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104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
when children have problems paying attention, controlling impulses, organizing behavior, accomplishing goals.
Combined Type ADHD
most common form, defined by the presence of 6+ symptoms of inattention and 6+ symptoms of hyperactive impulsivity;
predominantly inattentive type ADHD
6+ symptoms of inattention, less than 6 hyperactive impulsive symptoms; sluggish cognnitive tempo could also be a problem -- the child may be daydreamy, drowsy, slow at processing info., slow at retrieving info.,
predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type ADHD
6+ symptoms of hyperactivity impulsivity, less than 6 inattention symptoms
other problems assosciated with ADHD
-doing poorly in school
-learning disabilities
- poor relationships with other children: can be violent, controlling, disorganized, irritable, demanding
-conduct disorder
conduct disorder
children grossly violate the norms of appropriate behavior towards others; the person may be violent and/or uncaring; can persist into adulthood; b/t 45-60% of children with ADHD develop a conduct disorder
epidemeology of ADHD
popular diagnosis; seen as an epidemic; not as common as people think it is; 1-7% of kids develop it; boys are 3x more likely than girls to develop it; boys w/ the disorder are more disruptive than girls; found across most cultures;
long-term effects of ADHD
varies w/ people; for 3/4, these symptoms persist into young adulthood; adults who were diagnosed at are at higher risk of having antisocial personality or substance abuse problems, mood and anxiety disorders, depression, etc.; many people however grow out of and end up leading normal lives.
biological contributors to ADHD
-was once called "mild brain damage"
-frontal lobes, caudate nucleues of basal ganglia, pathways b/t are part of ADHD
-slower neurological development is another possible culprit
-dopamine plays an important role
-prenatal or birth complications may play a role
-nutrition is an unfounded theory, however removing foods that a person s allergic to can reduce ADHD symptoms
psych. and social contributors to ADHD
-children with ADHD are more likely to be in families where there are disturbances
treatments of ADHD
- most common treatments are stimulants: ex. Adderall, Ritalin, Dexedrine - decrease bad behavior by increasing dopamine, which in increases inhibitions
- side effects: less appetite, insomnia, gastrointestinal upset, and tics
- use has increased heavily in recent years
- a lot of people who take it dont need it, while a lot of people who need it arent on it
- antidepressants are also sometimes perscibed to enhance congnitive performance (ex.: Bupropion)
- for long term improvement, patients need behavioral therapy along with the medication
- also, psychosocial therapy and meds. provide long term effects
pervasive developmental disorders
severe and lasting impairment in several areas of development(social, communication, everyday behavior, interest in activities)
disorder where children have deficits in communication, interests in activities, social interactions, motor development, etc.; mild levels of retardation are also common
diagnosis of autism
includes 3 main deficits: social interaction, communication, and interests

social: display problems from infancy; do not make eye contact w/ or pay much attention to family or caregivers, dont understand or react to emotions, do not like the play with other kids

communication: 1/2 do not develop "useful speech"; echolalia is common, jumbling words, not using expression correctly in voice

interests: not interests in "symbolic play"; repetition in play; do not like changes in routine; self-stimulatory behaviors (ex. banging head against wall, flapping arms)

intellectual impairments are common

usually onset before age 3

savants- highely intellegent cases

predictor of future outcome is usually IQ and language

prevalence has increased in recent years
Rett's Disorder
childhood disintegrative disorder
children appear to develop normally for a while and then suddenly show loss in basic skills, social interaction, movement, etc.
Asperger's disorder
similar to autism; differs in the fact that there are no serious delays or deviance in language and children seem normal in early years of life; also different in the way that they show normal interests in life and have normal cognitive skills and intellegence; have difficulty in relationships; enjoy memorizing things; "little professor syndrome"; proper in speech;
autism - deficits in theories of mind
autisic people have deficits in theory of mind, meaning they they do not understand that people have mental states and that they need to use this to interact and communicate with others; they are better at understanding the concrete
biological facts of autism
genetics play a role in gettin the disorder; abberations in chromosomes are another factor -- long arm of choromosome 15 and sex chromosomes are the most common; neurological factors also play a role, considering many autistic people suffer from seizures; structural deficits and abnormalities in the brain are also a problem (larger heads, less activity in frontal and temporal cortex); prenatal and birth complcations;
treatments for autism
SSRIs help to reduce repetitive behavior and agression, improve social behavior;
antipsychotics help to reduce obsessive and repetitive behavior and icrease self control;
stimulants improve attention

psychosocial therapies combined with behavioral techniques and education are helpful; operatoin condition reduces the repetitive behavior;
occurs later in life; prevalence increases with age; very common over age 85; the most common cognitive disorder
symptoms of dementia
memory deficit: required for diagnosis; memory lapses; memory does not return later or respond to clues

deterioration of language: aka aphasia; unable to come up with words for things, people's names, etc.; in later stage, they may exhibit echolalia or palalia

apraxia: impairment in ability to execute common actions (ex. waving);

agnosia: failure to reconize objects or people;

loss of executive functions: loss in ability to plan, initiate, monitor, stop comples behavior; problems interpretting abstract meanings (ex.: proverbs);

they also may show changes in personality and functioning;
Alzheimer's Disease
accounts for over 50% of all dementia; begins with mild memory loss and gets much worse as the disease progresses; disorientation and memory loss are profound; patients may also show psychiatric symptoms; usually occurs after age 65; people usually die w/in 8-10 yrs;
brain abnormalities with alzheimer's disease
nuerofibrillary tangles: filaments within nerve cells of the brain that are twisted or tangled; they interfere with basic functioning;

plaques: deposits of amyloid protien that accumulate on brain structures critical to memory;

there is cell death in the brain; this causes shrinkage to the cortex and enlargement of ventricles;
causes of alzheimer's disease
it is possible that certain genes may transmit vulnerability to this disorder due to amyloid proteins

it is thought the genetic

it has been attributed to aluminum, viral infection, immune system dysfunction, folate deficiences and head trauma

genes are a link: chromosome 19 (for late onset) responsible for ApoE4 which deals with amyloid protien;

people with down syndome are also more likely to develop it -- chromosome 21 link

chromosome 14 has also been thought to be a part of it: may deal with about 80% of alzheimer's cases; (S182)

deficits in nuerotransmitters are also an issue (ex. norepenepherine, serotonin, acetyleoline, matostatin, peptide Y)
treatments for dementia
cholinesterase inhibitors (Aricept, Exelon, Reminyl) help prevent breakdown of neurotransmitter acetylcholine and help improve symptoms of dementia; side effects include nausea, diaherrea, and anorexia

memantine: (namenda) regulates neurotransmitter glutamate

antioxidants may also help to slow cognitive decline

antidepressants and antianxiety drugs help to treat other related problems

behavior therapy helps to curb instability
gender and cultural roles in dementia
women are more likely to have it and to decline more(possible confounding of longer lifespan)

african americans are more likely to have it then euro. americans, but mainly in the case of vascular dementia; euro. americans are more likely to have parkinsons or alzheimer's related dementia

people with low levels of education are more likely to be diagnosed with dementia
disorientation, recent memory loss, clouding of consciousness
difficulty focusing, maintaining attention; become worse at night (sundowning); onset usually follows a certain pattern; often is the result of an underlying medical problem; if left untreated, can produce permanent problems in functioning
causes of delerium
usually brought about by another problem, especially dementia; most common psychiatric symptom found in the hospital;

more at risk: males, older people, brain damage, african americans,
treatments for delerium
must be recognized and treated fast; if there is underlying condition, it should be treated first; restraint and constant care is sometimes necessary
sexual dysfunctions
disorders in which people have trouble engaging in and enjoying sexual relationships with other people;
sexual desire
urge to engage in any type of sexual activity
arousal phase
excitement phase; consists of psychological experience of arousal and pleasure and physiological changes known as vasocongestion and myotonia
filling of blood vessels and tissue with blood; known as engorgement;
muscle tension that prepares the body for orgasm
plateau phase
excitement remains at a high but stable level; person may feel tense all over, saliva increases, skin is flushed; nostrils flare, heart pounds, breathing is heavy, person may be oblivious to external events
following orgasm; muscles relax
hypoactive sexual desire disorder
little desire for sex; do not fantasize about sex or initiate sexual activity; causes marked distress and interpersonal difficulty; usually the person once enjoyed sex and now has lost interest;
generalized sexual anxiety disorder
the person has little sexual desire for most of their life
situational sexual desire disorder
the person does not want to have sex with their partner, but may want to have sex with other people or think about it
sexual aversion disorder
actively avoiding sexual activity; when they do engage in it, they feel sick or experience serious anxiety; in women it is often tied to past sexual assault;
sexual arousal disorders
people do not experience the physiological feelings that concern sexual response
female sexual arousal disorder
recurrent inability to attain or maintain swelling and lubrication and excitement; common
male erectile disorder
recurrent inability to attain or maintain an erection until the completion of sexual activity (impotence); occasional problems with erections are common
female orgasmic disorder (annorgasma)
recurrent delay in the completion or the absence of an orgasm;
premature ejaculation
men who persistantly ejaculate with minimal sexual stimulation; must cause significant distress in order to actually be called a dysfunction; nothing really works to prevent the problem
male orgasmic disorder
recurrent delay or absence of orgasm; usually the man cannot ejaculate during intercourse, but can with oral or manual stimulation
genital pain associated with intercourse
occurs in women when the involuntary contraction of the vagina during intercourse when any sort of penetration occurs; can still have clitoral orgasms
biological causes of sexual dysfunctions
medical conditions (diabetes, etc.), can also be a psychological response to disease; abnormal levels of hormones can also be a cause; treatments and medicine can also play a role; drugs can play a role (substance-induced sexual dysfunction);
psychological causes of sexual dysfunction
can be caused by depression, as well as medicines to treat it; OCD can also be a cause; people who have been taught that sex is bad also may experience problems; performance anxiety; spectatoring; early experiences with sexuality;
interpersonal and sociocultural factors of sexual dysfunction
relationship problems, trauma, cultural differences;
biological treatments for sexual dysfunction
stopping the use of recreational drugs; treating the underlying condition; adjusting medication dosage; meds are available to treat erectile problems; replacing an SSRI with an equivalant drug can help ease the problem; certain antidepressants can aide in premature ejaculation; hormone therapy; lubricants can also be used for women
psychotherapy for sexual dysfunction
practicing safe sex, couples therapy, sensate focus therapy
sensate focus therapy
partners focus on stimulating eachother to explore ways of getting pleasure; intercourse and orgasm are not a concern;
engage in atypical sex behavior;
nonhuman objects
nonconsenting adults
suffering of the humiliation of the person or their partner
use of objects as a source of sexual arousal
cross-dressing; heterosexual men get pleasure from dressing as women to become aroused
sexual sadism
person gets pleasure from hurting or humiliating their partner
sexual masochism
person is aroused by suffering pain or humiliation during sex
a mixture of sexual sadism and masochism
rituals of sadism and masochism
restriction, administration of pain, hypermasculinity, humiliation

men are more likely to enjoy it
secretly watching another person undress, bathe, doing something nude, engaging in sex, etc. for pleasure; must be repetitive for over 6 months; the person being observed must be inaware;
person gets pleasure by exposing themselves to others; usually it is a man who bares all to surprised women; his arousal comes from seeing their reaction;
can cocur with voyuerism and exhibitionism; person gains gratification by rubbing up against and fondling people who do not consent;
people who are sexually attracted to kids and would rather be with them than with adults; usually kids under 13; usually it is heterosexual men abusing young girls or homosexuals abusing boys; rare for women to have it;
causes of paraphilias
90% of people with paraphilias are men; there is no biological cause; classical conditioning from a young age; environment has a lot to do with it; may have been emotionally or sexually abused; distortions about behavior
treatments for paraphilias
people with them usually do not seek treatment; incarceration usually wont change the behavior; surgeries have worked somewhat but are contraversial; sex offenders may be offered antiadrogen drugs to stop testosterone production and reducing sex drive; SSRIs are also used;
aversion therapy
group therapy
cognitive therapy
gender identity
the sex a person percieves themself as
gender role
person belief about how he or she should behave accroding to their sex
sexual orientation
a person's preference for the sex of their sex partner
Gender Identity Disorder(GID)
when someone believes that they were born the wrong sex and should be the opposite sex;

is rare but can start in childhood--gender indentity disorder of childhood
people dress as the opposite sex to feel better and be the gender they think they were supposed to be; sexual orientation varies
contributors to GID
could be due to effects of prenatal hormones on brain development

could be cluster of cells at hypothalamus -- too small

could be role of parents
treatments for gender disorder
therapy can help people clarify gender roles and identities, do not try to "cure" the person

sexual reassignment is also an alternative
m'naughten rule
1843 - insanity defense originated from this ruling
durham rule
most inclusive rule, involving mental disease or defect
ALI standard
knowledge of right and wrong, self control, diminished capacity
insanity defense reform act
1984, as a result of mental illness or retardation, unable to appreciate the wrongness of something
guilty but mentally ill (GBMI)
calls for both treatment and punishment
psychologists as expert witnesses
advise the court reguarding dianosis, identify malingering, evaluate dangerousness, assist in determining competency
criteria for civil committment
show the person is danger to themselves and others, inability to care for self, that they are mentally ill
civil commitment process
person fails to seek help, but others know that it is needed
petition on behalf of someone is made to a judge

person and question must be notified of the process

involve normal legal proceedings

judge determines whether to commit

severe thought a behavior disturbances

must prove that it is not synonymous with a psych disorder

substance and abuse and mental retardation usually do not count

assessing danger by a psych.
patient's rights
right to treatment

right to least restrictive alternative

right to refuse treatment-usually involving drug treatment
clinician's duty to clients and society
provide competent and appropriate treatment

not to become involved in multiple relationships with clients

protect confidentiality

protect those who may be in danger b/c of client

report abuse

provide ethical service to culturally diverse populations
substance related disorder
when someone uses a substance to change their moods, thoughts, etc. this use leads to problems with fuctioning in daily life;
criteria of substance related disorder
substance intoxication
substance withdrawal
substance abuse
substance dependence
5 categories of substances
CNS depressants: alcohol, benzodiazeprines, barbituates, inhalents

CNS stimulants: cocaine, amphetimine, nicotine, caffine

opiods: herione and morphine

hallucinagins and PCP

substance intoixication
behavioral and phys. changes that occur as a result of effects of the substance on the CNS
substance withdrawal
phys. and behavioral symptoms that result from people using substances heavily for along time stopping or reducing use

usually opposite of the symptoms of intoxication
substance abuse
when a person continues to use a substance despite harmful consequences

failing to fulfill important obligations

person repeatedly uses the substances in situations where it is harmful to do so

legal problems as a result of substance abuse

continues to use substance although it has caused constant problems
substance dependence
drug addiction; person is physiologically dependent; tolerance may be present
slow CNS activity, may cause drowsiness , reduce concentration, impair thoughts, slow motor skills
-ex: alchohol
alcohol withdrawal
weakness, shakes, perspiration -- occur a few hours after drinking stops; seizures can occur 12 hrs later or the next day; DT -- hallucinations; fever, profuse perspiration, irregular heartbeat
alcohol induced, persisting amnesic disorder
permenant cognitive disorder caused by damamge to the CNS
consists of Wernicke's encephalopathy: consufion and disorientation, sometimes coma
and Korsakoff's psychosis: loss of memory and memory probs.
alchol-induced dementia
loss of intellect - memory, abstract thinking, judgement, problem solving, personality changes, paranoia
xanax, valium, librium, etc
Quaalude usually for insomnia
volatile chemical substances that can be inhaled and depress the CNS

person may appear drunk or disoriented, slurr speech, lack appetite, be nauseated

gas, glue, paint thinner, spray paint

can cause death and lung problems
activate the CNS, increase energy

ex: cocaine and amphetamines

can cause changes in blood pressure and heart rate
white powder extracted from cocoa plant; one of the most addictive substances; it blocks dopamine into transmitting so that it buidls up to create pleasure; wears off fast
-Dexidrine, Benzedrine, meth
useually swallowed as a pill but can be snorted or smoked

can produce illusions; distorts, exaggerates
found in tobacco, cigarettes

operates both CNS and perihperal nervous system

release biochemical that have reinforcing effects

induces fight or flight repsonse

most heavily used stimulant

stimulates CNS, increasing dopamine, serotonin, norepinenepherine

increases metabolism, blood pressure,
derive from the sap of the opium poppy

morephine, hydrocodone, oxycondone, heroine

fake endorphins