Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

80 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is the period of ventricular contraction?
what valve is open during systole?
normally, maximal left ______ pressure corresponds to systolic pressure .
during systole, what valve is closed, preventing blood from regurgitating back into the atrium?
mitral (bicuspid)
what produces the first heart sound (S1)?
closure of the mitral valve
when does the mitral valve close?
when the left ventricle starts to contract and ventricular pressure rapidly exceeds left atrial pressure
what is the period of ventricular relaxation?
what valve is closed during diastole?
aortic & pulmonic
why is the aortic valve closed during diastole?
to prevent regurgitation of blood from the aorta back into the L ventricle
when does the aortic valve shut?
when L ventricular pressure drops below aortic pressure
what produces the second heart sound (S2)?
the aortic valve closure
what valve is open during diastole?
mitral and tricuspid
what term is used to describe an audible opening as a snap sound during when the mitral valve opens?
mitral stenosis
when might you hear a third heart sound (S3) after a mitral valve opens?
it may arise in children and young adults from rapid decelleration of the column of blood agaist the ventricular wall
although not often heard in adults, a fourth heart sound (S4) marks
atrial contraction
when is a fourth heart sound heard?
immediately preceding S1 of the next beat
what valves open during systole
Aortic & pulmonic
what valves open during diastole
mitral & tricuspid
what is an S3 sound due to if present?
rapid ventricular filling
what is an S4 sound due to?
atrial contraction "top off"
what ICS do you hear aortic valve sound @?
2nd ICS on R
what ICS do you hear pulmonic valve sound @?
2nd ICS on L
what ICS do you hear erb's point?
3rd ICS on L
what ICS do you hear tricuspid valve sounds?
4th and 5th ICS on L
what ICS do you hear mitral valve sound?
5th ICS @ midclavicular
how does one distinguish a heart murmer from a heart sound?
by their longer duration
what are heart murmurs attributed to?
turbulent blood flow
what can turbulence of blood flow be due to?
1)valve is open and narrow- stenotic
2)valve should be shut and leaks- regurgitation
a defective mitral valve that leaks when it is shut will create a sound on S1
if a person has aortic or pulmonic stenosis and squeeze occurs, and it is supposed to be open, you will hear a funny sound on ____?
if A/P valve is supposed to be shut and has a backward leak you get a murmur on...
when is aortic regurgitation heard?
on S2
M & T valves are supposed to be opened on S2, so if stenosis is there it will create a murmur on S2
what is a murmur in a blood vessel called?
a bruit
what is a bruit?
turbulence in a blood vessel
where you hear a murmur the loudest is indicative of where the problem is
aortic stenosis occurs when?
S1, systolic
aortic regurgitation occurs during
s2, diastolic
pulmonic stenosis during
pulmonic regurgitation
mitral stenosis
mitral regurgitation
what part of the stethoscope do you use for the mitral maneuver?
why place pt. on side during the mitral maneuver?
this brings out left sided S3 and S4 and mitral murmur (esp. stenosis)
during the mitral maneuver, pt breathes in & out
during aortic maneuver, pt. breathes in & out
F, exhale & hold
use bell for aortic maneuver
F, diaphragm
with aortic maneuver, auscultate APETTM areas
F, don't do A
what is the purpose of the aortic maneuver?
it brings out aortic murmurs
when would you hear a systolic murmur?
b/n S1 and S2
when would you hear a diastolic murmur?
b/n S2 and S1
when does a midsystolic murmur start?
after S1
when does a midsystolic murmur stop?
before s2
when does a pansystolic murmur start?
when does a pansystolic murmur stop?
@ s2
when does a late systolic murmur start?
in mid-late systole
when does a late systolic murmur stop?
persists up to S2
when does an early diastolic murmur start?
right after S2 w/o a gap
when does an early diastolic murmur stop?
usually fades into silence before the next S1
when does a middiastolic murmur stop?
may fade away or merge into a late diastolic murmur
when does a late diastolic murmur start?
late in diastole
when are thrills usually felt?
in murmurs 4 through 6
what are the 2 components of the 2nd heart sound?
A2 and P2
during what stage of breathing do A2 and P2 separate slightly and S2 splits into its 2 audible components?
in split heart sounds, what is delayed?
in split heart sounds, what comes slightly earlier?
what split heart sound is louder?
split heart sounds are also heard in S1
what S1 split heart sound is normally louder?
what S1 split sound is softer?
splitting of the first heart sound varies with respiration
F, it does not vary
a split S2 on inspiration and disappears on expiration is OK
any split S2 sound that doesn't disappear is a problemo
T (split sounds on expiration are pathological)
any split S1 is a problem
normally, a notch in the pulse is NOT palpable
name 3 things that cause a small, weak pulse
severe aortic stenosis
what is the aka for a lg. boundary pulse?
what 4 things can cause a lg. boundary pulse?
aortic regurgitation
what causes a bisferen's pulse?
combined aortic regurgiatation and stenosis.
what is pulses alternans indicative of?
L ventricular failure