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47 Cards in this Set

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T or F:
Substance-related disorders are responsible for astronomical financial costs and the tragic waste of hundreds of thousands of human lives each year.
True
Kills 500,000 Americans annually, costs US citizens hundreds of billions of dollars each year and is implicated in street crime, homelessness and gang violence.

(Ch 11, p. 389)
_________ _________ represent a number of related problems that involve the inability to resist acting on a drive or temptation.
impulse-control disorders

(Ch 11, p. 389)
T or F:
Controversy surrounds both substance-related and impulse-control disorders because our society sometimes believes that both these problems are simply a lack of "will."
True


(Ch 11, p. 389)
__________ __________ is the use of multiple substances.
polysubstance use

(Ch 11, p. 389)
The term _______ refers to chemical compounds that are ingested to alter mood or behavior.
substance
(This includes illegal drugs as well as legal drugs such as alcohol, nicotine, caffeine. These so-called safe drugs also affect mood/behavior, can be addictive, and account for more health problems/greater mortality rate than all illegal drugs combined.)

(Ch 11, p. 390)
Psychoactive substances alter ______, ______ or both.
mood, behavior

(Ch 11, p. 390)
_________ _________ is the ingestion of psychoactive substances in moderate amounts that does not significantly interfere with social, educational, or occupational functioning.
Substance use
(This includes having a cup of coffee, smoking a cigarette, having a drink with a friend to relax as well as occasional ingestion of illegal drugs)

(Ch 11, p. 390)
________ _________ refers to the physiological reaction to ingested substances (drunkenness or getting high) which may be experienced as impaired judgment, mood changes, and lowered motor ability.
Substance intoxication
Point of intoxication depends on three factors: which drug is taken, how much is ingested and the person's individual biological reaction.

(Ch 11, p. 390)
_________ _________ is the pattern of psychoactive substance use leading to significant distress or impairment in social and occupational roles and in hazardous situations.
Substance abuse

(Ch 11, p. 391)
________ ________ is the maladaptive pattern of substance use characterized by the need for increased amounts to achieve the desired effect, negative physical effects when the substance is withdrawn, unsuccessful efforts to control its use, and substantial effort expended to seek it or recover from its effects.
Substance dependence

(Ch 11, p. 391)
___________ is the need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve the desired effect, and a diminished effect with continued use of the same amount.
tolerance

(Ch 11, p. 391)
________ is the severely negative physiological reaction to removal of a psychoactive substance, which can be alleviated by the same or a similar substance.
withdrawal

(Ch 11, p. 391)
________ ________ is experienced as frightening hallucinations and body tremors that result when a heavy drinker withdraws from alcohol.
withdrawal delirium
(also known as delirium tremens or DTs)

(Ch 11, p. 392)
T or F:
All substances are physiologically addicting.
False
There are no severe physical withdrawal symptoms when stopping LSD or marijuana.

(Ch 11, p. 392)
T or F:
Substance dependence can be present without substance abuse.
True
Cancer patients who take morphine for pain may become dependent on the drug, build up a tolerance and go through withdrawal if it is stopped, without abusing the drug.

(Ch 11, p. 392)
_________ and _________ are the top two most addictive substances and the hardest addictions to break.
Nicotine (#1) and methamphetamine (#2)

(Ch 11, p. 394)
Name the five general categories of substances.
depressants, stimulants, opiates, hallucinogens and other drugs of abuse.

(Ch 11, p. 394-395)
_________ is the category of substances that result in behavioral sedation and can induce relaxation. They include alcohol, and the sedative, hypnotic and anxiolytic drugs in the families of barbiturates and benzodiazepines.
Depressants

(Ch 11, p. 394)
_________ is the category of substances that cause an individual to be more active, alert and can elevate mood. Included in this group are amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine and caffeine.
Stimulants

(Ch 11, p.395)
_________ is the category of substances whose major effect is to produce analgesia temporarily (reduce pain) and euphoria. Included in this group is heroin, opium, codeine and morphine.
Opiates

(Ch 11, p. 395)
_________ is the category of substances that alter sensory perception and can produce delusions, paranoia, and hallucinations. Included in this group is marijuana and LSD.
Hallucinogens

(Ch 11, p. 395)
Other Drugs of Abuse is the last category of substances, which produce a variety of psychoactive effects that are characteristic of the substances in the other categories, and include _________, ________ ________, __________ _________ and _________ _________.
inhalants, anabolic steroids, over-the-counter medications and prescription medications

(Ch 11, p. 395)
_______ primarily decrease central nervous system activity. Their principal effect is to reduce levels of physiological arousal and help an individual relax.
Depressants

(Ch 11, p. 395)
T or F:
Although alcohol is a depressant, its initial effect is an apparent stimulation.
True
This is because what is initially depressed are the inhibitory centers of the brain.

(Ch 11, p. 395)
Alcohol effects many parts of the body. After ingested, it passes through the esophagus (1), and into the stomach (2), where small amounts are absorbed. From there, most of it travels to the small intestine (3), where it is easily absorbed into the bloodstream. It is circulated throughout the body by the circulatory system, where it contacts every major organ including the heart (4). Some goes to the lungs where it vaporizes and is exhaled. As alcohol passes through the liver (5), it is metabolized into CO2 and H2O by enzymes.

(Ch 11, p. 395)
Consequences of long-term excessive drinking include ______ ______, ______, ______ ______, and ______ ______.
liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disorders and brain damage.

(Ch 11, p. 396)
________ and ________ ________ are two types of organic brain syndromes that may result from long-term heavy alcohol use.
dementia, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

(Ch 11, p. 396)
________ involves the general loss of intellectual abilities and can be a direct result of neurotoxicity or "poisoning of the brain" by excessive amount of alcohol.
Dementia

(Ch 11, p. 396)
________ syndrome results in confusion, loss of muscle coordination and unintelligible speech and is thought to be caused by a deficiency of thiamine (a vitamin that is poorly metabolized in heavy drinkers).
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
(The dementia caused by this disease does not go away once the brain is damaged)

(Ch 11, p. 396)
_______ _______ _______ is a pattern of problems including learning difficulties, behavior deficits, and characteristic physical flaws, resulting from heavy drinking by the victim's mother when she was pregnant with the victim.
fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

(Ch 11, p. 397)
T or F:
All women who drink during pregnancy are at equal risk for having children with fetal alcohol syndrome.
False
African Americans, Apache and Ute Indians appear to be at greater risk than Caucasian women.

(Ch 11, p. 397)
T or F:
In addition to the drinking habits of the mother, the likelihood a child will have Fetal Alcohol Syndrome may depend on whether there is a genetic tendency to have certain enzymes.
True

(Ch 11, p. 397)
T or F:
The course of alcohol dependence may be progressive for most people, however the course of alcohol abuse may be more variable, fluctuating between drinking heavily, drinking "socially" without negative effects and periods of abstinence.
True

(Ch 11, p. 398-399)
T or F:
Alcohol causes aggression and violent behavior.
False
Alcohol does not cause aggression, but it may increase a person's likelihood of engaging in impulsive acts and it may impair the ability to consider the consequences of acting impulsively. Given the right circumstances, such impaired rational thinking may increase a person's risk of behaving aggressively.

(Ch 11, p. 399)
Sedative substances are ______, hypnotic substances are ________, and anxiolytic substances are ________.
calming, sleep-inducing and anxiety-reducing

(Ch 11, p. 399)
__________ are antianxiety drugs including Valium, Xanax, Dalmane, and Halcion which is also used to treat insomnia. Effective against anxiety (and, at high potency, panic disorder), they show some side effects, such as some cognitive/motor impairment, and may result in substance dependence. Relapse rates are extremely high when the drug is discontinued.
benzodiazepines

(Ch 11, p. 399)
________ are sedative (and addictive) drugs including Amytal, Seconal, and Nembutal that are used as sleep aids.
barbiturates

(Ch 11, p. 399)
At low doses, _________ relax the muscles and can produce a mild feeling of well-being. Larger doses can have results similar to those of heavy drinking: slurred speech and problems with walking, concentrating and working. Extremely high doses relax the diaphragm muscles so much that it can cause death by suffocation.
barbiturates

(Ch 11, p. 399-400)
b) intoxication
a) use
d) dependence
Multiple Choice:
Match the following disorder with its corresponding effects.

1. Disorder in which the effects of the drug impede the ability to function properly by affecting vision, motor control, reaction time, memory and hearing.

(a) substance-related disorder
(b) dementia
(c) impulse-control disorder
(d) alcohol use disorder
(e) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
(d) alcohol use disorder

(Ch 11, p 401 - Concept Check Part B)
Multiple Choice:
Match the following disorder with its corresponding effects.

2. Disorder that deprives a person of the ability to resist acting on a drive or temptation.

(a) substance-related disorder
(b) dementia
(c) impulse-control disorder
(d) alcohol use disorder
(e) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
(c) impulse-control disorder

(Ch 11, p 401 - Concept Check Part B)
Multiple Choice:
Match the following disorder with its corresponding effects.

3. Disorder that affects the way people think, feel and behave.

(a) substance-related disorder
(b) dementia
(c) impulse-control disorder
(d) alcohol use disorder
(e) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
(a) substance-related disorder

(Ch 11, p 401 - Concept Check Part B)
Multiple Choice:
Match the following disorder with its corresponding effects.

4. Disorder involving the decline of intellectual abilities through, for example, excess consumption of alcohol.

(a) substance-related disorder
(b) dementia
(c) impulse-control disorder
(d) alcohol use disorder
(e) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
(b) dementia

(Ch 11, p 401 - Concept Check Part B)
T or F:
Of all the psychoactive drugs used in the United States, the most commonly consumed are stimulants.
True
(Included in this group are caffeine from coffee, chocolate and sodas, nicotine, amphetamines and cocaine.)

(Ch 11, p. 401)
________ _______ disorders are psychological, biological, behavioral, and social problems associated with amphetamine use and abuse.
amphetamine use disorders

(Ch 11, p. 401)