• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/84

Click to flip

84 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
First step in wound healing
Clot formation
First cell type in healing wound
Platelet
Growth factors released by platelets
TGF-beta and PDGF
Phases of wound healing (in order)
Inflammatory, proliferative, remodeling
Most essential cell type for wound healing
Macrophage
Overproduction of this growth factor can result in fibrosis
TGF-beta
Growth factor proven to accelerate wound healing
PDGF
Growth factor involved in tumor metastasis
VEGF
Factors released by endothelium in response to tissue injury
PAF and TF
Primary effector cells in parasitic infections
Eosinophils
Released by mast cells
Histamine
Main source of histamine in the blood
Basophils
Histamine effects
Vasodilation, edema, and capillary leak
Increases cGMP resulting in vascular smooth muscle dilation
NO
Primary cytokines of inflammatory repsonse
TNF-alpha and IL-1
Largest producers of TNF-alpha and IL-1
Macrophages
Cytokine causing cachexia in cancer patients
TNF-alpha
Cytokine predominant in circulatory collapse and MSOF
TNF-alpha
Cytokine most responsible for fevers
IL-1
Cytokine which increases hepatic acute phase proteins
IL-6
Released by lymphocytes in response to viral infections
IFN
Mechanism of action of interferons
Inhibit viral replication
Two major proteins decreased during inflammation
Albumin and transferrin
Cytokine which has been used to treat cancer patients
IL-2
Cytokine which stimulates NK cells to release IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha
IL-12
Cytokine which stimulates IgA production
IL-5
Cytokine which stimulates neutrophil chemotaxis
IL-8
Receptors involved in rolling adhesion of leukocytes
Selectins (L - leukocyte; E - endothelial; P - platelets)
Receptors on leukocytes and platelets involved in tight adhesions and migration
Integrins
Ligands on endothelial cells involved in tight adhesions and migration
CAMs
The classic complement pathway is activated by . . .
Antigen-antibody complexes (IgG/IgM)
The alternative complement pathway is activated by . . .
Endotoxin or bacteria
The convergence point for both complement pathways . . .
C3
Essential element for the complement pathways . . .
Mg
Anaphylatoxins . . .
C3a, C4a, C5a
Membrane attack complex . . .
C5b-9b
Opsonization . . .
C3b
Chemotactic complement factors . . .
C3a and C5a
PGs which cause bronchodilation . . .
PGI2 and PGE2
PG which causes bronchoconstriction . . .
PGD2
Mechanism of anticoagulation by aspirin . . .
Decreases TXA2 inhibiting platelet adhesion (irreversible COX inhibition)
Mechanism by which steroids decrease inflammation . . .
Inhibition of phospholipase
Effect of leukotrienes on bronchioles and blood vessels . . .
Bronchoconstriction, vasoconstriction and increased permeability (wheal and flare)
Timing of peak catecholamines after injury . . .
24-48 hours
Primary cellular mediator of reperfusion injury . . .
PMNs
Chemokine receptor type . . .
G-protein-linked
Rate of epithelialization of a wound . . .
1-2 mm/day
Timing of proliferative phase . . .
5 days to 3 weeks
Rate of peripheral nerve regeneration . . .
1 mm/day
Primary type of collagen in early wound healing . . .
Type III
Primary collagen type in the healed wound . . .
Type I
Role of type IV collagen . . .
Basement membrane
Collagen type in cartilage . . .
Type II
Time at which wound reaches 80% of its final strength . . .
6 weeks
Time at which wound reached 80% of its original strength . . .
8 weeks (maximum tensile strength)
Time at which maximum collagen accumulation occurs . . .
2-3 weeks
Mechanism by which a healing wound regains its strength . . .
Collagen crosslinking (remodeling phase)
Medication which inhibits collagen crosslinking . . .
Penicillamine
Last cell type in a healing wound . . .
Fibroblasts
Two main components of the platelet plug . . .
Platelets and fibrin
Three main components of the provisional matrix (before collagen deposition) . . .
1. Platelets
2. Fibrin
3. Fibronectin
Four components of platelet alpha granules . . .
1. Platelet factor 4
2. Beta-thrombomodulin
3. PDGF
4. TGF-beta
Three components of platelet dense granules . . .
1. Adenosine
2. Serotonin
3. Calcium
Three platelet aggregation factors . . .
1. TXA2
2. Thrombin
3. Platelet factor 4
Prostaglandin which induces vasoconstriction . . .
PGF2
Most important factors in healing by primary and secondary intention respectively . . .
Tensile strength and epithelial integrity
Tensile strength is determined by . . .
Collagen deposition and crosslinking
Epithelial cells migrate from these three locations in a healing wound . . .
1. Wound edges
2. Hair follicles
3. Sweat glands
Strength layer of the bowel . . .
Submucosa
Most likely timing of an anastomotic leak . . .
Day 3-5
Cell type involved in wound contraction . . .
Myofibroblasts
Four elements required for hydroxylation and crosslinking of proline . . .
1. Vitamin C
2. Alpha-ketoglutarate
3. Fe
4. Oxygen
Two amino acids abundant in collagen . . .
Proline and lysine
Bacterial count which impedes wound healing . . .
>100,000/cm2
Medication administered to counteract steroidal effects on wound healing . . .
Vitamin A (25,000 IU daily)
Defect in osteogenesis imperfecta . . .
Type I collagen
Defect in Marfan's syndrome . . .
Fibrillin defect
Cause and typical location of Charcot's joint . . .
Diabetes/ 2nd MTP joint
Predominant cause and treatment of leg ulcers . . .
Venous insufficiency/ Unna boot (zinc oxide)
Effect of denervation on wound healing . . .
None
Time after which chemotherapy no longer affects wound healing . . .
14 days
Four treatments for keloids . . .
1. XRT
2. Steroids
3. Silicone
4. Pressure garments
Typical location of hypertrophic scar tissue . . .
Flexor surfaces of upper torso
Characteristic of collagen in keloids . . .
Extends beyond the original scar