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112 Cards in this Set

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extra breath sounds that are abnormal, such as crackles, rhonchi, wheezes, and pleural friction rubs
adventitious sounds
a receptor that responds to a change in the chemical composition (PaCO2 and pH) of the fluid around it
chemoreceptor
a measure of the elasticity of the lungs and thorax
compliance
short, low-pitched sounds caused by air passing through airway intermittently occluded by mucus, unstable bronchial wall, or fold of mucosa; evident on inspiration and, at times, expiration; similar sound to blowing through a straw under water
crackles
shortness of breath; difficulty breathing
dyspnea
the tendency for the lungs to recoil after being stretched or expanded
elastic recoil
vibration of the chest wall produced by vocalization
fremitus
receptors located in lungs, upper airways, chest wall, and diaphragm that are stimulated by irritants, muscle stretching, and alveolar wall distortion
mechanical receptors
creaking or grating sound from roughened, inflamed surfaces of the pleura rubbing together, evident during inspiration, expiration, or both and no change with coughing; usually uncomfortable, especially on deep inspiration
pleural friction rub
continuous rumbling, snoring, or rattling sounds from obstruction of large airways with secretions; most prominent on expiration; change often evident after coughing or suctioning
rhonchi
a lipoprotein that lowers the surface tension in the alveoli
surfactant
volume of air exchanged with each breath
tidal volume
inspiration (movement of air into lungs) and expiration (movement of air out of the lungs)
ventilation
continuous high-pitched squeaking sound caused by rapid vibration of bronchial walls
wheeze
an inflammation of the lower respiratory tract that is usually due to infection
acute bronchitis
collapsed, airless alveoli
atelectasis
a disorder characterized by permanent, abnormal dilation of one or more large bronchi
bronchiectasis
lymphatic fluid in the pleural space due to a leak in the thoracic duct
chylothorax
a lower respiratory tract infection of the lung parenchyma with onset in the community or during the first two days of hospitalization
community-acquired pneumonia
a method of treating disease based on observations and experience without always knowing the exact cause
empiric treatment
accumulation of purulent exudate in the pleural cavity
empyema
diagnostic procedure that provides direct visualization of the bronchi and biopsy of tumors
fiberoptic bronchoscopy
instability of the chest wall resulting from multiple rib fractures
flail chest
accumulation of blood in the pleural space
hemothorax
pneumonia occurring 48 hours or longer after hospital admission and not incubating at the time of hospitalization
hospital-acquired pneumonia
surgical removal of one lobe of the lung
lobectomy
a pus-containing lesion of the lung parenchyma that results in a cavity formed by necrosis of lung tissue
lung abscess
a histologic type of lung tumor that includes squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and undifferentiated large cell tumors
nonsmall cell lung cancer
production of substances by lung tumor cells that alter hormonal, dermatologic, neuromuscular, vascular, hematologic, or connective tissue structure or function
paraneoplastic syndrome
methods of draining fluids or blood from the pleural space to restore normal intrapleural pressure
pleural drainage systems
a collection of fluid in the pleural space
pleural effusion
inflammation of the pleura
pleurisy (pleuritis)
a general term for lung diseases caused by inhalation and retention of dust particles
pneumoconiosis
surgical removal of an entire lung
pneumonectomy
an acute inflammation of the lung parenchyma usually caused by a microbial agent
pneumonia
a collection of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse
pneumothorax
an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the alveoli and interstitial spaces of the lungs
pulmonary edema
a thromboembolic occlusion of the pulmonary vasculature resulting from thrombi in the venous circulation or right side of the heart and from other sources, such as amniotic fluid, air, fat, bone marrow, and foreign IV material that travel as emboli until lodging in the pulmonary vessels
pulmonary emboli
elevated pulmonary pressure resulting from an increase in pulmonary vascular resistance to blood flow through small arteries and arterioles
pulmonary hypertension
a histologic type of lung cancer that is the most malignant and has the poorest prognosis
small cell lung cancer
a pneumothorax with rapid accumulation of air in the pleural space causing severely high intrapleural pressures with resultant tension on the heart and great vessels
tension pneumothorax
a procedure done to remove fluid from the pleural space
thoracentesis
surgical opening into the thoracic cavity
thoracotomy
an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis; usually involves the lungs, but also occurs in the larynx, kidneys, bones, adrenal glands, lymph nodes, and meninges and can be disseminated throughout the body
tuberculosis
a serum protein produced by the liver and normally found in the lungs that inhibits proteolytic enzymes of white cells from lysing lung tissue; genetic deficiency of this protein can cause emphysema
1-antitrypsin
alveolar collapse that occurs when high concentrations of oxygen are given and oxygen replaces nitrogen in the alveoli; if airway obstruction occurs, the oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream and the alveoli collapse
absorption atelectasis
a chronic inflammatory lung disease that results in airflow obstruction
asthma
type of emphysema often associated with chronic bronchitis in which respiratory bronchioles enlarge, the walls are destroyed, and the bronchioles become confluent
centrilobular emphysema
rhythmic percussion of a patient's chest with cupped hands to loosen retained respiratory secretions
chest percussion
a series of maneuvers including percussion, vibration, and postural drainage designed to promote clearance of excessive respiratory secretions
chest physiotherapy
obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by excessive production of mucus and chronic inflammatory changes in the bronchi
chronic bronchitis
pulmonary disease state characterized by the presence of airflow obstruction caused by chronic bronchitis or emphysema; clinical use of the term indicates the presence of chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
hypertrophy of the right side of the heart, with or without heart failure, resulting from pulmonary hypertension
cor pulmonale
an autosomal recessive, multisystem disease characterized by altered function of the exocrine glands involving primarily the lungs, pancreas, and sweat glands
cystic fibrosis
breathing with the use of the diaphragm to achieve maximum inhalation and slow respiratory rate
diaphragmatic breathing
dry powdered drug delivered by inhalation
dry powder inhaler
an abnormal permanent enlargement of the airspaces distal to the terminal bronchioles, accompanied by destruction of their walls and without obvious fibrosis
emphysema
high arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 <45 mm Hg); also called hypercarbia
hypercapnia
excessive or exaggerated response to a stimulus; in asthma, leads to bronchoconstriction in response to physical, chemical, or pharmacologic stimuli
hyperresponsiveness
low arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 <35 mm Hg); also called hypocarbia
hypocapnia
aerosolized drug delivered in a specific amount by activating the inhaler or by inhaling
metered-dose inhaler
normal arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 35-45 mm Hg)
normocapnia
a condition of oxygen overdosage caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of oxygen; may inactivate pulmonary surfactant and lead to development of acute respiratory distress syndrome
O2 toxicity
a condition characterized by inadequate production and secretion of pancreatic hormones or enzymes
pancreatic insufficiency
type of emphysema involving distention and destruction of the entire primary respiratory lobule; usually associated with a 1-antitrypsin deficiency
panlobular emphysema
the use of various positions to promote gravity drainage of bronchial secretions
postural drainage
a technique of exhaling against pursed lips to prolong exhalation, preventing bronchiolar collapse and air trapping
pursed-lip breathing
a severe, life-threatening asthma attack that is refractory to usual treatment and places the patient at risk for developing respiratory failure
status asthmaticus
in asthma, any stimuli that initiates the IgE-mast cell mediated response resulting in the pathophysiologic responses of asthma
trigger
pressing on the chest with the flat of the hands while repeatedly tensing the hand and arm muscles to facilitate movement of secretions to larger airways
vibration
a sudden and progressive form of acute respiratory failure in which the alveolar capillary membrane becomes damaged and more permeable to intravascular fluid
acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)
a generalized decrease in ventilation that results in an increase in PaCO2 and a consequent decrease in PaO2
alveolar hypoventilation
occurs when gas exchange across the alveolar-capillary membrane is compromised by a process that thickens or destroys the membrane
diffusion limitation
an increase in arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) caused by insufficient CO2 removal
hypercapnia
a condition in which the PaCO2 is above normal (greater than 45 mm Hg) in combination with acidemia (arterial pH less than 7.35); primary problem is insufficient CO2 removal
hypercapnic respiratory failure
a decrease in arterial O2 tension (PaO2) and a decrease in arterial O2 saturation (SaO2)
hypoxemia
a condition in which the PaO2 is 60 mm Hg or less when the patient is receiving an inspired O2 concentration of 60% or greater
hypoxemic respiratory failure
the state in which the Pa O2 has fallen sufficiently to cause signs and symptoms of inadequate oxygenation
hypoxia
Severe ventilation/perfusion mismatch and shunting of pulmonary capillary blood that result in hypoxemia unresponsive to increasing concentrations of O2
refractory hypoxemia
the process of blood exiting the heart without having participated in gas exchange
shunt
develops when the oxygen supply is prolonged and not immediately reversible; encompasses the spectrum of unstable angina, non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), and ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
acute coronary syndrome
chest pain due to myocardial ischemia occurring intermittently over a long period with the same pattern of onset, duration, and intensity of symptoms
angina pectoris
procedure to dilate atherosclerotic arteries by balloon compression or laser vaporization of atheromas
angioplasty
removal of an atherosclerotic plaque by shaving with a rotational blade
atherectomy
formation of focal deposits of cholesterol and lipids known as atheromas or plaque, primarily within the intimal wall of arteries, that obstruct circulation
atherosclerosis
shock occurring when either systolic or diastolic dysfunction of the myocardium results in compromised cardiac output
cardiogenic shock
development of arterial branching that occurs within the coronary circulation when occlusion of the coronary arteries occurs slowly over a long period
collateral circulation
an abnormal condition that may affect the heart's arteries and produce various pathologic effects, especially the reduced flow of oxygen and nutrients to the myocardium. The most common type is coronary atherosclerosis.
coronary artery disease
a complication of myocardial infarction that is characterized by pericarditis with effusion and fever that develops one to four weeks after myocardial infarction
Dressler syndrome
decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part
ischemia
a method used to determine the energy costs of various exercises; one MET is the amount of oxygen needed by the body at rest: 3.5 ml of oxygen per kilogram per minute or 1.4 cal/kg of body weight per minute
metabolic equivalent (MET)
irreversible cardiac cellular death caused by sustained myocardial ischemia
myocardial infarction
a common elective intervention for angina in which a catheter equipped with an inflatable balloon tip is inserted into a narrowed coronary artery and the balloon is inflated, compressing the atherosclerotic plaque and dilating the artery
percutaneous coronary intervention
local deposits of cholesterol and lipids in arterial walls
plaque
variant angina; occurs at rest, usually in response to spasm of a major coronary artery
Prinzmetal's angina
asymptomatic ischemia
silent ischemia
chest pain that develops when the lack of oxygen supply is temporary and reversible
stable angina
expandable mesh-like structures designed to maintain vessel patency by compressing the arterial walls and resisting vasoconstriction
stents
unexpected death from cardiac causes
sudden cardiac death
the use of fibrinolytic enzymes or thrombolytic agents to dissolve clots
thrombolytic therapy
angina that is new in onset, occurs at rest, or has a worsening pattern
unstable angina
a loss of intravascular fluid volume resulting from fluid loss from the body through hemorrhage, gastrointestinal (GI) loss (e.g., vomiting, diarrhea), fistula drainage, diabetes insipidus, or diuresis
absolute hypovolemia
an acute and life-threatening hypersensitivity (allergic) reaction to a sensitizing substance such as a drug, chemical, vaccine, food, or insect venom
anaphylactic shock
shock occurring when either systolic or diastolic dysfunction of the myocardium results in compromised cardiac output
cardiogenic shock
shock that is caused by a loss of intravascular fluid volume
hypovolemic shock
the failure of more than one organ system in an acutely ill patient such that homeostasis cannot be maintained without intervention
multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS)
neurologic syndrome due to the loss of vasomotor tone caused by spinal cord injury at the fifth thoracic (T5) vertebrae or above and characterized by hypotension, bradycardia, and warm, dry extremities
neurogenic shock
loss of intravascular fluid volume resulting from the movement of fluid out of the vascular space into extravascular space (e.g., interstitial or intracavitary space)
relative hypovolemia
a systemic inflammatory response to infection
sepsis
the presence of sepsis with hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation along with the presence of tissue perfusion abnormalities
septic shock
a syndrome characterized by decreased tissue perfusion and impaired cellular metabolism resulting in an imbalance between the supply of and demand for oxygen and nutrients
shock
a systemic inflammatory response to a variety of insults, including infection, ischemia, infarct, and injury characterized by inflammation in body organs not involved in the initial insult
systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)