
aka Missa solemnis (solemn mass) principal worship service of the Roman Catholic Church; celebration of the Last Supper
mass ordinary
texts of the mass that don't change during the liturgical year; Kyria, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei, and Ite, missa est
Mass proper
texts of mass that do change; Introit, Collects, epistle, gradual, alleluia, tract, sequence, gospel, offertory, secret, preface, canon, communion, and postcommunion
melisma
type of text setting wherein one syllable is sung on a series of several pitches
accidental
a sharp, flat, or natural symbol before a note; indicaties a pitch from outside the specified scale
adagio
slow tempo
aerophone
instrument that creates sound by the vibration of a column of air
allegro
fast tempo
alto
female voice w/range lower that soprano, or high mle voice
andante
moderate, walking tempo
ballet
musical form written to coincide w/story to be danced
bass
male voice w/lowest range
bass clef
symbol that indicates that the 4th line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of F below middle C; aka F clef
beat
underlying pulse in music
binary form
form of a piece that has 2 sections AB
Bridge
1) linking passage in piece of music
2)part of a string instrument over which the strings pass
cadence
progression of notes or chords that gives teh efect of closing a passage of music
chord
combo of 3+ pitches played at once
chordophone
instrument that produces sound via the vibration of a stretched string that is bowed,plucked, or struck
chromatic scale
scale based on an octave of twelve semitones as opposed to a diatonic scale
clef
a symbol that designates teh pitch range to be diplayed on the staff
coda
a passage at the end of a movement or composition that brings it to a fromal close
concerto
originally referred ot a work that featured effects of contrast, but now refers to a work in which a solo instrument is contrasted w/larger ensemble of orchestra
continuo
gradually increasing in loudness
decrescendo
gradually decreasing in lnoudness
diatonic scale
scale using only the eight tones of a standard major or minor scale w/o chromatic deviations
dominant
5th step or degree of a scale
downbeat
accented beat at the beginnign of a measure
dynamics
gradations of loudness in music
electrophone
instrument that produces sound by electronic means
equal tempermant tuning
system on tuning based on a scale whose "steps" or degrees have logarithically equal intervals b/w them in contrast to the differently spaced degrees of "just intonation tuning"
form
structure or organization of a piece of music
forte
loud
fortissimo
very loud
frequency
refers to # of vibrations /sec that creates a sound; frequency of sound determines pitch
fugue
type of composition or technique in which a melodic theme is subjected to melodic imitation
galliard
lively court dance in triple meter that was popular in the 16th & early 17th c which was often paired with the pavane
gregoring chant
plainsong
harmonics
sounds heard together when a sound is produced by a vibrating string or air column, through its vibrations in parts; the tones in the harmonic series of overtones produced by a fundamnetal tone
harmony
combination of more than one musical pitch at a time and the subsepuent reltionship b/w intervals and chords
hertz
unit of measure of frequency; # of cycles /sec
heterophony
texture in which several diff versions of the same melody are played simultaneously
homophony
a texture w/one melody and varied supporting accompaniment; a texture in which the parts generally move together
homorhythmic
texture in which the melody and the supporting parts perform similar rhythms
idiophone
an instrument that produces sound by bein struch, plucked, rubbed, or bowed
intervaly
distance b/w two pitches
key
the tonality and major or minor scale of a piece of music; key is labled according to the note to which the piece gravitates
key signature
group of flats or sharps placed on the staff at the beginnign of a piece that indicaties the tonality of the scale used
largo
very slow
leading tone
7th degree of a scale; semitone below the tonic, gies music a sense of leading back to the tonic
leitmotif
a recognizable theme or musical idea that represents a character or concept in a dramatic work
libretto
text of an opera or oratorio
major scale
scale in which the distance from the 1st to the 3rd notes is 4 semitones
measure
a metrical division of music, marked by vertical lines through the staff called bar lines
melody
sequence of musical pitches w/recognizable shape/tune
membranophone
instrument that produces sound when it's stretched membrane is struck/rubbed
meter
grouping of beats to a regular pulse
mezzo forte
medium loud
mezzo piano
medium quiet/soft
mezzo-soprano
female voice w/a range midway b/w soprano & alto
minor scale
a scale in which the distance b/w the 1st & 3rd notes is three semitones
monophony
texture w/only one melody & no supporting accompaniment
motet
polyphonic choral work that was one of the most important musical forms from the 13th to 18th c and was commonly used in the Roman Catholic Church
octave
interval b/w two notes of the same name, 12 semitones apart
opera
sung drama that is set to music w/costumes, scenery, and usually has a secular theme
opus
the latin word for "work" that is used w/a # to sequence & ID the work of the composer
oratorio
sung drama performed chorally w/no costuming or scenery & has a relig theme
organum
type of medieval polyphony w/1+ voices added to a plainsong
pavane
slow court dance in duple meter popular in teh 16th & early 17th c, paired w/gilliard
pianissimo
very quiet or soft
piano
quiet/soft
pitch
highness/lowness of a sound
plainsong
liturgical chants to Lat text use since the Middle ages; also called Gregorian chants
polymeter
simultaneous use of 1+ meter
polyphony
texture in which 2+ melodic lines are combined
polyrhythm
use of simultaneous contrasting rhythms
presto
very fast
program music
instrumental music that is narrative or descriptive of a nonmusical idea
reed
1) flexible strip of cane or metal set in tot he mouthpiece or air opening of certain instruments that produces a tone by vibration in response to a stream of air
2) instrument, (oboe/clarinet )fitted w/reed
resonance
amplification or prolongation af a muscal tone produced by sympathetic vibrations
rest
in musical notation, one of several symbols corresponding ot a given # of beats that indicaties a period of silence
rhythm
organization of sounds and silences through time
ritornello
recurring section in a piece of music
rounded binary
an extention of the binary form wherein the 1st section is repeated at the end
rondo
form w/a repeating A section, which alternates w/2+ contrasting sections
scale
set of conjunct pitches w/in an octave used for musical composition
score
written form of a musical composition for several performers
sonata
piece in several movements for a small ensemble, soloist w/accompaniment or solo keyboard
staff
set of five horizontal lines on and b/w which music is notated
strophic
refers to songs in which each stanza or verse is played/sung to the same music
symphonic poem
orchestral piece based on a nonmusial (literary, narrative, pictorial, etc.) idea
symphony
an extended orchestral work, usually in several movements
syncopation
the stressing of beats that are normally unstressed
tempo
the speed of a musical piece
ternary form
a form comprised of three sections w/the 3rd being a repetition of the 1st ABA
texture
the manner in which linear musical parts are blended
theme and variation
a musical form in which one melodic idea is repeated w/variations that may be rhythmic, melodic, harmonic, or any combination thereof
through-composed
a musical form in which each stanza or verse is set to diff music so that there is no repeating section
timbre
characteristic of instrumental and vocal sounds that make them distinguishable to the ear; tone color
time signature
the figures on the staff at the beginnign of a piece that indicate its meter
tonality
the feeling of pull toward a particular tone, which is determined by the key of the music
tonic
the main note of a major or minor key
treble clef
a symbol that indicated that the second line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of G above middle C; aka a G clef
triad
a basic chord combining a beginnign note and the 3rd & 5th note above it
12 bar rules
a form of African-American pop music
verse-chorus
a 2 part form w/text changing in the verse section & repeated text in the chorus section
vivace
quick, lively tempo
word-painting
a technique whereby the writtten text of a song is illustrated musically