Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

116 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
cultural relativity theory
behaviors deemed normal in one culture may be considered abnormal in another. Concepts of health and illness may also have different meanings in different cultures. Abnormal behavior patterns may also take different forms in different cultures, and societal views or models explaining abnormal behavior also vary across cultures
explains abnormal behavior in terms of supernatural forces
a Greek physician who attended Roman emperor-philosopher Marcus Aurelius, adopted and expanded on the teachings of Hippocrates. Discovered that arteries carry blood and not air.
a ritual intended to expel demons from a person believed to be possessed
Phillipe Pinel
modern treatment called Moral Therapy (humane treatment and relaxed decent environment could restore functioning.)
18 19 centuries argued that people who behave abnormally suffer from diseases and should be treated humanely. Directer of the incurables ward at La Bicetre
Benjamin Rush
physician, Father of American psychiatry, penned the first American textbook on pschiatry in 1812. Believed in blood letting/purging/ice-cold baths/encouraged humane treatment/first hospital to admit patients for psychological disorders.signatory on Declaration of Independence
naturalistic observation
a research method in which subjects' behavior is observed and measured in their natural environments
case study method
a carefully drawn biography based on clinical interviews, observations, and psychological tests.
experimental method
a scientific method that aims to discover cause-and-effect relationships by manibulating independent variables and observing the effects on the dependent variables
correlational research
tests the statistical relationship or association between variables, does not prove that they are casually related though.
independent variable
factors that are manipulated in experiments
dependent variable
variable that is observed or measured to see if the independent variable (which is manipulated) had an effect and what that was
single-blind study
subjects are randomly assigned to treatment conditions in which they receive an active drug or placebo buty they are uninformed about which they are recieving
double-blind study
neither the researcher or subjectt is told whether an active drug or placebo is being used...most popular experimental study
challenged the prevailing beliefs of his time by arguing that illnesses of the body and mind were the result of natural causes, not possession by supernatural spirits. He believed the health of the body and mind depended on the balance of HUMORS (vital body fluids) phlegm (lethargic), black bile (melancholia), blood (sanguine), and yellow bile (choleric)
Experimental group
subjects who receive the treatment
control group
subjects who do not receive the treatment
placebo effect
latin "I shall please" belief in the effectiveness of a treatment whether or not they are actually receiving the treatment...can cause the subject to mobilize themselves to overcome their ailment by themselves.
psychodynamic perspective on abnormal behavior
theory that psychological problems such as hysteria are derived from unconscious psychological conflicts that can be traced to childhood. Freudian
psychic structure at birth, our base drives, instincts, impulses, operates unconsciously, follows Pleasure Principle = instant gratification without cosideration of consequences or concerns with social acceptance or needs of others Also follows
Primary process thinking =relates to the world through imagination and fantasy...gratification through mental conjuring of object
develops during this first year to organize reasonable ways of coping with frustration. Stands for reason on good sense, seeks to curb the id to conform w/ social expectations. Goverened by reality principle=pratical responsible thinking
secondary process thinking - remembering/planning/weighing of circumstances that permit a compromise between the fantasies of the id and realities of the world outside
develops during middle childhood moral standards and values of parents and key people become interanlized or identified w/
operates on the moral principle - demands strict adherence to moral standards
represents the ego ideal
defense mechanisms
reality-distorting strategies used by the ego to shield the self from awareness of anxiety-provoking materials
defense mechanism

ejection of anxiety-evoking ideas from awareness

ie forgetting about a term paper
defense mechanism

return, under stress, to a form of behavior characteristic of an earlier stage of development

ie cries when doesn't get way even though older and shouldn't
defense mechanism

use of self-deceiving justifications for unacceptable behavior

ie student blames cheating on teacher leaving the room
defense mechanism

transfer of ideas and impulses from threatening or unsuitable objects onto less threatening objects

ieworker picks fight w/ spouse after getting yelled at at work
defense mechanism

thrusting of one's own unacceptable impulses onto others so that others are assumed to harbor them

iehostile person perceives the world as being a dangerous place
defense mechanism

reaction formation
assumption of behavior in opposition to one's genuine impulses in order to keep impulses repressed

ie person who is angry acts especially nice on purpose
defense mechanism

refusal to accept the true nature of a threat

ie belief that one will not contract cancer or heart disease although one somkes heavily "it can't happen to me"
defense mechanism

channeling of primitive impulses into positive, constructive efforts

ieperson paints nudes as art
person competes in sports who is agressive
psychosexual stages

infancy in which pleasure is sough primarily through oral activities
breastfeeding, mouthing everything
later can lead to habitual formation
psychosexual stages

child learns can use sphincter
potty training
do it myself
psychosexual stages

phallic stage
third year of life
oedipus complex
electra complex

resolves around 5 or 6
psychosexual stages

genital stage
sexual expression
Carl Jung's analytical psychology
theory emphasizes the collective (group) unconscious archetypes and the self as the unifying force of personality
object relations theory
psychodynamic viewpoint that focuses on the influences of internalized representations of the personalities of parents and other strong attachemnt figures called objects
learning (behavioral) perspectives on abnormal behavior
abnormal behavior is learned or acquired
inappropriate, maladaptive behaviors
operant conditioning, selective conditioning
cognitive perspectives on abnormal behaviors
the thoughts, beliefs, expectations and attitudes are what cause abnormal behavior
Albert Ellis
cognitive theorist
feelings about events that cause abnormal behavior
ABC approach
a = activating event > b = belief about event > c = consequences

can lead people to catastrophize=exaggerate the negative consequences of events

rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT) helps people dispute these irrational beliefs
Aaron Beck
cognitive theorist
believes in cognitive errors contribute to emotional distress
1 selective abstraction - focus exclusively on experiences the reflect on their flaws and ignore their good side

2 overgeneralization - of a few isolated events

3 magnification - blow events out of proportion (catastrophize)

4 absolutist thinking - seeing world in black and white rather than shades of gray
Humanistic-existential perspectives on abnormal behavior
see people as actors in the drama of life...not reactors to instinctual or environmental pressures. Focuses on the importance of conscious experience and self-direction...inborn tendency toward self all that you can be
conditional postive regard
valuing other people on the basis of their actions
conditons of worth
standards by which one judges the worth or value of oneself or others
Carl Rogers
self discovery

client centered therapy
Abraham Maslow

biological perspective for abnormal behavior
disturbaqnces in neurotransmitter functioning in the brain, heredity, and underlying brain abnormalities
nerve cells that communicate messages has soma,dendrite, axon, and terminals
central nervous system
hindbrain...back of head where spinal cord comes in
peripheral nervous system
somatic and autonomic
connects to outer world
somatic=messages about sights, sounds, smells, temperature, body position etc
autonomic= regulates involuntary activities ie breathing
regulates body temperature, concentration of fluids, storage of nutrients, motivation and energy part of limbic system plays a role in basal drives
chemicals that induce changes to the axon and cause electrical impulses
control of muscle contractions and formation of mermories (alzheimers)
muscle contractions,learning, memory, and emotions

learning and memory

mood, satifaction, sleep

depression and eating disorders
amino acids (hormones) released by neurons to effect
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th edition w/ text revision
demand made that causes change by adapting or adjusting
the stimuli that is the cause of stress
adjustment disorders
a maladaptive reaction to an identified stressor, which is characterized by impaired functioning or signs of emotional distress that exceed what would normally be expected.
adj disorder w/ depressed mood
sadness, crying, and feelings of hopelessness
adj disorder w/ anxiety
worrying, nervousness and jitters
adj disorder w/ mixed anxiety & depression
combination of anxiety and depression
adj disorder w/ disturbance of conduct
violation of the rights of others or violation of social norms appropriate for one's age. Sample behaviors include vandalism, truancy, fighting, reckless driving, and defaulting on legal obligations.
adj disorder w/ mixed disturbance of emotions and conduct
emotional such as depression and anxiety as well as conduct disturbance
adj disroder unspecified
a residual category that applies to cases not classifiable in one of the other subtypes
autonomic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that regulates the activities of the glands and involuntary functions
fight or flight response
inborn tendency to respond to a threat by either fighting or fleeing
Selye's general adaption system
alarm reaction-mobilizes body for defense (fight/flight)
resistance or adaption stage - body tries to renew spent energy and repair damage
exhaustion stage-parasympathetic takes over and causes heartrate and breathing to decrease but if the stress and stressor are still there this is bad and Seyle calls it the disease of adaptiong
Chronic stress can cause physical health problems
endocrine system
secretes hormones directly into bloodstream
uses hypothalamus,pituitary, thyroid,adrenal glands, kidneys, pancreas, ovaries, and testes
hormone secreted by adrenal gland
secreted in response to stress and causes breakdown of atp and lipids etc.
boost resitance to stress, foster muscle development, induce liver to release sugar, energy burst, help body defend against allergic reactions
self-efficacy expectations
is the belief that one has the capabilities to execute the courses of actions required to manage prospective situations
psychological hardiness
a cluster of stress-buffering traits characterized by commitment, challenge, and control
psychosomatic disorders
physical disorder in which psychological factors play a causal or contributing role
type A personality
Free-Floating Hostility
1. Insatiable desire to achieve their goals
2. Strong willingness to compete in all situations
3. Strong desire for recognition and advancement
4. Desire to multitask under time constraints
5. Always in a rush to finish activities
6. Above average mental and physical alertness
type B personality
* Relaxed
* Likelier than a Type A personality to be patient
* Creative and imaginative
* Inclined to self-analyze
type C personality
more detail oriented, sensitive, quiet,pessimistic, negative, prone to cancer
theory of specificity
ability to diagnostically avoid classifying people as having a characteristic or disorder when they truly do not have the characteristic or disorder
theory of generality
unable to be specific in diagnosis
the study of relationships between psychological factors and immunological functioning
behavioral medicine
concerned with the development and integration of psychosocial, behavioral and biomedical knowledge relevant to health and illness. The term is often used interchangeably with psychiatry but practitioners come from both physical and psychological medicine.
anxiety disorders
a generalized sense of apprehension or fear, is normal and desirable under some conditions, but it can become abnormal when it is excessive or inappropriate. Disturbed patterns of behavior in which anxiety is the most prominent feature are labeled anxiety disorders
panic disorder
occurrence of repeated panic attacks, which are episodes of sheer terror accompanied by strong physiological symptoms, thoughts of imminent danger or impending doom, and an urge to escape
-fears of recurring attacks may prompt avoidance of situations in which they occur or settings in which help might not be available
-panic attacks begin unexpectedly but may become associated with certain cues or specific situations
genearlized anxiety disorder
persistent anxiety that is not limited to particular situations
-excessive worrying is the keynote feature
-associated with heightened states of bodily arousal, tenseness, being "on edge"
phobic disorder
excessive fears of particular objects or situations
-carries a strong avoidance component in which the individual seeks to avoid contact with the phobic stimulus or situation
-subtypes include specific phobia, (acrophobia, claustrophobia, fear of insects or snakes), social phobia, and agoraphobia
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
recurrent obsessions and/or compulsions
checking rituals, cleaning rituals, obsessions may be relieved by performing rituals
traumatic stress disorders
acute maladaptive reaction in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic event or prolonged maladaptive reaction to a traumatic event
-reexperiencing the traumatic even, avoidance of cues or stimuli associated with the trauma, general or emotional numbing, hyperarousal, emotianl distress, and impaired functioning
-vulnerability depends on such factors as severity of the trauma, degree of exposure, coping styles, and availability of social support
anxiety disorders perspectives

attempts by the ego to control the concious emergence of threatening impulses...feelings of anxiety are warning signals that threatening impulses are nearing awareness..the ego mobilizes defense mechanisms to divert the impulses, thus leading to different anxiety disorders
anxiety disorders perspectives

conditioning and observational learning...self-efficacy, some tendencies may be predisposed such as for survival value
anxiety disorders perspectives

overpredictions of fear, self-defeating or irrational beliefs, oversensitivity to threatening cues and signs of anxiety, low self-efficacy, and mmisattributions of bodily cues
anxiety disorder treatments
psychodynamic-focuses on current disturbed relationships in clint's life and encourage the client to develop more adaptive behavior patterns
behavioral-exposure therapy, cognitive restructuring, exposure and response prevention, and relaxation skills training
cognitive-rationalemotive behavior therapy and cognitivie therapy, help people identifiy and correct faulty thinking patterns that may underlie anxiety reactions
dissociative disorders
involve changes or disturbances in identity, memory, or consciousness that affect the ability to maintain an integrated sense of self. Symptoms are psychological instead of organic
dissociative identity disorder
two or more distinct personalities, each possessing welldefined traits and memories, exist within the person and repeatedly take control of the person's behavior
dissociative amnesia
in dissociative amnesia, the person experiences a loss of memory for personal information that cannot be accounted for by organic causes
dissociative fugue
the person travels suddenly away from home or place of work, shows a loss ofmemory for his orher personal past, and experiences identity confusion or takes on a new identity
depersonalization disorder
person experiences persistent or recurrent episodes of depersonalization of sufficient severity to cause significan distress or impairment in functioning
theoretical perspectives on dissociative disorder
pyschodynamic-a form of psychological defense by which the ego defends itself against troubling memories and unacceptable impulses by blotting them out of conciousness. Link between early childhood trauma.
Behavioral-Cognitive-ways of learing not to think about certain troubling behaviors or thoughts that might lead to feelings of guilt or shame. Relief from anxiety negatively reinforces this pattern of dissociation.
somatoform disorders
there are physical complaints that cannot be accounted for by organic causes. the symptoms are theorized to reflect psychological rather than organic factors
Conversion disorder
symptoms or deficits in voluntary motor or sensory functions occur that suggest an underlying physical disorder, but no apparent medical basis for the condition can be found to account for the condition
somatization disorder
involves multiple and recurrent complaints of physical symptoms that have persisted for many years and that cannot be accounted for by organic causes
la belle indifference
a french ecpression describing the lack of concern over one's symptoms displayed by some people with conversion disorder
preoccupation or fear that one's physical symptoms are due to an underlying serious illness
they do not consciously fake their physical symptoms
equally common in both men and women
theoretical perspectives on somatoform disorders
psychodynamic-the physical symptoms are because of underlying unconscious stress
learning-the benefits of adopting a sick role for the attention
cognitive-cognitive distortions and self-handicapping strategies
primary gains
displacemnt of psychological conflict to relieve stress psychological benefit
secondary gains
whatever primary gain gives you...attention etc.
treatment for somatoform disorders
psychodynamic-attempt to uncover and bring to the level of awaremenss the unconscious conflicts originating in childhood, believed to be at the root of the problem
Behavioral-remiving underlying sources of reinforcement that may be maintaining the abnormal behavior pattern. learn to handle stressful or anxiety -arousing situatuions more effectiviely.
axis 1
clinical disorders

patternes of abnormal behavior that impair functioning and are stressful to the individual
and other factors...suchas social
axis 2
Personality Disorders & Mental Retardation
Personailtiy disordersinvolve excessively rigid, enduring, and maladaptive ways of relating to others and adjusting to external demands. Mental retardating involves a delay or impairment in the development of intellectual and adaptive abilities
axis 3
general Mediacl conditions

chronic and acute illnesses and medical conditions that are important to the understanding or treatment of the psychological disorder or that play a direct role in causing the psychological disorder
axis 4
psychosocial and environmental problems

problems in the social or physical environment that affect the diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of psychological disorders
axis 5
GAF Global Assessment of functioning

overalljudgment of current functioning with respect to psychological, social, and occupational functioning; the clinician may also rate the highest level of functioning occurring for at least a few months during the past year
content-degree to which the content of a test covers a representative sample of the content it is designed to measure
face validity-the degree to which the content of a test bears an apparent relationship to the constructs it is designed to measure
criterion validity-the degree to which a test correlates with an independent external criterion or standard
concurrent valitidy-a type of test validity based on the statistical relaitonship between the test and a criterion measure taken at the same time
false positive-diagnossed as having a disorder when they really don't
false negative-diagnossed as not having a disorder when they really do
internal consistency - cohesiveness or interrelationships of items on a test or scales

temporal stability - the consistency of test responses over time, as measured by

test-retest reliablity - a method of measuring the reliability of a test by means of comparing the scores of the same subjects on different occasions

interrater reliablity - consistency of or agreement between raters
medical model
It aims to find medical treatments for diagnosed symptoms and syndromes and treats the human body as a very complex mechanism.

The medical model drives research and theorizing about physical or psychological difficulties on a basis of causation and remediation.