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175 Cards in this Set

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1. What is fear?
The central nervous system's physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one's well-being
2. What is anxiety?
The CNS's physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger (state versus a trait)
3. What are the three components of anxiety?
1. Helplessness

2. Uncertainty

3. Physiological arousal
4. What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?
A disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities
5. What is the DSM criteria for GAD?
1. Excessive or ongoing anxiety and worry for at least 6 months about many events or activities
2. Difficulty controlling the worry
3. At least 3 of the following
-restlessness
-easy fatigue
-irritability
-muscle tension
-sleep disturbance
4. Significant stress or impairment
6. What percent of US population have symptoms of GAD?

What percent of people develop GAD sometime during their life?
3.1% in any given year

6%
7. When does GAD usually appear

What is the sex ratio?
Usually appears first in childhood or adolescence

Women outnumber men 2:1
8. How does anxiety overlap with mood disorders?

three ways...
1. Centrality of negative affect
2. Overlap in symptoms
3. Common etiology
-stressful life events
-cognitive factors (Beck)
-Some overlap in key neurotransmitters
9. What are some things that cause the occurrence of anxiety?

Four things...
1. After an event has taken place
2. In anticipation of future event
3. When resisting a preoccupying idea
4. Thinking about changing an undesirable behavior
*all involve change or the possibility of change
10. What is neurosis?
Used to describe disorders marked by anxiety, personal dissatisfaction, and inappropriate but not psychotic behavior

*neurosis gone since DSM III
11. What percentage of US people experience one or more anxiety disorders in a given year?

How much do anxiety disorders cost the economy?
19% of US people

42 billion dollars lost in wages, productivity, etc
12. How can GAD be differentiated from mood disorders?

Three ways...
1. Negative Affect/general distress (upset vs calm; angry, worried, afraid, sad)
-high in both GAD and MD
2. Positive affect (zest for life vs tired, sluggish)
-absence of positive affect is specific to depression
3. Physiological hyper-arousal
-specific to anxiety
13. What is the use of Watson and Clark's model in studying anxiety and mood disorders?
Accounts for phenomenological similarities between GAD and MD

Accounts for frequent co-morbidity between them
14. What was the cognitive view proposed originally by Ellis believe to be the cause of GAD?
Basic Irrational Assumptions
-interpret stressful events as dangerous or threatening
-overreact
-experience fear

*hyper-reactive to stressors and the possibility of GAD increases w/ increases in # of stressors
15. What are basic irrational assumptions?
The inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems according to Albert Ellis
16. What is the cognitive perspective about GAD that is held by Beck and others?
-People constantly hold silent assumptions that imply they are in imminent danger
-If in doubt assume the worst and strange equal danger
17. What other things do cognitive perspectives believe?
-Those with GAD perceive a lack of control (learned helplessness)
-Attention and cognitive processes re threat
18. What are cognitively inspires treatments for GAD?
1. Challenge maladaptive assumptions
2. Rational-emotive therapy
3. Replace negative self-statements w/ positive ones
-prepare
-cope (confront stressor)
-reinforce stressor
19. What is rational-emotive therapy?
A cognitive therapy developed by Ellis which helps clients to identify and change irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder
20. How effective are RET, Beck's cognitive therapy, and self-instruction therapy in treating GAD?
RET: effective for mild anxiety
Beck's: effective for mild to moderate anxiety; very effective for depression
Self-instruction: effective for mild anxiety not for GAD
21. What is the biological view for the cause of GAD?
1. Genetic diathesis
2. Behavioral and neuro-physiological behavioral inhibition
3. Inability to turn off fear reactions
22. What have family pedigree studies and twin studies shown about the genetics of GAD?
15% chance of displaying disorder if relative has GAD

4% chance of displaying disorder if no relative have GAD

Twin studies suggest moderate though nonspecific genetic loading
23. People with GAD have low levels this neurotransmitter or have reduced ability of this neurotransmitter to bind to receptors?
GABA
24. What evidence is there for the role of GABA in anxiety?
1. If GABA receptors are experimentally blocked, anxiety results

2. Effectiveness of benzodiazapines which bind to GABA receptors
25. What drug was used to treat anxiety prior to 1950's?
Barbituates (sedative-hypnotic drugs)
26. How effective were barbituates?

What were their side effects?
Effective for acute relief

Dangerous side effects:
-loss of consciousness
-toxic (significant risk of OD)
-dependence
27. What other drug was used around the time barbituates?

What were it's side effects?
Meprobamate (brand name Miltown)

Dangerous side effects, but less so than barbituates
28. What antianxiety drug came about in the late 50's?

What was it's effectiveness?
Benzodiazepines (tranquilizers)

Effective for acute relief
29. What were the advantages of benzos to sedative-hypnotic drugs?
-Not toxic

-Cause less drowsiness
30. What are the side effects of Benzos?

Six side effects..
1. Drowsiness
2. Lethargy
3. Motor impairment
4. Reduced concentration ability
5. Potentate effect of alcohol
6. Psychological and physical dependence on drug
31. How do benzos work?
Bind to GABA receptors and increase the ability of GABA to bind to these same receptor sites

*GABA transmission inhibits neural pathways involved in pain and anxiety
32. What is a newer anti-anxiety drug?

How is it different than benzos? What is its chief advantage?
Busiprone (Buspar)

-binds to different receptors than Benzos
-less likely to result in dependence
33. What anti-depressants are effective in treating GAD?
Paroxetine (Paxil) and Sertaline (Zolofot) reduce severity of GAD
34. What are some stress management techniques used for GAD?
Cognitive
-coping skills and features of Beck and Ellis' RX
Somatic
-systematic relaxation
-meditation
-exercise
-biofeedback via EMG
35. What is relaxation training?
Teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations
36. What is biofeedback?
A client is given info about physiological reactions that occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily
37. What is a phobia?
A persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation
-out of proportion
-beyond voluntary control
38. How do phobias differ from GAD?
Phobia: fear that is specific and excessive

GAD: excessive worry/anxiety, debilitating, 6+ mos in duration
39. What is the DSM criteria for a specific phobia?
1. Marked and persistent fear of specific object or situation
-excessive or unreasonable
-lasting at least 6 mos
2. Immediate anxiety produced by exposure
3. Recognition that fear is excessive
4. Avoidance of thing
5 Significant distress or impairment
40. What are the most common specific phobias?
Specific animals or insects
Heights
Enclosed spaces
Thunderstorms
Blood
Situational (driving, flying)
41. What is the one-year prevalence of specific phobias, sex ratio, prevalence among close relatives, and typical age onset?
8.7% prevalence

2:1 female to male ratio

Elevated prevalence among relatives

Variable age onset
42. What is the DSM criteria for a social phobia?
1. Marked and persistent fear of
-social or performance situations
-lasting at least 6 mos
2. Anxiety produced by exposure
3. Recognition that fear is excessive
4. Avoidance
5. Significant distress or impairment
43. What is the one-year prevalence of social phobias, sex ratio, prevalence among close relatives, and typical age onset?
6.8% prevalence

3:2 female to male ratio

Elevated among relatives

10-20 yrs typically on-set
44. What is the psychodynamic explanation for phobias?
-Stem from psychological conflict and unconscious mental processes

-Phobic stimuli thought to have symbolic meaning for something else that the person was frightened of unconsciously in early childhood
45. What is the psychodynamic therapy for anxiety disordrs?

What do they believe will not work?
-Uncovering roots of maladaptive behavior by gaining insight into its origins

-Treatments that focus on eliminating symptom will no be effect because underlying anxiety will remain
46. What is the behavioral explanation for phobias?
1. Classical conditioning

2. Operant conditioning:
-avoidance -> decrease in anxiety

3. Modeling
47. How does classical conditioning work in producing phobias?
Have an US that produces UR (fear). There is a CS (running water) that is associated with the UR, so every time CS is present there now is CR (fear)

*stimulus generalization
48. What is stimulus generalization?
A phenomena in which response to one stimulus are also produced by similar stimuli
49. What are some behavioral treatments for specific phobias?
1. Systematic desensitization
2. Exposure treatment
3. Fear hierarchy
4. Implosive therapy
5. Flooding
6. Modeling
50. What is systematic desensitization
Series of fear-arousing stimuli, gradually increased from more mild to more feared stimuli
-increments made only when client is perfectly comfortable w/ previous level
-exposure to real thing is "final" level
-treatment of choice for phobias
51. What is implosive therapy?
High intensity re-creation of feared stimuli while therapist monitors client's response
-to unlearn fear response, situation must be re-created so experience w/o pain
-goal is to extinguish original fear response
52. What is in vivo exposure?
Involves experiencing the feared situation in a controlled, benign setting
-level (nearness) of contact gradually increased as client's comfort increases
OR
-flooding (repeated and intense exposure)
53. What treatments are used for social phobias?
1. Systematic desensitization
2. In vivo exposure
3. Cognitive (RET/Beck's)
4. Social Skills training
5. Medication (antidepressants)
54. What are four things all behavioral therapies for anxiety have in common?
1. Exposure to fear stimuli at some point
2. Outcome improved by actual contact w/ feared situation
3. The longer the exposure, the better the result
4. Success attributable to client's trust in therapist and identifying all components that evoke avoidance response
55. What is the biological perspective for phobias?
1. Genetic diathesis for generalized form of social phobia
2. Genetic diathesis for agoraphobia
-relatively low genetic diathesis for other specific phobias
3. Preparedness
-higher for phobia of snakes than for faces or houses
4. Behavioral inhibition increases risk for phobia
56. What is the genetic diathesis form of social phobia?
Base rate = 5% concordance

If 1st degree relative affected than have 16%
57. What medications are used to treat social phobias?
SSRI's

Benzohiazepines

MAO inhibitors
58. What is the DSM criteria for Panic Disorders?
1. Recurrent unexpected panic attacks
2. Not set off when person is focus of attention
3. At least 1 attack has been followed by 1 month of at least 1 of these:
-persistent anticipatory anxiety
-worry about implications of attack
-significant change in behavior related to attacks
59. What is a panic attack?
Discrete period of intense fear

-have at least 4 of 13 panic attack symptoms
-reaches peak w/in 10 minutes
60. What are the symptoms of a panic attack?
1. Palpitations or accelerated HR
2. Sweating
3. Trembling
4. Shortness of breath or smothering
5. Feeling of choking
6. Numbness
7. Chest pain
8. Nausea or abdominal distress
9. Chills or hot flashes
10. Dizziness, light headed
11. Derealization
12. Fear of losing control
13. Fear of dying
61. What is the criteria for panic disorder with agoraphobia?
1. Criteria for PD plus...
2. Anxiety about being in situations from which escape is difficult or help is unavailable
3. Avoidance, marked distress, or reliance on trusted other in such situations
62. What is the one-year prevalence, sex ratio, typical onset, and prevalence among close relatives for panic disorders?
2.7% prevalence

5:2 female to male ratio

15-35 years old

Elevated prevalence among relatives
63. What is the cognitive perspective on panic disorders?
Full panic reactions are experienced only by people who further misinterpret the physiological events that are occurring within their bodies

*anxiety/threat sensitivity
64. What two things are tied to panic attacks in the biological perspective?
norepinephrine transmission in locus ceruleus
65. What evidence is there for the biological perspective?
1. Electrical stimulate LC in monkeys they have a panic attack
2. If lesion are there is an absence of panic
3. Chemicals that alter norepinephrine increase panic
-yohimbine: panic; placebo: no panic; clonidine: reduces panic
66. What are the medications used to treat panic disorders?

What else is used to treat panic disorders
1. Benzodiazapines: ineffective EXCEPT xanax
2. Anti-depressants: increase norepinephrine levels
3. Stress management: both cognitive and somatic
67. What are the cognitive treatments for panic disorders?
1. Re-interpretation of sensations
2. Progressive relaxation
-in vivo exposure
-biological challenge test
68. How effective are the types of treatments for panic disorders?
Cognitive and pharmacological are equally effective

-Improvement rates as high as 85%
-Combined treatments often recommended
69. Describe obsessive compulsive disorder.
1. Recurrent, persistent thoughts, images, or impulses
2. Intrusive
3. Associated w/ increased anxiety
4. Obsessions
5. Compulsions
70. What are five features of OCD?
1. Persistent obsessions/compulsions
2. Ego-dystonic (intrusive) or ego-alien (alien)
3. Attempts to ignore increase anxiety
4. Recognition of absurdity of Obs./Com.
5. Need to resist Obs/Com
71. What are the differences between an obsessive person and a compulsive person?
Obsessive persons are unable to get an idea out of their head (usu involve doubt, hesitation, fear of contamination)

Compulsive persons fell compelled to perform a particular act or series of acts over and over
72. What role do compulsions play in OCD?
They are designed to neutralize or prevent discomfort and they are complementary with obsessions

-obsessions: anxiety
-compulsions: decrease anxiety
73. What percent of people have compulsions with obsessions?

What are the two common compulsions and the fear association with them?
75% have compulsions w/ obsessions

Checking: fear of catastrophe
Cleaning: fear of contamination
74. What is the one year prevalence, sex ration, typical onset, and prevalence among relatives in OCD?
1-2% prevalence

1:1 female to male ratio

4-25 years for onset

Elevated relative prevalence
75. What is role of anxiety in OCD?

How does this compare to in phobias?
In OC only way to control anxiety it to perform rituals so might encounter feared stimuli if you have access to ritual

In phobias anxiety motivates person to avoid contact with stimuli
76. How does OCD differ from obsessive compulsive personality disorder?
In OC PD there:
-Absence of ritualistic behavior -More of a personality style -Person is preoccupied with rules, order, and productivity
77. What are some differential dx with OCD?
1. Gambling and Addiction
2. Obsessive-compulsive personality
3. Phobia
4. Delusional beliefs, delusional disorder
78. How are phobias different from OCD?
1. Lack of superstitious "magical" thinking in phobias
2. Absence of compulsive symptoms
3. Phobic stimulus is unrelated to any obsession
79. How are delusional beliefs and disorders different from OCD?
Lack of ambivalence

Lack of struggle against the idea
80. What is OCD commonly co-morbid with?
Depression

-temporal relation is unclear
-Rx of depression leaves OCD unchanged
81. What is the psychodynamic view on OCD?
Similar to phobias: person's obs/com used to direct attention away from distressing unconscious thoughts

Usually involves unthinkable aggressive impulses rooted in early childhood (toilet training)
82. What is the behavioral perspective on OCD?
Superstitious conditioning through negative reinforcement
83. What is the behavioral treatment for OCD?
Exposure and response prevention

-55 to 85% improve
-effective as part of more comprehensive treatment program
84. What is the cognitive perspective on OCD?
People who have this disorder try to neutralize negative outcomes that they believe will come from repetitive, unwanted thoughts
85. According to the cognitive perspective what are some risk factors for OCD?

Four things..
1. Depression
2. High ethical/personal standards
3. Believe thoughts = actions
4. Believe that they should have perfect control over thoughts
86. What are the cognitive treatments for OCD?
1. Habituation training
-especially of obsessions
2. Covert-response prevention
3. Cognitive re-constructuring

*first two are effective either by self or together with medicine
87. What are the biological factors that are believed to contribute to OCD?
Increased glucose metabolism in brain circuits that convert sensations into thinking and acting
88. Damage to what three areas in the brain will reduce the symptoms of OCD?
Thalamus

Caudate nuclei (in basal ganglia)

Orbital prefrontal cortex

*these areas are believed to be too active in ppl w/ OCD
89. What are the biological treatments for OCD?
1. Increasing serotonin decreases symptoms in 50-85% of cases
-tricyclic anti-depressants (clomipramine esp.)
-SSRIs (fluoxetine:prozac)
2. Increasing only norepinephrine has no effect
3. Neurosurgery in treatment resistant cases
90. What does traumatic stress involve?
It involves the threat of serious injury or death: linked to stress disorders

-combat (29% of Vietnam vet developed PTSD)
-disasters
-victimization (assault)
91. What are the physical aspects of the stress response symptoms
1. Perspiration
2. Quick breathing
3. Tense muscles
4. Rapid heartbeat
92. What are the cognitive aspects of the stress response symptoms
1. Impaired concentration
2. Exaggerated perception of harm
3. Impaired memory
93. What are the emotional aspects of the stress response symptoms
1. Horror
2. Dread
3. Panic
4. Fear
94. What are the two parts of the autonomic nervous system?
Sympathetic: Arousal

Parasympathetic: Relaxation
95. What is responsible for the "fight or flight" response?
Sympathetic Nervous System and endocrine
96. What neurotransmitters are involved in the sympathetic adrenal medullary (SAM) axis?
epinephrine and norepinephrine
97. What hormones are involved in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis?
CRH, ACTH, and cortisol

*the HPA and SAM are disturbed in individuals w/ stress disorders (impaired, "shut off")
98. What disorders can stressful life events trigger?

Three...
1. Anxiety (GAD, social phobia, panic disorders, and OCD)

2. Depression

3. Schizophrenia
99. What disorders are defined by the key features of stress becoming pronounced and debilitating?

Three...
1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

2. Acute Stress Disorder

3. Psychological Factors Affecting Medical Conditions
100. How do anxiety disorders and stress disorders differ?
In anxiety disorders fear is generally excessive

In stress disorders, stressors that trigger the disorder are considered objectively stressful and the presence of stressor is necessary for diagnosis
101. What are the symptoms of a stress disorder?

Five symptoms...
1. Re-experiencing (recurrent memories, flashbacks, etc.)
2. Avoidance
3. Increased arousal and anxiety (sleep problems, trouble concentrating, etc)
4. Reduced responsiveness ("numbing")
5. Guilt
102. What is the criteria for acute stress disorder diagnosis?
1. Symptom onset within 1-month of the stressor
2. Symptoms last less than a month
3. Question is, is this response really pathological?
103. What is the criteria for PTSD diagnosis?
1. Symptoms can onset anytime, from right after the event to years later

2. Symptoms last more than a month

*Acute stress disorder can lead to PTSD
104. What is the incidence and prevalence for stress disorders?
4% experience stress disorder in a given year (incidence)

8% experience a stress disorder in their lifetime (prevalence)
105. What is the sex ratio for PTSD?

What trauma(s) has a higher rate for PTSD?
If exposed to trauma, 20% of women develop PTSD vs 8% of men

Rape: 65% of men and 46% of women develop PTSD
106. When do most victims experience symptoms?
Immediately

Rape Survivors: 94% at 2-wk, 65% at 1-mo, and 47% at 3-mo

*usually stabilizes after 3-mo
107. What are the biological risk factors for PTSD?
Theory is that have a genetic predisposition to have stronger stress reactions
108. What evidence is there for the biological view?
PTSD is associated with abnormal release of cortisol and norepinephrine

Higher PTSD concordance rates between identical twin than fraternal twins
109. What are some personality and psychological risk factors for PTSD?

Three factors...
1. High level of trait anxiety (present before the trauma)
2. Pre-existing psychopathology
3. External locus of control
110. What are some childhood experiences that are risk factors for PTSD?
Chronic stress situations (poverty; parental psychopathology; abuse/neglect; younger than 10 when parents divorce)
111. What are some social risk factors for PTSD?
Weaker social support systems (number/quality of close, reciprocal interpersonal relationships)

Lack of dignity and respect from criminal justice system
112. What are some things regarding the trauma itself that can increase the risk for developing PTSD?
1. Greater severity of trauma
2. More direct exposure to trauma
3. Mutilation or severe physical injury
4. Witnessing other people hurt or killed in trauma
113. What are the learning theories for why PTSD develops?
1. Classical Conditioning
-accounts for high levels of fear and distress
2. Operant Conditioning
-accounts for avoidance of CS (negative reinforcement)

*Neither accounts for intrusion of symptoms
114. What is the information processing theory for why PTSD may develop?
It might develop as a result of a "fear network" that includes stimuli, response, and meaning elements
-the network is broad and thus easily accessed
-anything associated with the network elicits this structure so that's why have re-experiencing and avoidance
115. What is the social-cognitive processing theory for why PTSD may develop?
It is difficult to incorporate incompatible info (the trauma) into existing schema so the schema remains active until this process in complete

Thus there is oscillation between the intrusion (psychologically painful) and avoidance (defense mechanism)
116. What is treatment generally associated with in PTSD?

A combination of what treatments are generally used for PTSD?
Treatment is associated with reduction of symptom duration

Use combination of following:
-drug therapy
-exposure techniques
-insight therapy
-family and group therapy
-community therapy
117. What drug therapy is used for PTSD?
Anxiolytic Meds: reduce tension and startle response

Anti-depressants: reduce nightmares, panic attacks, flashbacks, and depression
118. What behavioral techniques are used to treat PTSD?
1. Flooding (focus on anxiety provoking scene till anxiety subsides)
2. Relaxation training (breathing, PMR)
3. Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
119. What is eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)?
Think about images of avoided and feared objects and situations, while engaging in side-to-side saccadic eye movements
-this based on observation NOT theory
-new approach w/ limited reserach
120. What is insight therapy?
It involves emotional processing and acceptance

It is a cognitive approach where one examines dysfunctional thoughts and attitudes that developed in response to the trauma
121. What happens in group and family therapy?
Family members sometimes incorporated into treatment process (support effort to improve interpersonal and problem-solving skills)

In group therpay they meet w/ people who have undergone similar traumas and share experiences, develop insight, and receive social support
122. What are two community approach treatments for PTSD?
Critical Incident Stress Debriefing
-short term treatment
-esp important for poor populations

Four-Stage Approach
123 What is the four stage approach?
-It normalizes reactions to disasters (psycho-education)
-Encourages expressions of anger, anxiety, and frustration
-Teach self-help skills (stress management)
-Provide referrals
124. How do theorists view life as a series of stages (i.e. what are the stages, who proposes them)?
Freud: five stages of psychosexual development
-oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital

Erikson added the stage of "old age"
125. Children experience at least some emotional and behavioral problems as they encounter new people and situations, what is one thing they commonly experience?
WORRY

Bedwetting, nightmares, and temper tantrums are other problems experience by many children
126. What fraction of all children and adolescents in North America experience a diagnosable psychological disorder?

What is the sex ratio
One-fifth experience diagnosable psychological disorder

Boys w/ disorders outnumber girls w/ disorders even though most of the adult disorders are more common in women
127. What children disorders have adult counterparts?

Which disorders disappear or radically change by adulthood?

Which disorders begin at birth and persist in stable forms into adult life?
Childhood anxiety disorders and depression have adult counterparts

Conduct disorders, ADHD, and elimination disorders don't

Mental retardation and autism stably persist
128. What are the characteristics of oppositional defiant disorder?

Three parts...
1. Consistently display extreme hostility and defiance
2. Repeatedly argue with adults, loss of temper, anger, and resentment
3. Ignore adult requests and rules, try to annoy people, and blame others for their mistakes and problems
129. What percentage of children qualify for oppositional defiant disorder?

What is the sex ratio?
8% qualify

More common in boys than girls before puberty but equal in both sexes after puberty
130. What are the characteristics of conduct disorder?
1. More sever problem than oppositional defiant
2. Repeatedly violate the basic rights of others
3. Often aggressive and may be physically cruel and violent
4. May steal from, threaten, or harm their victims
131. What are some common crime that children w/ conduct disorder commit?
Shoplifting
Vandalism
Mugging
Armed Robbery
132. What is the age of identification for conduct disorder?

What is the prevalence?

What is the sex ratio?
Usually begins between 7 and 15 years of age

10% qualify for diagnosis

Three quarters diagnoses are boys
133. What are the chances of recovery from conduct disorder in adulthood?
Mild conduct disorder may improve over time

Severe cases frequently persist into adulthood
-turn in anti-social personality disorder or other psychological problems
134. What are the four kinds of conduct disorder that clinical theorists believe exist?
1. Overt-destructive pattern
-openly aggressive and confrontational
2. Over-nondestructive pattern
-openly offensive
3. Covert-destructive pattern
-secretive destructive behaviors
4. Covert-nondestructive pattern
-secretly commit nonaggressive behaviors
135. What is the relational aggression pattern of conduct disorder?
Individuals are socially isolated and primarily display social misdeeds

Relational aggression is more common in girls than boys
136. What other childhood disorder do children w/ conduct disorder frequently display?
ADHD
-more than one-third of boys and one-half of girls display ADHD

In most cases ADHD is believed to precede and help cause conduct disorder
137. What mood disorder do children with conduct disorder experience?
Depression

Conduct disorder typically precedes the onset of depressive symptoms

Combination of symptoms places the individual at higher risk for suicide
138. What are juvenile delinquents?
Children between the ages of 8 and 18 the break the law
139. What are the causes of conduct disorder?
Been linked to genetic and biological factors, drug use, poverty, traumatic events, and exposure to violent peers or community violence

Also tied to troubled parent child relationship, inadequate parenting, family/marital conflict, and family hostility
140. How do clinicians treat conduct disorder?

Treatments are most effective with what age of children?
There are number of interventions but no one alone is the answer to clinicians combine sever

Treatment is generally effective w/ children younger than 13
141. What are the sociocultural treatments for conduct disorder?
Usually use family intervention such as:
-parent child interaction therapy
-videotape modeling
-parent management training (with school age children)
*these treatments have achieved a measure of success
142. What is parent-child interaction therapy?
Therapists teach parents to work w/ their child positively to set appropriate limits, to act consistently, to be fair in their discipline decisions, and to establish more appropriate expectations regarding the child. Also teach the child better social skills

-video tape modeling works towards the same goals
143. Other than family interventions what are some more sociocultural treatments for conduct disorder?

Three things...
1. Residential treatment in the community
2. Programs at school
3. Treatment foster care
134. What are the four kinds of conduct disorder that clinical theorists believe exist?
1. Overt-destructive pattern
-openly aggressive and confrontational
2. Over-nondestructive pattern
-openly offensive
3. Covert-destructive pattern
-secretive destructive behaviors
4. Covert-nondestructive pattern
-secretly commit nonaggressive behaviors
135. What is the relational aggression pattern of conduct disorder?
Individuals are socially isolated and primarily display social misdeeds

Relational aggression is more common in girls than boys
136. What other childhood disorder do children w/ conduct disorder frequently display?
ADHD
-more than one-third of boys and one-half of girls display ADHD

In most cases ADHD is believed to precede and help cause conduct disorder
137. What mood disorder do children with conduct disorder experience?
Depression

Conduct disorder typically precedes the onset of depressive symptoms

Combination of symptoms places the individual at higher risk for suicide
138. What are juvenile delinquents?
Children between the ages of 8 and 18 the break the law
139. What are the causes of conduct disorder?
Been linked to genetic and biological factors, drug use, poverty, traumatic events, and exposure to violent peers or community violence

Also tied to troubled parent child relationship, inadequate parenting, family/marital conflict, and family hostility
140. How do clinicians treat conduct disorder?

Treatments are most effective with what age of children?
There are number of interventions but no one alone is the answer to clinicians combine sever

Treatment is generally effective w/ children younger than 13
141. What are the sociocultural treatments for conduct disorder?
Usually use family intervention such as:
-parent child interaction therapy
-videotape modeling
-parent management training (with school age children)
*these treatments have achieved a measure of success
142. What is parent-child interaction therapy?
Therapists teach parents to work w/ their child positively to set appropriate limits, to act consistently, to be fair in their discipline decisions, and to establish more appropriate expectations regarding the child. Also teach the child better social skills

-video tape modeling works towards the same goals
143. Other than family interventions what are some more sociocultural treatments for conduct disorder?

Three things...
1. Residential treatment in the community
2. Programs at school
3. Treatment foster care
144. What are child-focused treatments in conduct disorder?
Treatments that focus primarily on the child w/ conduct disorder, particularly cognitive-behavioral interventions, have achieved some success in recent years
145. What are anger coping and coping power programs?
A child-focused approach that has children participate in group sessions that teach them to manage anger more effectively

-do reduce aggressive behaviors and prevent substance use in adolescence
146. Is drug therapy used in treating conduct disorder?
YES give them Ritalin!!!

Stimulant drugs have been found to reduce aggressive behavior
147. Where does the greatest hope for reducing the problem of conduct disorder lie?
Lies in prevention

These programs try to change unfavorable social conditions before a conduct disorder is able to develop
148. Children who display attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have great difficulty doing what?
Attending to task or they behave overactively and impulsively, or both
149. What are some problems common to ADHD?
1. Learning or communication problems
2. Poor school performances
3. Difficulty interacting w/ other children
4. Misbehavior, often serious
5. Mood or anxiety problems
150. What is the prevalence of ADHD?

What is the sex ratio?

What makes one more likely to develop ADHD?
5% of schoolchildren display ADHD

As many as 90% diagnosed are boys

Those whose parents have had ADHD are more likely than others to develop it
151. How does the disorder progress through adult life?
Usually persist through childhood but many children show a lessening of symptoms as they move into adolescence

Between 35% and 60% continue to ahve ADHD as adults
152. What do clinicians believe to be the causes of ADHD?
Several interacting causes including:
-biological causes, particularly abnormal dopamine activity
-high levels of stress
153. What do sociocultural theorist believe about the cause of ADHD?
They point out that ADHD symptoms and a diagnosis of ADHD may themselves create interpersonal problems and produce additional symptoms in the child
154. What are three additional explanations that have received considerable press?
1. Exposure to sugar or food additives(no compelling evidence)
2. Environmental toxins such as lead (no compelling evidence)
3. Excessive exposure to TV (some evidence bwt excessive exposure to TV from 0-3 yrs and weak attention at age 7)
155. How do clinicians assess ADHD?
Ideally, the child's behavior should be observed in several environmental settings b/c symptoms must be present across multiple settings. Also obtain reports of child's symptoms from parents/teachers

*difficult disorder to assess
156. What is the most common treatment for ADHD?
Stimulant Drugs

-These drugs have a quieting effect on as many as 80% of children w/ ADHD
-Drugs sometimes increase their ability to solve problems, perform in school, and control aggression

*worry about possible long term effects
157. What behavioral therapies are applied to treat ADHD?
Parents and teachers learn how to apply operant conditioning techniques to change behavior

These treatment have often been helpful, esp when combined w/ drugs
158. What role does race have with ADHD according to the sociocultural landscape?
Studies indicate that African Amer. and Hispanic Amer. children w/ significant attention and activity problems are less likely than white kids to be assesses, diagnosed, and receive Rx
159. What are pervasive developmental disorders?
A group of disorders marked by impaired social interactions, unusual communication , and inappropiate respsonse to stimuli in the environment (begin in childhood and cont)

-autism, asperger's, rett's, and disintegrative disorder
160. How are children with autism?

When do symptoms appear? What is the prevalence? What is the sex ratio?
Children w/ this disorder are extremely unresponsive to others, uncommunicative, repetitive, and rigid

Symptoms appear before age 3

1 in 600 and maybe 1 in 200 display disorder (.25% prev.)

Around 80% of all cases appear in boys
161. How does autism progress in adulthodd?
As many as 90% of children w/ autism remain severely disabled into adulthood and are unable to lead independent lives
162. What is the central feature in autism?

What forms to language and communication problems take?
Lack of responsiveness, including extreme aloofness and lack of interest in people

Echolalia (exact echoing of phrases spoken by others) and pronominal reversal or confusion of pronouns
163. What are some other features of autism?
1. Limited imaginative play and very repetitive/rigid behavior ("preservation of sameness")
2. Strongly attached to objects (buttons, rubber bands, etc)
3. Unusual motor movements
-"self stimulatory": jumping, arm flapping, and making faces
-self injurious behaviors
4. Over or under stimulated by the environment
164. What is asperger's disorder?
The children experience the kinds of social deficits, impairments in expressiveness, idiosyncratic interest, and restricted and repetitive behaviors that characterize individual w/ autism but often have normal intellective, adaptive and language skills
165. What are the statistics with Asperger's disorder?
More prevalent than autism

Approximately 1 in 250 individuals display patterns w/ 80% of them boys

*important to diagnose and treat so individual has better change of success in life